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HISTORY OF india:n:a 











In presenting the history of Wayne County to the public 

we have had in view the preservation of valuable historical 

cv facts and information, which with the passing away of old 

N^ pioneers, the failure of memory and the loss of public records 

would soon iiave been unobtainable. Although the county is 

comparatively new, already it was impossible to find many 

public documents, but no pains has been spared to make the 

"^ history a complete one. We do not claim for it a place in 

\ the ranks of advanced literature, but as a book of reference 

for the present reader and future generations we have no doubt 

its value will be recognized. Conflicting statements have 

tended to perplex the compilers. Members of a family, even, 

. ^ differ in the spelling of names, contradict each others state- 

^ ments in regard to nativity, dates of birth and settlement. 

We have endeavored to give the preference to the majority, 

and make the work as correct, historically and biographi- 

cally, as possible. 

The biographical department contains the names and private 
sketches of as many of the old settlers as it was possible to 
obtain. We would gladly have inserted many more if it had 
been possible to obtain them, but through the neglect or in- 
difference on the part of the family or the individual, the 
matter was not furnished us. However, we think we have 
secured some items in regard to the majority of prominent 
persons, and feel that we have fulfilled all obligations in this 

We are indebted to " Young's History of Wayne County " 
for many im|i<)rtrtnt and interesting events of early history. 

We also consider the articles by local writers of especial 
interest to tlie reader. 

In connection with as complete a county history as it was 
possible to obtain, is given a condensed history of the North- 
west Territory, and the Territory and State of Indiana, with 
many items of National interest. 

We trust the work will meet the expectations of onr patrons, 
and that as the years go by it will grow in favor and valne. 

Chicago, June, 1884. 



1. Capture of Kaskaskia- 

: ' .■! hi. Hans' l.v "a^Rnse*- 

'larkeV .Mililiiiy Career-A 


Lieltr-Hinton, Rne aud HoN 
3f 1787-It8 Authors-Sale of 

—Laws of the Territorv-Louipluiicuiarv It-stiiiiouial-Indiau War— Wayne's Cam- 
paisD. Address and Trc-aty-C\?siou of Lands— Treaty with Spain-ludian Treaties 
—Indian Annuities— Purchase of Louisiana— First Territorial Legislature. . .90-106 

jeProphet's_ _ ^ 

the Mississinewa-Ulose of the War-Ciyil and Political Kvents-Population in 1815 
—Several Territorial Legislatures- Last Session— Members of Constitutional Con- 


Bone Bank on the Wabash— Plketon Walls— Signal Station— Stone Fort— Fauna— 
Animale-Fishes-Birds-Flora-Meteoiology 149-17T 


State op Ikdiana— Fuom Depesdenoe to I:jdependbnce. 

Organization and Bounds- First Ek-clion- Members of First Legislature- General 
Progrees- Indian Legend— Water Supply— Internal Improvements— Letter of In- 

„,...„,;„„ r. „„„(„„ 'i'"-i-— Financial Embarrassment-Amount of Work Done 

,-al of Business-Progress ol Work— Credit of State 

HE Progress op One Fourth of a Centdrt— The Bra op Internal IsrrBOTEMENT. 
Decade Between 1830 and 1840— New Capitol— Toledo iVar and Michigan Boundary 

Brown— Battle of Palo Alto— Resuca De La Palma and .Monterey— Campaign of Gen- 
eral Scott— Vera Cruz to tbe City of Jlexko-Indiana in the War— State's Progress 
—Plank Roads— Railroads— Bank Statement 198-209 



Ten Thousand Men in Arms-Thr.e Months' Men-On Their Return— Address of 
Wulcome-From the First Six Regiments to the One Hundred and Fifty-Sixth- 
Thelr Welcome Home— Colored Troops— Light Artillery- Twenty-six Batteries- 
Battles of the Wiir-2ti7,uii0 Men in Arms from Indiana- Their Record and What 
They Accomplished— Indiana's Expenses— War Statistics of the United States— 
Men in the Union Army— Sixteen American Wars 210-253 


<- Topography— Soil— Altitt 


and 1870— Aggregate of 1880— inrii: 

Court .Judges- Speakers of the House of RepreBcutatives- State Officers- Mem- 
bers of the House of I{upresentativeB— Sketches of the Governors of Indiana— United 
States Senators-Biographical Sketches of Senators 291-313 

t, Origin, Names, Etc.- Populatio 
1850 to 1880— Valuation, Receipts at 
I— Railroads- For Ready Beferent 

cation-The Public Schools-Their Pr 



8 of Learuin?-State PomologicalSoci 

e Capitol-Some Important Laws-So 

cial Statistics-Firsi Pa, 

)er m Indiana. ..^ 





Early Piomr 
rol Years, isn 

, ni-!.>r> I<. ,ii.n,i,r„untyandLawreucebnrg,1803-LocU9taEd 

"r" ■'.'.'" . ' ' \^''!!'ute~inic''Re°dMen-F?r7t^^^^^^^ 

'^ -1 - , . . „.l Mauners-Market Prices for Cattle-, H 
,:: • , - -^ Financial Depression-Ways of 1820 and S 


The Life of the Old Pioneer-Their Mode of Living and Incidents of Their 
Old Time Prices— Sale of Hogs in 18J6-R.ii»ing Bees— Hospitality-Bee Hunting- 
Going to Mill— WoU Hnnt-Snakes — Money and Barter- Education - Spelling 
Schools- Sugar Making— Marriage Bells — Red Men on the Warpath— Watchful 
Care-The Bright Side— What the Pioneers haTe Done— Women Pioneers-Their 
Glorious Work— Woman's Work is Never Done— A Peaceful Life— The Close. 371-393 


-S?u"mlier"i"i' 1 I •-"^\VayneCount™Compared with Other Localities 
-Western c>i,iiii.-ii i,. ii,. N,-w World - Ancient Whitewater River -Niagara 
Limestone CliaiaLiti ui iliis 1 urmaiion— Glacial Epoch— Value of the Lime Rock 
-Abseuceof MineralH-Geolot,'y ^'ud Agriciiltnre 393-401 

Civil History-Official Acts and ToivNeiiir Ok.;anization. 

Courts— Firi^t i.\>iiui\ s, .■ I ni!- ' .i (if the Legislature— Removing County 
SeattoCeniini!!.; n,: ,. i Records- New Townships-Justices 
and Election- Tin i, ihe County's Size-Taxation-Jail— 
Centre and Cn-.n r, ,, - ,. >■„ Educational- Clay and Jefferson 
Townships— Franklin. Ih-Iiii m.i \ i i li..ii TownBhips- Dalion snd Webster- 
Removal of County Seal iiuiu c. uiitMl.. lo Itichmond— The Petition— The Contro- 
versy— The Result 402-42B 


Growth and Resources of Watni; Cot-xTT-OFFiciAL Ltfe-Popct.ation. 

—Stock Company— Di-inV; -^.i . > ..•,> - i .i n , isi^ :<- l--i Manufactures— 
—Wild Cat Times aiulii; , , , ' ,t',',,ii of Property 

Legislators-Internal liii|.,. ■,. n, in ■. r .. ,. - i' vr.'ik. .mi i; n iiIh 437-461 


The Early Settlers' Interest in Education-First School -First School-House- Early 
Teachers— Log School-House Described— State Legislation fur the Benefit of Schools 
—The District System — Question of Taxation — General Intelligence -Friends' 
Schools-New Constitution— Frec.Schools-General View of Educational Progress- 
Town and Township Schools from the First to the Present 462-525 

The Press of Watne Codntt. 

The Growth of Modern Journalism— Character and High-standing of Wayne County 
Papers— The First Newspaper— Its Successors-Journalism in Richmond Early and 


^\TNE County Bar. 

Distinguished Lawyers of the County- An Honorable Record— Early Practitioners- 
First Lawyers oJ Centrcville and Richmond-Biographical Sketches ol Eminent 
Lawyers, Lerislators and Judges-Cyrus Pinch-Hon. .Tames Rariden— Lot Bloom- 
aeld--J. D. Vaughan-Hon. J. S. Newman-M. M. Ray-Hon. J. B. Ray-Hon. C. B. 
Smith— Abner Haynes- Hon. J. W. Borden-J. W. Green-J. B. Stilt— Hon. C. H. 


Test-Hon. S. E. Perkins-Hon. J. B Juliau-Hon. G. W. Jalian-Hon. W 
-J. P. Siddall-Michael Wilson-Uon. N. H. Johnson-Hon. James Perr 
A. Peelle-Hon. O. P. Morton-Gen. W. P. Benton-Hon. J. P. Kibbey-t 
enal-H. B. Payue-Hon. E. B. Newman^D. W. Mason-Hon. John Ya 

c! ComsTock-Ge'n. T. W.lennett-Hon. J.^L^Ktj^e-Cof'w^W^Dadley- 
bins-B. F. Harris— Hon. W. D. Poulke-O. E. Shiveley— Wayne Coanty 




The First Physicians-Manner of Practice-Medical So.ieiT- M ! 
vice-Medical Officers from Wayne CoQuty— Earlv Ch:ir- ■- i 1 - 

Thomsonian System -Physio-Medical System- Eclerti. ii , 

Prevalent in the C-ounty-beath Ratio -Health Officers i: ;. 
Pensions-Biographical Skelehes-J. M. Thiirsion ". 11; . II 

Wmiam1»'"?h"-J~R.'Mend\'^,lhall^^^^ ' ' ' ' 'i!'," 

el Te 


M. Jordan-R. U. Johnson-D. W.' Dennis - Marcns Mot 
Chaptbr op Reminiscbncks. 

.'''."".. ..'!,*!^*M"f....''."^.l!'.....*..**64i 


redith-Prof. g 

Ho8hoar-Andre\y Hoiv " I Henry Hoover-Jesa 

Hannah- Thomas Bull;i A ' emiih Cox— George 

Moffltt- Cornelias Ratlin, -m \"1 ii-le N mi-'^ in Kichmond-John Smith— Roi ert 
Morrisson-Hon. D. P. uM^y.wi, Lua,., o. .-jUufer. , 65S- 176. 

HE War Between the States— The Result— A Union Fokevek. 

From 1861-1865- War's Alarm— Wayne County in Arms— The Prompt Enlietmi nt- 
Relief to Soldiers' Pamilies-Extraordinaiy Contribution— Those at Home Taking 
Care of the Soldiers' Families^Money and Provisions Contribnted-Her Duty )one 
—Her Glory and Honor— Prom the " Soldiers' Record "—The List of Patriot and 
the Roll of Honor 6' -T36. 


T. G. Noble 402 

Elijah Coffin KS 

George Rogers Clarke 45 


eking Frontiersmen 

Early Explo 


ndiana Forest ..:'. 

"ung"!"!'^;:::;::;:: ::: 





Yerging on Ancient History. — What was Discovered. — The 
Northmen in the Year 985. — The First Discoverers. — De 
Soto, the Spirit of the 16th Century. — Marquette, Jol- 
lET AND La Salle. — Miami Villages and French Settle- 
ment. — Pontiac War. — Vincennes. — English and French 
War. — Port Vincent, now Vincennes. — The Leading 
Tribes of Indians. — Ownership of the Northwest. — French 
and Indian War. — Lord Dunmore's War. — His March 
against the Indians. — The Defeat, Capture and Death 
OF General Crawford, by Burning at the Stake. 


The world generally dates the discovery of America from the 
time of the landing of Columbus, in 1492, but ancient history 
and ancient historians certainly point to a far earlier knowledge 
of this continent of ours. Still, it is safe to say that for all 
practical purposes its real discovery dates from the time the bold 
and intrepid voyager, sustained and encouraged by Ferdinand 
and Isabella, first trod the soil and gave the light and lite of Eu- 
ropean civilization to this continent. The whole country and 
the islands contiguous were originally called the West Indies 
from its first discovery, and the name " Indian " was misapplied 
to its inhabitants. In the history of North America, by Sam- 
uel G. Drake, he remarked: " It has been the practice of every 
writer who has written about the primitive inhabitants of a 
country to give some wild theories of others as to their origin, 
and to close the account with his own which, generally, has been 


more visionary, if possible, than those of his predecessors. 
Long, and it may be added useless, disquisitions have been 
yearly laid before the world, from the discovery of America by 
Columbus to the present time, to endeavor to explain by what 
means the inhabitants got from the old world to the new." 


Hanno flourished 100 years before the founding ofEome, 
about SCO years before the Christian era. After fully exploring 
the coast of Africa he set out for what is now called the Straits 
of Gibraltar, and thence sailed westward thirty days; hence, 
many believe that he may have visited this continent or some of 
the West India Islands. 

Plato, Diodorus Siculus and Aristotle all refer to islands and 
fertile lands west of the Straits of Gibraltar, full of forests, nav- 
igable rivers and fruits in abundance. It is evident from this 
that while no positive facts are given of the time of these several 
voyages, and no record kept of their actual occurrence, with de- 
scriptions of what was seen and discovered by these early navi- 
gators of the ocean, yet there is the fact of tradition and a belief 
in a country beyond the mighty waters that swept the western 
shore of Europe, whose lands were rich and fertile; that mighty 
rivers coursed through its immense area, chains of lofty mount- 
ains and endless forests were to be found. These were not all 
a myth, but have become a reality, and doubtless these tradi- 
tions were founded upon actual facts, yet who they were or when 
they came is only known as a tradition of the past. These were 
traditions of a country at the tropics, and only a few centuries 
later a native of Iceland, by the name of Liefur, actually came 
to the continent of America. This was in the eleventh century, 
and evidences have been found that corroborate the fact of this 
discovery. While almost every country of Europe claims the 
honor of discovering America, the Iceland navigators, or North- 
men, are the earliest of whom any positive knowledge has yet 
been ascertained. They date from 985. The tradition brought down 
of a tropical land was undoubtedly founded upon actual facts, 
but when the discovery was made, and by whom, will never be 
known. In the language of a prominent historical writer with 
regard to tlie peopling of this continent, he says: " Though 
nearly four centuries have elapsed since the red man was first 


known to the civilized world, his origin is still uncertain. The 
popular opinion of the unbiased mind is, that the Creator who 
made the universe and holds it in the 'hollow of his hand' could 
make a race of people on the Western as well as on the Eastern 
hemisphere, and that neither Moses nor any of his priests or 
scribes, ' with all the learning of the Egyptians,' had the remot- 
est conception of the extent of the world." Having no desire 
to take part in a discussion of this kind, and knowing that the 
archffiological researches of this country show a prehistoric race, 
of whom the Indians even, who had possessed the country for over 
four centuries, could give no account, the question will be left 
here, the facts embraced here heing sufficient for the introduc- 
tion of this work. 


The next of interest in the discovery ot'our country, after that 
of Columbus in 1492, might be said to be that of that great ad- 
venturer, De Soto. To be sure his discoveries have little to do 
with the Northwest Territory, but in bringing the foregoing his- 
tory down to the present time it will be better if the reader shall 
know something of the country of his birth anterior to the local 
settlement, so that the gap may not be too broad, and a chasm 
in his country's history left so wide that even in his imaginings 
he could not span it. De Soto was the first white man that nav- 
igated the waters of the Mississippi, and that was as early as 
1539, but he and his followers knew little of the mighty river 
that penetrated a continent, or its numerous branches which 
flowed from the east and from the west, or little dreamed of a 
land so rich in all the attributes of soil, climates, its forests and 
its inexhaustible mineral wealth. It was not these, not the evi- 
dence of the almost boundless extent of the country, which lured 
him on, but he traversed the country to the west to find that 
myth of his imagination, "The Fountain of Youth." He came 
back to die upon the turbid waters of the mighty stream on which 
he was the first to embark, at the hands of one of his followers, 
and the waters of the great river were his winding-sheet. 


In 1673, that bold and fearless spirit, James Marquette, with 
hie companion, Louis Jollet, were the first white men who trav- 


ersed the soil of the Northwest Territory. The year above men- 
tioned they started out to find the waters of the Mississippi 
River, which over a century before De Soto had discovered, and 
upon its banks had given up his life. After many weary days they 
reached thebanksof the Mississippi and launched their canoe upon 
its peaceful waters June 17, 1673, and explored its course from the 
mouth of the Wisconsin River to the mouth of the Arkansas, 
then returned. The description they gave of the great forests 
which lined its banks, and here and there a broad expanse of 
prairie, which seemed a living sea of grass and flowers, stretch- 
ing as far ^s the eye could see, excited a wild spirit of adventure 
among those who heard it, and among those who seemed to im- 
bibe the spirit of Marquette was Robert La Salle. He made his 
first attempt the same year as Marquette's return, but a series of 
misfortunes seemed to pursue him, and not until the spring of 
1682 did he succeed in his undertaking, when he successfully 
navigated the Mississippi from the mouth of the Illinois River 
to the Gulf of Mexico. His return to France, his subsequent 
appointment as Governor of Louisiana, his return to America, 
and his unavailing fefi'ort to find the mouth of the Mississippi, 
and his subsequent shipwreck in Matagorda Bay, in the fall of 

1686, is all a matter of history. He was, on the 19th of March,. 

1687, like De Soto, assassinated by three of his followers, on 
the bank of Trinity River. 


In 1670, and for many years previous, the fertile region of 
country now included within the boundaries of the State of Indi- 
ana was inhabited by the Miami Confederacy of Indians. This 
league consisted of several Algonquin tribes, notably the Twig- 
twees, Weas, Piankeshaws and Shockeys, and was formed at an ear- 
ly period — probably in the early part of the seventeenth century 
— for the purpose of repelling the invasions of the Iroquois, or 
Five Nations, at whose hands they had suffered many severe de- 
feats. By the frequent and unsuccessful wars in which they 
were compelled to engage, in self defense, their numbers had 
become greatly reduced, until, at the date mentioned, they 
could not muster more than 1,500 or 2,000 warriors. They 
dwelt in small villages on the banks of the various rivers in 
Indiana, and extended their domain as far east as the 


Scioto, north to the great lakes, and west to the country of 
the Illinois. Their principal settlements were scattered along 
the headwaters of the Great Miami, the banks of the Maumee, 
the St. Joseph, of Lake Michigan, the Wabash and its tributa- 
ries. Although once important among the nations of the Lake 
region, they had become greatly demoralized by repeated defeats 
in war, and when first visited by the French their villages present- 
ed a very untidy appearance. They were living in constant terror 
of the Five Nations, practicing only sufficient Industry to pre- 
vent starvation, and indulging in all their vicious passions to a 
vulgar extreme. 

Almost immediately following the discovery and exploration 
of the Mississippi, by La Salle, in 16S2, the government of 
France began to encourage the policy of connecting its posses- 
sions in North America by a chain of fortifications, and trading 
posts, and missionary stations, extending from New Orleans, on 
the southwest, to Quebec, on the northeast. Tiiis undertaking 
was inaugurated by Lamotte Cadillac, who established Fort Pont- 
ehartrain, on the Detroit River, in 1701. At this period the 
zealous Jesuit missionaries, the adventurous French fur traders, 
with their coarse blue and red cloths, fine scarlet, guns, powder, 
balls, knives, ribbons, beads, vermilion, tobacco and rum, and the 
careless rangers, or coioreurs des hois, whose chief vocation was 
conducting the canoes of the traders along the lakes and rivers, 
made their appearance among the Indians of Indiana. The pious 
Jesuits held up the cross of Christ and unfolded the mysteries of 
the Catholic religion in broken Indian, to these astonished sav- 
ages, while the speculating traders offered them fire water and 
other articles of merchandise in exchange for their peltries, and 
the rangers, shaking loose every tie of blood and kindred, iden- 
tified themselves with the savages, and sank into utter barba- 

The Jesuit missionaries were always cordially received by the 
Miami tribes. These Indians would listen patiently to the 
strange theory of the Savior and salvation, manifest a willing 
belief in all they heard, and then, as if to entertain their visit- 
ors in return, they would tell them the story of their own simple 
faith in the Manitous, and stalk off with a groan of dissatisfac- 
tion because the missionaries would not accept their theory with 
equal courtesy. Missionary stations were established at an early 


day in all of the principal villages, and the work of instructing 
and converting the savages was begun in earnest. The order of 
religious exercises established at the missions established among 
the Miamis was nearly the same as that among other Indians. 
Early in the morning the missionaries would assemble the In- 
dians at the church, or the hut used for that purpose, and, after 
prayers, the savages were taught concerning the Catholic relig- 
ion. The exercises were always followed by singing, at the con- 
clusion of which the congregation was dismissed, the Christians 
only remaining to take part at mass. This service was generallj' 
followed by prayers. During the forenoon the priests were gen- 
erally engaged in visiting the sick, and consoling those who 
were laboring under any affliction. After noon another service 
was held in the church, at which all the Indians were permitted 
to appear in their finery, and where each, without regard to rank 
or age, answered the questions put by the missionary. This ex- 
ercise was concluded by singing hymns, the words of which had 
been set to airs familiar to the savage ear. In the evening all 
assembled again at the church for instruction, to hear prayers, 
and to sing their favorite hymns. The Miamis were always 
highly pleased with the latter exercise. 

Aside from the character of the religious services which con- 
stituted a chief attraction in the Miami villages of Indiana 
while the early French missionaries were among them, the 
traveler's attention would first be engaged with the peculiarities 
of the fur trade, which, daring the first quarter of the seven- 
teenth century, was monopolized by the French. Tliis trade was 
carried on by means of the carriers, or rangers, who were en- 
gaged to conduct canoes on the lakes and rivers, and to carry 
burdens of merchandise from Detroit to the principal Miami 
villages, where the traders exchanged their wares for valuable 
furs, which they transported to the nearest trading post affording 
them the most available market. This traffic was not, however, 
confined to those whose wealth enabled them to engage vessels, 
canoes, and carriers, for there were hundreds scattered through 
the various Indian villages of Indiana, at almost any time dur- 
ing the first half of the eighteenth century, who carried their 
packs of merchandise and furs by means of leather straps sus- 
pended from their shoulders, or M'ith the straps resting against 
their foreheads. 


Rnm aud brandy were freely introduced by these traders, and 
always found a ready sale among the Miami Indians. A French- 
man writing of the evils which resulted from the introduction of 
spirituous liquors among the savages, remarked: "The distribu- 
tion of it is made in the usual way; that is to say, a certain num- 
ber of persons have delivered to each of them a quantity 
sufficient to get drunk with, so that the whole have been drunk 
over eight days. They begin to drink in the villages as soon as 
the sun is down, and every night the fields echo with the most 
hideous howling." » 

In those early days the Miami villages of the Maumee, those 
of the Weas about Ouiatenon, on the Wabash, and those of the 
Piankeshaws around Yincennes, were the central points of the 
fur trade in Indiana. Trading posts were established at these 
places and at Fort Wayne, in 1719, although for twenty years 
previous the French traders and missionaries had frequently 
visited them. A permanent mission, or church, was established 
at the Piankeshaw village, near Vincennes, in 1749, by Father 
Meurin, and in the following year a small fort was erected there 
by order of the French government. It was in that year that a 
small fort was erected near the mouth of tiie Wabash River. 
These posts soon drew a large number of French traders around 
them, and in 1756 they had become quite important settlements, 
with a mixed population of French and Indian. 

At this date the English became powerful competitors for the 
trade with the Indians in Indiana, and the surrounding country, 
and at the close of the Old French War, in 1759-'60, when Can- 
ada and its dependencies fell into the hands of the British, this 
monopoly passed over to the English. Notwithstanding this 
change in the government of the country, the French who had 
settled ai'ound the principal trading posts in Indiana, with a few 
exceptions, swore allegiance to the British government, and were 
permitted to occupy their lands in peace aud enjoy t-lie slight im- 
provements which they had wrought. In the course of the year 
1762, while the Indians in the Northwest seemed to be quite 
reconciled to the change of government, and the English traders 
were beginning to carry on a successful traffic with the tribes 
that dwelt between the lakes and the Ohio, Pontiac, the chief of 
the Ottawas, and the head of a loose confederacy of the Wyan- 
dots, Pottawatomies, Chippewas, and Ottawas— tribes of the 


Algonquin Indians residing in Michigan and Western Canada — 
was secretly preparing his forces for a desperate war on the Eng- 
lish. This great scheme was ably projected, and to a great 
degree successfully carried out. With a view to increasing tlie 
strength and numbers of liis confederacy, Pontiac circulated 
among the different tribes the false report that the English had 
formed the design of driving the Indians from the country. By 
this crafty policy he brought to his assistance, in the spring of 
1763, nearly the whole strength of the Ottawas, Chippewas, Pot- 
tawatomies, Sacs, Foxes, Msnominees, Miamis, and other Indians 
tribes, the Shawaneese, Wyandots, and factions of many other 
tribes, and was indeed ready to strike the contemplated blow. 


The attack was made on all the British forts or trading posts 
of the Northwest in the month of May, 1763, and the infuriated 
Indians, without much opposition, took possession of the posts 
of Michilimackinac, Green Bay, St. Joseph, Ouiatenon, Miami, 
Sandusky, Presque Isle, Le Boeuf and Venango. These places, 
with the exception of Michilimackinac, were but slightly forti- 
fied, being merely trading posts with only a slight garrison. A 
number of English traders, who were residing at the posts, were 
butchered, while not a Frenchman was injured. Some of the 
English escaped, others were taken prisoners, and were either 
burned, butchered, or afterward released. Som.e of the incidents 
connected with this furious onset are full of horror. The massacre 
at Fort Michilimackinac was without a parallel, seventy Eng- 
lishmen being mercilessly slaughtered in less than half an hour. 

This war of outbreak was the result of French misrepresenta- 
tion. The French were jealous of the English, and, smarting 
under their own defeats, goaded the Indians to desperation by 
designing falsehoods and promises which they never intended 
to fulfill. 

The siege of Detroit was conducted by Pontiac himself; but 
tills post, as also Fort Pitt, withstood the storm of Indian ven- 
geance unfril the forces of Colonel Bradstreet on the one hand, 
and Colonel Bouquette on the other, brought relief to the tired 
garrisons. The British army penetrated the Indian country 
and forced the savages to a treaty of peace, and on the 5th of 
December, 1764, a cessation of hostilities was proclaimed. 


From this date until 1774 the Indians who occupied the 
country northwest of tlie Ohio River remained at peace with the 
English, although in the meantime many English colonists, 
contrary to the proclamation of the king, the provisions of the 
treaty, and the earnest remonstrances of the Indians, continued 
to make settlem.ents on Indian lands. 

JSear the close of the year 176i General Gage, Commander- 
in-Cliief of the British forces in North America, being convinced 
of the peaceful intent of the Indian tribes of Indiana and Illi- 
nois, issued a proclamation to the French inhabitants then 
residing in the territory, extending to them the same rights and 
privileges enjoyed by the French under the treaty of Paris, in 
Canada, and on the 9th day of July, 1765, M. de St. Ange, 
who was at that time the French commandant at Fort Chartres, 
in Illinois, evacuated that post and retired with his little garri- 
son to St. Louis. A detachment of English troops then took 
possession of the evacuated post, and Captain Sterling, the Brit- 
ish commandant, established his headquarters there. Neai-ly all 
of the French inhabitants of the villages of Illinois took the oath 
of allegiance to the government of Great Britain, and continued 
in the peaceful enjoyment of their ancient possessions, a few 
only removing to the western bank of the Mississippi, where the 
authority of France was still in force, although the country had 
passed into the hands of the Spaniards. 

When the British extended dominion over the territory of 
Indiana by placing garrisons at the various trading posts in 
1761:-'5, the total number of Frenchfaniilies witliin its limits did 
not probably exceed eighty or ninety at Vincennes, about four- 
'teen at Fort Ouiatenon, on the "Wabash, and nine or ten at the 
confluence of the St. Joseph and St. Mary's rivers, near the 
Twigtwee village. At Detroit and in the vicinity of that 
post tliere were about 1,000 French residents, men, women 
and children. The remainder of the French population in the 
Northwest resided principally at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Prairie 
du Rocher, and in the vicinity of these villages; and the whole 
French population, northwest of the Ohio, at that time did not 
exceed 3,000 souls. 

The cobnnial policy of Great Britain, which was adopted im- 
mediately after the treaty of Paris, was not xalculated to facili- 
tate the settlement of the fertile country west of the Allegheny 


Mountains. The king's proclamation, issued almost immediately 
after the signing of the treaty, prohibited his subjects from 
"making any purchases or settlements whatever, or taking pos- 
session of any of the lands beyond the source of any of the rivers 
which fall into the Atlantic Ocean from the west or the north- 
west." In pursuance of this policy the Government rejected the 
urgent offers of various wealthy and entei-prising individuals to 
establish English colonies in the West. However, we hear 
of nothing that disturbed the peaceful pursuits of the French 
settlements in Indiana, until a proclamation of General 
Gage, in 1772, declared that — " Whereas, many persons, con- 
trary to the positive orders of the king upon the subject, have 
undertaken to make settlements beyond the boundaries fixed by 
the treaties made with the Indian nations, which boundaries 
ought to serve as a barrier between the whites and said nations. 
and a great number of persons have established themselves, par- 
ticularly on the river Oiiabache, where they lead a wandering 
life, without government, and without laws, interrupting the 
free course of trade, destroying the game, and causing infinite 
disturbance in the country, which occasions considerable injury 
to the aftairs of the king as well as to those of the Indians, His 
Majesty has been pleased to order, and by these presents orders 
are given in the name of the king, to all those who have estab- 
lislied themselves on lands upon the Ouabache, whether at Post 
Vincent [Vincennes] or elsewhere, to quit those countries in- 
stantly and without delay, and to retire at their choice into some 
one of the colonies of His Majesty, where they will be received 
and treated as the other subjects of His Majesty." 

The principal inhabitants of Post Vincennes replied to this 
official document on the 14th of September of the same year, 
stating that their possessions were held by "sacred titles," 
that the French settlement of that place was of " seventy years 
standing," and that their "land had been granted by order and 
under the protection of his most Christian Majesty." To this 
General Gage made answer, demanding proofof their assertions, 
which he descried, " to be transported to the feet of His Majes- 
ty," and leaving them meanwhile in the quiet possession of 
their dwellings and lands. 


In bringing tlie incidents of early days down to a later period, 
the chapter of facts would hardly be complete without a refer- 
ence to the gallant French hero, from which the city of Vin- 
cennes takes its name. 

Francois Morgan de Yincennes served in Canada as early as 
1720 in the regiment of " De Carrignan "of the French service, 
and again on the kkes in the vicinity of Sault Ste. Marie in the 
same service under M. de Vaudriel. in 1725. It is possible that 
his advent to Vincennes may have taken place in 1732; and in 
proof of this the only record is an act of sale under the joint 
names of himself and Madame Vincennes, the daughter of 
M. Philip Longprie, and dated Jan. 5, 1735. This document 
gives' his military position as Commandant of the post of Oua- 
bache in tlie service of the French King. The will of Long- 
prie, dated March 10, same year, bequeaths him, among other 
things, 408 pounds of pork, which he ordered to be kept safe 
until Vincennes, who was then at Ouabache, returned to Kas- 

There are many other documents connected with its early set- 
tlement by Vincennes, among which is a receipt for the 100 pis- 
toles granted him as his wife's marriage dowry. In 1736 this 
officer was ordered to Charlevoix by D'Artaguette, Viceroy of the 
King at New Orleans, and Commandant of Illinois. Here M. 
de Vincennes received his mortal wounds. 

D'Artaguette fought a splendid and a desperate battle. He 
was compelled to attack the Indians in their intrenchments. His 
measures were wisely planned. One fort was carried, and the 
Chickasaws driven from the cabins which it protected. At the 
second fort the intrepid youth was equally successful; but on 
attacking the third, he received iirst one wound, then another, 
and in the moment of victory was disabled. The Indians from 
Illinois were dismayed and fled precipitately. Voisin, a lad 
only sixteen, conducted the retreat, the enemy at his heels for 
twenty-five leagues. He mai-ched all that distance without 
food, while the men carried such of the wounded as could endure 
the fatigue. 

The unhappy D'Artaguette lay weltering in his blood, and by 
his side lay others of his bravest troops. The Jesuit, Senat, 


might have fled, but he remained to receive the last sigh of the 
wounded, regardless of danger, mindful only of duty. The brave 
Vincenues, too, refused to fly, and shared the captivity of his 
gallant leader. According to the Indian custom, their wounds 
were staunched and food was set belbre them. At last, when 
Bienville had retreated, the Chickasaws brought the captives 
to their lodges; and while one was spared to relate the tragedy, 
the brave and gallant D'Artaguette, the faithful Senat, tiueto 
his mission, and Vincennes, whose name will be perpetuated as 
long as the Wabash shall flow by the dwellings of civilized men 
— these, with the rest of the captives, were bound to the stake, 
and neither valor nor pity could save them from death bj' a slow 
and torturing fire. Vincennes ceased not till his last breath to 
exhort his comrades to be faithful to their country and their re- 

During the period of French rule in Louisiana, tlie popula- 
tion probably never exceeded 10,000 including whites and 
blacks. Within that portion of it now included in Indiana, 
trading posts were established at the principal Miami villages 
which stood on the headwaters of the Maumee, the AVea villages 
situated at Ouiatenon, on the Wabash, and the Piankeshaw vil- 
lages at Post Vincennes, all of which were probably visited by 
French traders and missionaries before the close of the seven- 
teenth century. 

Outside of Indiana, in the vast territory claimed by the French, 
many settlements of considerable importance had sprung up. 
Biloxi, on Mobile Bay, had been founded by D'Iberville, in 1699; 
Antoine de Lamotte Cadillac had founded Detroit in 1701; and 
New Orleans had been founded by Bienville, under the auspices 
of the Mississippi Company, in 1718. In the Illinois country, 
also, considerable settlements had been made, so that in 1730 
they embraced 140 French families, about 600 "converted 
Indians," and many traders and voyageurs. In that por- 
. tion of the country, on the east side of the Mississippi, 
there were five distinct settlements, with their respective vil- 
lages, viz.: Cahokia, near the mouth of Cahokia Creek, and 
about five miles below the present city of St. Louis; St. Philip, 
about forty-five miles below Cahokia, and four miles above Fort 
Chartres; Fort Chartres, twelve miles above Kaskaskia; Kas- 
kaskia, situated on the Kaskaskia Eiver, five miles above its 


confluence with the Mississippi; and Prairie du Kocher, near 
Fort Chartres. To these must be added St.- Genevieve and St. 
Louis, on the west side of the Mississippi. These, with the ex- 
ception of St. Louis, are amoncr the oldest French towns in the 
Mississippi Valley. Kaskaskia, in its best days, was a town of 
some two or three thousand inhabitants. After it passed from 
the crown of France its population for many years did not ex- 
ceed 1,500. Under British rule, in 1773, the population had 
decreased to 450. As early as 1721, the Jesuits had established 
a college and a monastery in Kaskaskia. 

In the colonization of the West the French had 100 years 
the ■ start ot the English colonies east of the AUeghenv 
Mountains, and during three-fourths of this period had made 
the most strenuous eflbrts to advance and consolidate their in- 
terests within this vast region of country, the richest and most 
beautiful portion of North America. They foiled in the under- 
taking, and but few traces of their work now remain in the great 
valley of the Mississippi. 


Of the conflict between the English and the French for the 
possession of the Northwestern Territory and the rich valley 
of the Mississippi, a few words here may not be out of place. The 
English had secured possession of nearly or quite all of the 
country east of the Allegheny to the ocean, and Fi-ance was de- 
termined to hold the country from Canada to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico. Virginia claimed a large portion of the territory of which 
the French had taken possession, and she determined to wrest it 
from them, if necessary by force of arms. Early history gives 
us the following facts: 

Li 1753 Governor Dinwiddle, of Virginia, sent George Wash- 
ington — then a young man, just of age — to demand of the French 
Commandant '' a reason for invading British domains, while a 
solid peace subsisted." Washington, surmounting all the dif- 
ficulties of a winter journey over mountains and through for- 
ests, met the French Commandant, Gardeur de St. Pierre, on 
the headwaters ot the Alleghany, and, having communicated to 
him the object of his journey, received the insolent answer that 
the French would not discuss the matter of right, but would make 
prisoners of every Englishman found trading on the Ohio and 


its waters. The country, lie said, belonged to the French, by 
virtue of the discoveries made by La Salle, and they would not 
withdraw from it. 

In January, 1754, "Washington returned to Virginia and made 
his report to the Governor and Council. Forces were at once 
raised, and "Washington, as Lieutenant-Colonel, was dispatched 
at the head of 150 men, to the forks of the Ohio, with orders 
to "finish the fort (Fort Pitt) already begun by the Ohio Com- 
pany, and to make prisoners, kill or destroy all who interrupted 
the English settlements." 

On his march through the forests of "Western Pennsylvania, 
"Washington, through the aid of friendly Indians, discovered the 
French concealed among the rocks, and as they ran to seize their 
arms, ordered his men to fire upon them, at the same time with 
his own musket setting the example. An action lasting about 
a quarter of an hour ensued. Ten of the Frenchmen were 
killed, among them Jumonville, the commander of the party, 
and twenty-one were made prisoners. 

The dead were scalped "Dy the Indians, and the chief, bearing 
a scalp and a hatchet, went to all the tribes of the Miamis, invok- 
ing their great war chief and braves to go hand in hand with the 
Six Nations in alliance with the English. But the French, be- 
ing soon reinforced by superior numbers, Washington was com- 
pelled to fall back upon Fort Necessity, a rude stockade at Great 

Ob the 3d of July Monsieur de Villiers confronted him with 
600 French and 100 Indians — a vastly superior force — and "Wash- 
ington was compelled to accept terms of capitulation; and on 
the Fourth of July the English garrison was withdrawn from 
the basin of the Ohio. 

The attack of "Washington upon Jumonville aroused the indig- 
nation of France, and war was now imminent between the two 
nations. In May, 1756, war was formally declared. 

The signal and unfortunate defeat of General Braddock, near 
Fort du Quesne, on the banks of the Monongahela, occurred 
July 9, 1755, and from that period until the victory of General 
"Wolfe, at Quebec, on the 13th of September, 1759, various en- 
gagements had taken place with various fortunes, between the 
English and the French, and their Indian allies. 

On the 8th of September, 1760, Montreal, Detroit and all 
Canada were given up to the English. 


On the 10th of February, 1763, the treaty of Paris was con- 
cluded, by which Great Britain became possessed of all New 
France and all that portion of the Province of Louisiana lying 
on the east side of the Mississippi, except the island and town 
of New Orleans, which remained to the French. 

The treaty of Paris had been signed, though not formally con- 
cluded, on tiie 3d of November, 1762. On the same day France, 
in a secret treaty, ceded to Spain all her possessions on the west 
side of the Mississippi, including the whole country to the head 
waters of the Great River, and west to the Rocky Mountains. 

Thus was the great Province of Louisiana divided between 
England and Spain, and the dominion of France in America, 
whicii had lasted nearly 100 years, passed away. 

The British Government thus got possession of the countrv, 
but they had, especially in what are now the States of Ohio and 
Michigan, to tight the Indians to obtain absolute possession. 
They— the Indians— had helped the British to defeat the French, 
but they saw they had made a mistake, and under the lead of 
that brave and wiley chief, Pontiac, endeavored to hold pos- 
session of the country, but history shows it was a failure, 


The first settlement in what is now the State of Indiana wa? 
Post Vincent, now Vincennes, on the Western border of tli. 
State, and this was in 1702. A French missionary named Mer- 
met, believing the location an excellent one for missionary work, 
stopped there, and was joined by Sieur Juchereau, and this 
settlement became the trading post and French settlement un- 
der the name of " Post Yincent." Traders and hunters had 
penetrated the Wabash Valley a few years previous to the above 
date, but no attempt at settlement had been made prior to the 
above date, in what is now Indiana. Of course little was known 
then of the country, for outside of these adventurous spirits 
and the missionaries no attempts had been made to penetrate 
the wilds west of the Alleghenies. 

Thus, step by step, has been followed the progress of our dis- 
coveries, and but a little over a century after La Salle made his 
memorable voyage a nation was born, and the ruling powers of 
the world gave it their recognition. 

Three centuries had nearly elapsed before what Columbus 


discovered as a wilderness, inhabited by wild beasts and roving 
savages, became the hope of oppressed humanity and a beacon 
light for the downtrodden of ail nations. Liberty, the word 
emblazoned in letters of living light upon the hearts of the 
American people, by the memorable struggle of 177C, to-day 
still stands forth in undimmed luster, flashing in luminous 
light, and, like the " Star of Bethlehem," showing a world re- 
deemed and a haven of rest for the weary. 

1776 AND 19S3. 

Since the days of 1776, when the clarion voice of Henry pro- 
claimed the knell of tyranny and oppression, and the triumph 
of liberty, civilization, under its inspiring wing, took a forward 
movement, and with steam, railroads, the telegraph and tele- 
phone, and, last but not least, the electric light, our country has 
rapidly advanced to the front rank of nations, leaving far behind 
the eflete monarchies of the old world — standing forth as the 
pioneer in all that leads man to a higher and nobler plane. It 
is hard to believe that in the next hundred years the march of 
civilization and progress will be as rapid as that of the past cent- 
ury, yet with the spirit of genius expanded by the light of lib- 
erty and noble aspirations, the people of a century hence may 
look upon us of to-day as but primitive in our ideas and actions 
compared to the civilization of 19S3. 

The failure of La Salle to colonize the country must be at- 
tributed to his death, for he lacked neither courage nor endur- 
ance, but his death gave it a temporary delay. However, other 
steps were soon taken, and the Territory of Louisiana was yet 
to be peopled. 


The territory now comprised within the limits of Ohio was 
formerly a part of that vast region claimed by France, between 
the Allegheny and the Rocky mountains, first known by the 
general name ot Louisiana. After the tour of exploration by 
Marquette and Joliet, and the unsuccessful effort at colonization 
by La Salle, the French, still ardent in their purpose of secur- 
ing possession of the fertile lands east of the Mississippi, finally 
had the satisfaction of seeing it successfully colonized under the 
leadership of M. D'Iberville. This officer entered the mouth 


of the Mississippi and explored tliat mighty river for several 
hundred miles, made permanent establishments at different 
points, and from this, cabout 1690, the French colony west of 
the Alleghenies steadily increased in numbers and strength. 
Previous to the year 1725 the colony had been divided into 
quarters, each having its local government, but all subject to the 
superior authority of the Council Gei;ieral of Louisiana. One of 
these quarters was established northwest of the Ohio. 

At this time the French had erected forts on the Upper Mis- 
sissippi, on the Illinois, on the Maumeeand on the lakes. Com- 
munication with Canada was yet, at this time, through Lake 
Michigan ; but before 1750 a French post had been fortified at 
the mouth of the Wabash, and a communication was established 
through that river and the Maumee with Canada. About the 
same time and for the purpose of cheeking the progress of the 
French, the Ohio Company was formed, and made some attempt 
to establish trading posts among the Indians. The French, 
however, by establishing a chain of fortifications, back to the 
English settlements, secured, in a measure, the entire control of 
the great Mississippi Valley. Great alarm was thus caused to 
the British Government, and, the attempt to settle the disputed 
boundaries by negotiation having failed, both parties were de- 
termined to settle their differences by the force of arms. 


The principal ground whereon the English claimed dominion 
beyond the Alleghenies, says Howe's history, was that the Six 
Nations owned the Ohio Valley, and had placed it with their 
other lands under the protection of England. Some of the 
Western lands were also claimed by the British as having been 
actually purchased at Lancaster, Pa., in 1744-, by a treaty be- 
tween the Colonists and the Six Nations at that place. lu 1749 
it appears that the English built a trading house upon the 
Great Miami, at a spot since called Loramie's Store. In 1751 
Christopher Gist, an agent of the Ohio Company, who was a])- 
pointed to examine the Western lands, made a visit to the 
Twigtwees who lived upon the Miami Hiver, about 100 miles 
from its mouth. 

Early in 1752 the French, having heard of the trading house 
on the Miami, sent a party of soldiers to the Twigtwees and de- 


manded the traders as intruders upon the French lands. The 
Indians refused to deliver up their friends. The French, assisted 
by the Ottawas and Chippewas, then attacked the trading 
house, which was probably a block-house, and after a severe 
battle, in which fourteen Indians were killed and others wounded, 
took and destroyed it, carrying away the traders to Canada. 
This post was called by the English, Pickawillany. Such was 
the first British settlement in the Ohio Valley of which record 
has ever been made. 


When the early explorers and missionaries first visited the 
country afterward described as the Northwest Territory they 
found it in the possession of that powerful combination of In- 
dians known as the Six Nations. It was afterward claimed by 
Great Britain that the territory north of the Ohio was theirs by 
purchase from the Six Nations, in 1741, and was one of the rea- 
sons given for going into the French and Indian war. Later, in 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, after their power and 
prestige had diminished, this region of country was in the pos- 
session of and occupied by several independent Indian tribes. 
Those located in what is now Ohio were the Delawares, Shaw- 
nees, Wyandots (called the Hurons by the French), the Min- 
goes (an oft-shoot of the Iroquois), the Chippewas and the Tawas 
(more commonly known as the Ottawas). The Delawares occu- 
pied the valleys of the Muskingum and the Tuscarawas; the 
Shawness, the Scioto Valley; the Miamis, the valleys of the two 
rivers, upon which they left their names; the Wyandots held 
the country bordering upon the Sandusky River; the Ottawas 
had their homes in the valleys of the Maumee and Sandnsk}'; 
tlie Chippewas were masters of the south shore of Lake Erie, 
and the Mingoes were in their strength on the Ohio, below 
Steubanville. All the tribes, however, frequented more or less 
lands outside of their prescribed territory, and at different peri- 
ods, from the time when the first definite knowledge concerning 
them was obtained down to the era of white settlement, they 
occupied different locations. 

Thus the Delawares, whom Bouquet found in 1764 in great- 
est numbers in tiie valley of the Tuscarawas, had, thirty 
years later, the majority of their population in the region of the 


county which now bears their name, and the Shawnees, wlio 
were originally strongest upon the Scioto, at the time of the war 
from 1790 to 1794, had concentrated upon the Little Miami. 
The several tribes lying east of the Mississippi commingled, to 
some extent, as their animosities against each other were sup- 
planted by the common fear of the enemy of their race. They 
gradually grew stronger in sympathy and more compact in union 
as the settlements of the whites encroached upon their loved do- 
main. Hence the division which had in 1750 been quite plainly 
marked became, by the time the Ohio River was fringed with 
cabins and villages of the pale faces, in a large measure obliter- 
ated. Where, in Eastern Ohio, the Delawares held almost 
undisputed sway, there were now to be found also Wyandots, 
Shawnees, Mingoes and even Miamis from the western part and 
from what is now Indiana, from the Wabash, Miami and Mad 
rivers. 1132110 

The Delawares, as has been indicated, had their most dense 
population upon the Upper Muskingum and Tuscarawas, and 
they really were in possession of the eastern part of what is now 
Ohio, from the river to Lake Erie. This tribe, which claimed to 
be the elder branch of the Lenni-Lenape, has by tradition, in 
history and in fiction, been accorded a high rank among the In- 
dian tribes of North America. 

Schoolcraft, Loskiel, Albert Gallatin, Drake, Zeisberger, 
Heckewelder and many other writers have borne testimony to the 
superiority of the Delawares, and James Fennimore Cooper, in 
his attractive romances, has added luster to the fame of tlie tribe. 
According to the traditions preserved by them the Delawares, 
many centuries before they knew the whites, lived in the west- 
ern part of the Continent, and, separating from the rest of the 
Lenni-Lenape, migrated slowly eastward. Reaching the Alle- 
gheny River, they, with the Iroquois, waged war successfull}' 
with a race of giants, the Alligewi, and, still continuing their 
migration, settled on the Delaware River and spread their po])- 
ulation eventually to the Kudson, Susquehanna and the Poto- 
mac. Here they lived, menaced and often attacked by the 
Iroquois, and were subjugated, as tradition records, by the latter 
by stratagem. The Atlantic having become settled by Europe- 
ans, the Delawares being also embittered against the Iroquois, 
whom they accused of treachery, turned westward again and 


concentrated upon the Allegliany. Disturbed here by the white 
settlers a portion of the tribe obtained permission of the Wyan- 
dots, whom they called their uncle, thus confessing their greater 
antiquity, to occupy the land along the Muskingum. The fore- 
runners of the tribe, it is believed, entered this region about the 
year 1745, and in a score of j'ears their whole population had 
become residents of that portion of the Northwest Territory. 
They became in their new home a more powerful tribe than ever 
before, their warriors numbering in 176-i somethmg over 600. 

The principal tribes which held sway in the Territory of Indi- 
ana were the Pottawatomie, Eel River, Kaskaskia, Wea, Pian- 
keshaw and the Kickapoo. These tribes, as well as those who 
occupied what is now Ohio, ceded their lands to the United 
States in several treaties at Vincennes. The Sac and Fox tribes 
also ceded large tracts of lands to the Government, whicli after- 
ward was the cause of the war brought on by Black Hawk in 
1832. These lands and others were a part of what is now the 
State of Illinois. In fact these treaties with the Indians covered, 
before it ended, all the Northwest Territory except some few 
small resers'ations. The Territory of Indiana when these treaties 
went into effect included also the present State of Illinois, or, in 
other words, after Ohio had formed itself into a State, all west 
of its west line was called the Territory of Indiana. This re- 
mained so until March, 1S09, when the Territory of Illinois was 
formed. The act passed Feb. 3, 1809, and took effect March 1, 
following, the line between Indiana and' Illinois being the 
Wabash River to Post Vincent, and thence a line due north to 
the line between Canada and the United States. 

The valley of the Wabash became quite thickly settled, foi 
those days, during the next half century. Land speculation be 
came rife, and one company's agent secured a deed from eleven 
Piankeshaw chiefs of 37,497,600 acres of land, lying in Indiana 
and Illinois. The deed was dated at Post Vincent and witnessed 
by a number of residents of the post. This was in 1775, and the 
company was known as the "Wabash Land Company." The 
war of the Revolution brought all these speculators and frauds 
to grief, for, when peace was declared all attempts to get Congress 
of the new Confederacy of States to confirm these frauds were 
futile. Congress claimed the land. 



Though the actual occupants, and, as most will say, the; right- 
ful owners of this region, were these native tribes of Indians, yet 
tliey were not taken into account, and other claimants to the 
soil, who made little pretense to actual possession for a long 
time, were eventually to dispossess the Indians of their hunting 
grounds. France rested her claim upon the discovery of Mar- 
quette and the explorations of Eobert Cavalier de La Salle, and 
the nominal occupation of the country by means of forts and 
missions, and later by the provisions of several European 
treaties (then of Utrecht, Ryswick and Aix-la-Chapelle), and 
was the first to formally lay claim to the soil of the territory 
now included within the bounds of the State of Indiana, as an 
integral portion of the valley of the Mississippi and of the North- 
west. Indiana was thus a part of New France. After the treaty 
of Utrecht in 1713, it was a part of the French province of Lou- 
isiana, which extended from the gulf to the Northern lakes. The 
English claims were based on the priority of tiieir occupation of 
the Atlantic Coast, in latitude corresponding to the territory 
claimed; upon an opposite construction of the same treaties 
above named; and last, but not least, upon the alleged ces- 
sion of the rights of the Indians. England's charters to all of 
the original colonies expressly extended their grants from sea to 
sea. The principal ground of claim by. the English was by the 
treaties of purchase from the Six Nations, wiio, claiming to be 
conquerors of the whole country and therefore its possessors, 
asserted their right to dispose of it. France successfully resist- 
ed the claims of England, and maintained control of the territory 
between the Ohio and the lakes by force of arms until the treaty 
of Paris was consummated in 1763. By the provisions of this 
treaty. Great Britain came into possession of the disputed lands, 
and retaineil it until ownership was vested in the United States 
by the treaty of peace made just twenty years later. 

Virginia had asserted her claims to the whole of the territory 
northwest of the Ohio, and New York had claimed titles to por- 
tions of the.same. These claims had been for the most part held 
in abeyance during the period when the general ownership was 
vested in Great Britain, but were afterward the cause of much 
embarrassment to the United States. Virginia, however, had 


not only claimed ownership of the soil, but attempted the exer- 
cise of civil authority in the disputed territory as early as 1769. 
In that year the colonial house of Burgesses passed an act estab- 
lishing the county of Botetourt, including a large part of what 
is now West Virginia, and tlie whole territory northwest of 
the Ohio, and having, of course, as its western boundary the 
Mississippi Eiver. It was more in name than in fact, how- 
ever, that Virginia had jurisdiction over this great coiiuty of 
Botetourt through the act of 1769. In 1778, after the splendid 
achievements of General George Rogers Clarke, — his subjuga- 
tion of the British posts in the fixr West, and conquest of the 
whole country from the Ohio to the Mississippi, — this territory 
was organized by the Virginia Legislature as the county of Illi- 
nois. John Todd was appointed as County Lieutenant and Civil 
Commandant of Illinois County, and served until his death (he 
was killed in the battle of Blue Licks, Aug. 18, 17S2). He was 
succeeded by Timothy de Montburn. 

New York was the first of the several States claiming right 
and title in Western lands to withdraw the same in favor of the 
United States. Her charter, obtained March 2, 1664:, from 
Charles II., embraced territory which had formerly been grant- 
ed to Massachusetts and Connecticut. The cession of claim was 
made by James Duane, William Floyd and Alexander McDou- 
gall, on behalf of the State, March 1, 1781. Virginia, with afar 
more valid claim than New York, was the next State to follow 
New York's example. Her claim was founded upon certain 
charters granted to the colon^^ by James I., and bearing date re- 
spectively April 10, 1606, May 23, 1609, and March 12, 1611, 
upon the conquest of the country by General Geo. Rogers Clarke, 
and upon the fact that she had also exercised civil authority over 
the territory. The act was consummated March 17, 1784. Massa- 
chusetts ceded her claims, without reservation, the same year that 
Virginia did (1784), though the act was not formally consum- 
mated until the l8th of April, 1785. The right of her title had 
been rested upon her charter, granted less than quarter of a 
century from the arrival of the Mayflower, and embracing terri- 
tory extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific. •Connecticut 
made what has been called "the last tardy and reluctant sacri- 
fice of State ownership to the common good," Sept. 14:, 1786. 



This movement of the French to what they claimed as their 
territory caused the British Hon to roar and lash himself into 
fury, and reprisals were going on until war became inevitable. 
The French had possession of the territory and they meant to bold , 
it. The prompt action of the French in driving out all intrud- 
ers soon convinced the English government that if they retained 
possession or secured any of the territory it would have to be 
done by force of arms. They therefore sent General Edward 
Braddock, with a considerable force, to take possession of the 
country early in the spring of 1755. The Governors of the At- 
lantic States met General Braddock, and a plan of campaign was 
mapped out and agreed upon. It is not necessary to go into 
more than general particulars of the French and Indian war, as 
this struggle was called. Braddock, disdaining the advice of 
Washington and others, marched into the country without proper 
precautions, and there met defeat and death, but the war was 
carried on until success crowned the British arms, which in a 
large measure was due to the military ability of Colonel George 
Washington, Major Lewis and others. The latter, in January, 
1756, was sent with a strong body of troops against the Indian 
towns on the Ohio, the upper Shawanese towns on the Ohio, 
above the mouth of the great Kanawha, but this expedition, like 
Braddock's, was a failure, but more on account of swollen streams 
than want of military strategy, and upon the known treachery 
of the guides. 

The terrible rout of Braddock's troops was very paralyzing 
to the British forces, and although the war continued no new 
expedition against that part of the French possession was under- 
taken until 1758, when Gen^'al Forbes advanced against the 
French on tlie western frontier and Fort Dn Quesne. A portion 
of his force, an advance guard of 900 men under Major Grant, 
was met and defeated with great slaughter, but this did not stop 
General Forbes's advance, and the French, finding that the Brit- 
ish were still coming, and were too strong for them, abandoned 
the fort after removing all valuables and destroying guns, etc. 
This ended the French occupation of the territory, peace was 
concluded in 1763, and France ceded to Great Britain all her 
North American settlements. 


In 1764 General Bradstreet, having dispersed the Indian forces 
besieging Detroit, passed down into the "Wyandot country by 
way of Sandusky Bay. Having ascended the bay and river as 
far as possible in boats, the party encamped, and here a treaty of 
peace was concluded with the chiefs and representatives of many 
•of the Indian tribes. The Shawnees of the Scioto River, and the 
Delawares of the Muskingum, however, still continued hostile. 
Colonel Bouquet, in 176i, marched with a body of troops from 
Fort Pitt into the heart of the Ohio country on the Muskingum 
River. This expedition was conducted with great prudence and 
skill; but few lives were lost, and a treaty of peace was effected 
with the Indians, who restored all the prisoners they had taken 
from the white settlements. 


" Dunmore's War " is the designation applied to a series of 
bloody hostilities between the whites and Indians, carried out 
by Lord Diinmore and the troops under his command in 177i. 
It was the culmination of the bitter warfare that had been 
waged with varying success betweeuthe frontier population of 
Pennsylvania and Virginia, and the Delawares, Iroquois, Wyan- 
dots, and other tribes of Indians. One of the most noted of the 
many massacres of that period was that of Logan's family by 
the whites, and in retaliation the swift vengeance of the Mingo 
chief upon the white settlements on the Monongahela, where, 
in the language of his celebrated speech, he "fully glutted his 

In the summer of that year an expedition under Colonel Mc- 
Donald was assembled at Wheeling, marched into the Muskin- 
gum country and destroyed the Indian town of Wapatomica, a lew 
miles above the site of Zanesville. 

It is well enough here to embrace some facts in regard to the 
murder of Logan's family. In a late work called the " Histori- 
cal and Biographical Encyclopajdia of Ohio," a somewhat labored 
attempt is made to prove that Colonel Cresap had nothing to do 
with the murder of the celebrated Mingo chief's family, and that 
the said chief was also a murderous brute. It is a matter of 
both fact and history that if Logan glutted his vengeance by the 
murder of palefaces, he was not that brute and murderer until 
after all he held dear, Indian though he was, had been cowardly 


butchered in cold blood by the very race whom he had defended, 
and many of whom he had succored, and whose lives he had 
preserved. It would be enough to start the sluggish blood of a 
white man and rouse his spirit to undying vengeance, to have 
the friends whom he had befriended and whose lives perhaps he 
had saved, murder his wife and family in cold blood. Such was 
the fate of Logan. Is it to be wondered at, if the friend of the 
white man became a demon under such provocation? Craven 
indeed must be the man who would fail to become even a fiend 
incarnate under such brutal acts. So much in the defense of 
Logan. AVho killed Logan's family may be a subject of dispute, 
but will hardly clear the skirts of Colonel Cresap. Logan ac- 
cused him, and he was prepared to know, for it seems he hunted 
with the pertinacity' of revenge to find the author of his wrong, 
and he traced it to Colonel Cresap's command, and while not 
personally the cause of Logan's family slaughter, which left him 
wifeless and childless, and turned a warm and active friend into 
an equally active and unrelenting enemy, it was done by a por- 
tion of his command. 

In Atwater's History of Ohio, first edition, he says: " On the 
27th of April, 1774, Captain Cresap, at the head of a party of 
men, at Wheeling, in West Virginia, heard of two Indians and 
some of their families being up the river hunting, not many 
miles off. Cresap and his party followed them, and killed them 
without provocation, in cold blood and in profound peace. After 
committing these murders, on their return to Wheeling that 
night they heard of an Indian encampment down the river, at 
the mouth of Captina Creek, and they immediately went, at- 
tacked and murdered all these Indians. After these unprovoked 
and cruel murders aparty under Daniel Greathouse, forty-seven in 
number, ascended the river above Wheeling to Baker's Station, 
about forty miles, which was opposite the mouth of Great Yel- 
low Creek. Then keeping his men out of sight of the Indians, 
Captain Greathouse went over the river to reconnoiter the ground 
and to ascertain how many Indians were there. He fell in with 
an Indian woman, who advised him not to stay among them, as 
the Indians were drinking and angry. On receiving this friendly 
advice he returned over to Baker's block-house, and induced 
persons to entice all the Indians they could that day and get them 
drunk. This diabolical stratagem succeeded; many Indians 


coming over and getting drank, were slain by the party of 
Greathouse. Hearing the firing, two Indians came over to 
Baker's to see what it meant, and were slain as soon as 
they landed. By this time the Indians at their camp, sus- 
pecting what was going on, sent over an armed force, 
but these were fired upon while on the river, several 
being killed, and the survivors were compelled to return. A 
firing of guns then commenced across the river, but none of the 
whites were even wounded, but among the murdered Indians 
was the woman who gave the Captain the friendly advice; and 
they were all scalped who were slain. Among the murdered at 
Captina and Yellow Creek was the entire family of Logan, the 
friend of the whites. Knowing that these cruel and unprovoked 
murders would be speedily avenged by the Indians, all the 
whites along the whole western frontier either left the country 
or retired to their block-houses and forts." The above was pub- 
lished in 1838, when many living actors in the scenes of those 
days could be found, and it is likely to be nearer correct than 
any information gained nearly a half century later. A letter of 
General George Eogers Clarke, published in March, 1839, 
places the murder of the Logan family at the hands of 
Daniel Greathouse and the men in his command. This letter 
was dated June 17, 1798. Captain Greathouse was under Colo- 
nel Cresap and a portion of his command, and that is the ex- 
_tent of Colonel Cresap's connection with the murder of Logan's 

In August, 1774, Lord Dunmore, then Governor of Virginia, 
determined to raise a large force and carry the war into the 
enemy's country. The plan of the campaign was simple. Three 
regiments were to be raised west of the Blue Eidge, to be com- 
manded by General Andrew Lewis, while two other regiments 
from the interior were to be commanded by Dunmore himself. 
The forces were to form a junction at the mouth of tlie great 
Kanawha and proceed, under the command of Lord Dunmore, 
to attack the Indian towns in the Northwest Territory. The force 
under Lewis, amounting to 1,100 men, rendezvoused at Camp 
Union, now Lewisburg, Greenbrier Co., W. 7a., whence they 
marched early in September, and I'eachcd Point Pleasant on the 


6th of October. Three days later Lewis received dispatches 
from Diinmore, infonniug him that lie liad changed his plan of 
operations; tliat he (Dunmore) would inarch across the country 
against the Shawanese towns on the Scioto, situated within the 
present limits of Pickaway County, Oiiio, and Lewis was or- 
dered to cross the Ohio River at once and join Dunmore before 
these towns. 

This movement was to have been made on the 10th of Octo- 
ber. On that day, however, before the march had begun, two 
men of Lewis's command wei-e tired upon while hunting a mile 
or so from camp. One was killed and the other came rushing 
into camp with the alarm that Indians were at hand. General 
Lewis had barely time to make some hasty dispositions when 
there began one of the most desperate Indian battles recorded 
in border warfare — the battle of Point Pleasant. The Indians 
were in great force, infuriated by past wrong and by the hope 
of wiping out their enemy by this day's fight, and were led on 
by their ablest and most daring chiefs. Pre-eminent among the 
savage leaders were Logan and " Oornplanter" (or "Corn- 
stalk"), whose voices rang above the din, and whose tremendous 
feats performed in this day's action have passed into history. 
The contest lasted all day, but was not yet decided. Toward 
evening General Lewis ordered a body of men to gain the ene- 
my's flank, on seeing which movement about to be successfully 
executed the Indians drew off and effected a safe retreat. The 
force on both sides in this battle was nearly equal — about 1,100. 
The whites lost half their oflScers and fifty-two men killed. The 
loss of the Indians, killed and wounded, was estimated at 233. 
Soon after the battle Lewis crossed the river and pursued the 
Indians with great vigor, but did not again come in conflict 
with them. 

Meanwhile Lord Dunmore had, with about 1,200 men, crossed 
the mountains at Potomac Gap, reviewed his forces at Fort Pitt, 
now Pittsburg, and descended the Ohio River as far as the 
mouth of the Hocking. Here he landed, formed a camp and 
built a fortification, which he called Fort Gower. It was from 
here that he sent word to General Lewis of the change in his 
plan of campaign, and he remained here until after the battle of 
Point Pleasant. Leaving a suflicient force at Fort Gower to 
protect the stores and secure it as a base, he marched up the 


Hocking as far as Logan now stands, and from there westward 
to a point seven miles from Circleville, where a grand parley 
was held with the Indians. It was at this council that the fa- 
mous speech of the Mingo chief was made, beginning, " I ap- 
peal to any white man to say if he ever entered Logan's cabin 
hungry and he gave him ijot meat," etc. After the execution 
of a treaty with the Indians, Lord Dunmore returned to Fort 
Gower by nearly the same route he had pursued in his advance, 
across the country and down the valley of the Hocking to its 
mouth. It is probable that his army was disbanded at this 
point, and returned in small parties to their homes. 

In 1779 Colonel Bowman headed an expedition against the 
Shawnees in their country. Their village, three miles north of 
Xenia, on the Little Miami, was burned, but the warriors 
showed an undaunted front, and the whites were forced to re- 
treat. In the summer of 1780 General Clarke led a body of 
Kentuckians against the Shawnees. On their approach the In- 
dians burned their town of Chillicothe and retreated, but at 
Piqua, their town on the Mad River, six miles below the site of 
Springfield, they gave battle to the whites and were defeated. 
In September, 1782, tliis officer led a second expedition against the 
Shawnees, this time destroying their towns of Upper and Lower 
Piqua, on the Miami, within what is now Miami County, Ohio. 

Other expeditions from Kentucky were conducted against the 
Indians a few years later. One was that of Colonel Logan, in 
1786, which was conducted successfully against the Macka- 
chack towns, on the head waters of Mad River, in what is now 
Logan County, Ohio. Edwards, in 1787, led an expedition to 
the head waters of the Big Miami, and in 1788 Todd led one 
into the Scioto Valley. There were also several minor expedi- 
tions at various times into the present limits of Ohio and 

The Moravian missionaries, prior to the war of the Revolu- 
tion, had a number of missionary stations within the limits of 
the territory. The missionaries Heckewelder and Post were on 
the Muskingum as early as 1762. In June, 1782, Colonel 
Crawford, at the head of about 500 men, was defeated by the 
Indians, three miles north of the site of Upper Sandusky, in 
Wyandot County, Ohio. Crawford was taken prisoner in the 
retreat, and burned at the stake with horrible tortures. 


Geneeax George Hogees Clarke's Memoirs. — His Campaign. 
— Onthe March. — Capture of Kaskaskia. — March on Post 
Vincent. — Its Capture. — The Glad Tidings. — Retaken by 
THE British. — The American Arms again Victorious. — But 
A Terrible March. — Surrender of Hamilton. — Capturk 
OF Indians by a Ruse. — Subsequent Career of Hamilton. 
— Close of General Clarke's Military Life. — A Warm 
Tkibute of Praise. 

memoirs of general GEORGE ROGERS CLARKE. 

While the foregoing account of the troubles and trials of wars 
with the Indians was in the territory of the Northwest, yet it 
was in that portion which afterward became the State of Oliio. 
Tlie cam])aign of Colonel George Rogers Clarke, one of the most 
e.xciting and interesting among the early Indian wars, has more 
especial reference to what is now Indiana, and is given here 
pretty fully, taken from his memoirs, written out at the request 
of Presidents Jeiferson and Madison. These memoirs of Colonel, 
afterward General, Clarke will also be found published in Dil- 
lon's History of Indiana. Colonel Clarke was then a resident oi 
Kentucky, having come from Virginia, being a native of Albe- 
marle County, of that State. He found Kentucky, like all otherr, 
a frontier in an unorganized condition, and was largely instru- 
mental in placing that State, or rather Territory, under the laws 
of Virginia, and making it a part of that Commonwealth, al- 
though it may be said to belong to Virginia originally. This 
was about the commencement of the Revolutionary war, and 
Clarke and his patriotic associates had in view the use of Ken- 
tucky, as a ]>art of Virginia, as a base of operations against the 
Britisli forces and their allies, the Indians, in that part of 
the Northwestern Territory now composing the States of Indi- 
ana and Illinois. Colonel Clarke had been given the command 


of the campaign which follovved, by Governor Henry, after 
mature consideration. 


The principal incidents in Colonel Clarke's campai.o;n are here 
given in his own words. He said: 

" When I left Kentucky, Oct. 1, 1777, I plainly saw that 
every eye was turned toward me, as if expecting some stroke in 
their favor. Some doubted my return, expecting I would join 
the army in Virginia. I promised to return, and did so. On 
my arrival at Williamsburg, I remained a considerable time 
settling the accounts of the Kentucky militia, and making notes 
of everything I saw and heard that could lead me to the knowl- 
edge of the disposition of those in power. Burgoyne's army 
having been captured, and things seeming to wear a pleasant as- 
pect, I communicated my design to Governor Henry on the 10th 
of December, 1777. At first he seemed very much in favor of 
it, but to detach a party at so great a distance (although the 
service performed might be of great utility), appeared daring 
and hazardous, as nothing but secresy could give success to the 
enterprise. To lay tlie enterprise before the Assembly, then sit- 
ting, would be dangerous, as it would soon be known through- 
out the frontier, and probably the first prisoner taken by the 
Indians would give the alarm, which would end in the certain 
destruction of the party. He had several private councils com- 
posed of select gentlemen. After making every inquiry into 
my proposed plans of operation, and particularly that of a re- 
treat in case of misfortune, across the Mississippi Kiver into 
Spanish territory, the expedition was resolved upon; and, as an 
encouragement to those who would engage in said service, an in- 
strument of writing was signed wherein those gentlemen prom- 
ised to use their influence to procure from the Assembly 300 
acres of land for each, in case of success. The Governor 
and Council so warmly engaged in the success of the enter- 
prise that I had very little trouble in getting matters adjusted; 
and on the 2d day of January, 1778, received my instructions, 
and £1,000 for the use of the expedition, with an order on Pitts- 
iburg for boats, ammunition, etc. Finding from the Governor's 
conversation in general to me on the subject that he did not 
iwish an implicit obedience to his instructions to prevent my 


executing anything that would manifestly tend to the good of 
the public, on the 4th I set forward, clothed with all the author- 
ity I wished. I advanced to Major "William Smith £150 to re- 
cruit men on Holston, and to meet me in Kentucky. Captain 
Leonard Helm, of Fauquier, and Captain Joseph Bowman, of 
Frederick, were to raise each a company, and on the 1st of Feb- 
ruary arrive at Ked Stone Old Fort. 

"Being now in the country where all the arrangements were to 
be made, I appointed Captain "William Ilarrod and many other 
officers to the recruiting service, and contracted for flour and 
other stores that I wanted. * * * Qq ^]^q 29th 

of March I received a letter from Major Smith, by express, in- 
forming me that he had raised four companies at Holston, to be 
marched immediately to Kentucky, agreeably to his orders; and 
an express from Kentucky informed me that they had gained 
considerable strength since 1 left that quarter. This information 
from Major Smith, with Bowman's and Helm's companies, 
which I knew were on the way to join me at Eed Stone, caused 
me to be more easy respecting recruits than I otherwise should 
have been. Meeting, however, with several disappointments, it 
was late in May before I could leave the Hed Stone settlement 
with those companies, and a considerable number of families 
and private adventurers. Taking in my stores at Pittsburg and 
"Wheeling, I proceeded down the river with caution, and took 
possession of a small island of some seven acres, and divided 
this among a few of the families with me. I, after constructing 
some light fortifications for their protection, left them. 

"Of the four companies recruited by Major Smith, on the Hol- 
ston, only one had arrived in Kentucky, and when I informed it 
that ray design was to capture Post Vincent and Kaskaskia, I was 
deserted by the greater part of that company. Another obstacle 
interfered with my plans. I found that the settlers of Ken- 
tucky, owing to the hostile temper of the Indians, could not, at 
that time, hazard material diminution of the strength of their 
forts by joining the expedition under my command. 

"On the 24th of June, 1778, we left our little island home 
above mentioned and ran about a mile up the river to gain the 
main channel. As I knew that spies were kept on the river be- 
low the towns of the Illinois, I had resolved to march part of 
the way by land, and, of course, left the whole of our baggage, 


except as much as would equip us in the Indiaa mode. The 
whole of our force, after leaving such as was judged not compe- 
tent to the expected fatigue, consisted of only four companies, 
commanded by Captains John Montgomery, Joseph Bowman, 
Leonard Helm and William Harrod. My force being so small to 
what I expscted, owing to the various circumstances already men- 
tioned, I found it necessary to alter my plan of operations. As 
Post Vincent (now Yiucennes), at this time was a town of con- 
siderable force, consisting of nearly 400 militia, with an Indian 
town adjoining, and great numbers continually in the neighbor- 
hood, and in the scale of Indian aifairs of more importance than 
any otiier, I had thought of attacking it first, but now found 
that I could by no means venture near it. I resolved to begin 
my career in Illinois, where there were more inhabitants, but 
scattered in different villages, and less danger of being imme- 
diately overpowered by the Indians; in case of necessity we could 
probably make our retreat to the Spanish side of the river Mis- 
sissippi; but if successful, we might pave our way to the posses- 
sion of Post Vincent. I had fully acquainted myself that the 
French inhabitants of these Western settlements had great influ- 
ence among the Indians in general, and were more beloved by 
them than any other Europeans; that their commercial inter- 
course was universal throughout the Western and Northwestern 
countries; and that the governing interest on the lakes was 
mostly in the hands of the English, who were not much beloved 
by them. These, and many other ideas similar thereto, caused 
me to resolve, if possible, to strengthen myself by such train of 
conduct as might probably attach the French inhabitants to our 
interest, and give us influence at a greater distance than the 
country we were aiming for. These were the principles that in- 
fluenced my future conduct, and, fortunately, I had just received 
a letter from Colonel Campbell, dated Pittsburg, informing me of 
the contents of the treaties between France and America. [The 
independence of the United States was acknowledged by France 
Feb. 6, 1778, and a treaty, oft'ensive and defensive,between France 
and this country entered into.] 


" As I intended to leave the Ohio at Fort Massac, three leagues 
below the Tennessee, I landed on a small island in the mouth 


of that river, in order to prepare for the march. In a few liours 
after, one John Dutf and a party of hunters coining down the 
river were brought to us bj' our boats. They were men formerly 
from the States, and assured us of their happiness in the advent- 
ure. * * * They had been but lately from Kaskaskia, and 
were able to give us all the information we wished. They said 
that Governor Abbott had lately left Post Vinceunes and gone to 
Detroit on some business of importance, and that Mr. Rocliblave 
commanded at Kaskaskia, etc.; that the militia was kept in 
good order, and spies on the Mississippi; and that all hunters, 
both Indians and others, were ordered to keep a good lookout 
for the rebels; that the fort was kept in good order as an 
asylum, etc., but that they believed the whole to proceed more 
from a fondness of parade than the expectation of a visit; that 
if they received timely notice of us, they would collect and give 
us a warm reception, as they were taught to harbor a most 
horrid idea of the barbarity of rebels, especially the Yirginians. 
but if we could surprise the place, which they were in hopes we 
might, they made no doubt of our being able to do as we pleased ; 
that they hoped to be received as partakers in the enterprise, 
and wished us to put fall confidence in them and they would 
assist the guides in conducting the party. This was agreed to, 
and they proved valuable men. * * * 

"Having everything prepared, we moved down to a little 
gulley a small distance above Massac, in which we concealed 
our boats, and set out on a northwest course. The weather was 
favorable; in some parts water was scarce as well as game; of 
course we suffered drouth and hunger, but not to excess. On 
the third day John Saunders, our principal guide, appeared 
confused, and we soon discovered that he was totally lost, or 
that he wished to deceive us. * * * The cry of the whole 
detachment was that he was a traitor. He begged that he might 
be suffered to go some distance into a plain that was in full 
view, to try to make some discovery whether or not he whs 
right. I told him that he might go, but that I was suspicious 
of him from his conduct; that from the first day of his being 
employed he alwaj^s said he knew the way well; that there was 
now a different appearance; that I saw the nature of the country 
was such that a person once acquainted with it could not, in a 
short time, forget; that a few men should go with him to pre- 


vent his escape; and that if he did not discovei" and take us 
into the lumter's road that led from the east into Kaskaskia, 
which he had frequently described, I would have him immedi- 
ately put to death, which I determined to have done; but after 
a search of an hour or two he came to a place he knew perfectly' 
well, and we discovered that the poor fellow had been as they 
called it, bewildered. On the 4th of July, in the evening, we 
got within a few miles of the town, where we lay till near dark, 
keeping spies ahead, after which we commenced our march and 
took possession of a house wherein a large family lived, on the 
bank of the Kaskaskia River, about three-quarters of a mile 
above the town. Here we were informed that the people a few 
days before were under arms, but had concluded that the cause 
of alarm was without foundation, and th:it at that time there 
was a great number of men in town, but that the Indians had 
generally left it, and at present all was quiet. We soon pro- 
cured a sufficiency of vessels, the more in case to convey us 
across the river. * * * "With one of the divisions I marched 
to the fort, and ordered the other two into different quarters of 
the town. If I met with no resistance, at a certain signal a 
general shout was to be given, and certain parts were to be 
immediately possessed, and the men of each detachment who 
could speak the French language were to run through every 
street and proclaim what had happened, and inform the inhabit- 
ants that every person who appeared on the street would be 
shot down. This disposition had the desired effect. In a very 
little time we had complete possession, and every avenue was 
guarded to prevent any escape to give the alarm to the other 
villages, in case of opposition. 

"the cai'tuee of kaskaskia. 

"Various orders were issued not worth mentioning. I do not 
suppose greater silence ever reigned among the inhabitants of a 
place than did at this at present; not a person to be seen, nor a 
word to be heard from tiiem for some time; but, designedly, 
the greatest noise kept up by our troops through every quarter 
of tlie town, and patrols continually the whole night around it, 
as intercepting any information, was a capital object, and in 
about two hours the whole of the inhabitants were disarmed and 
informed that if one was taken attempting to escape he would 
be immediately put to death. 


" On the taking of the town, a few of the principal men were 
iirrested and put in irons, but this was only designed to inspire 
a salutary terror. It was my policy first to excite the fears of 
the French inhabitants to a higli pitch, and then to surprise 
them and win their confidence by unexpected acts of justice and 
generosity. An opportunity for such action shortly occurred. 
The people, expecting to be separated never to meet again, 
besought Colonel Clarke, through the agency of their priest, 
JM. Gibault, that they might be permitted to assemble in their 
church to take their leave of each other.. The request I readily 
granted. I then," said Colonel Clarke, "at the same time took 
occasion to inform the priest that the religion of a people was a 
matter in which Americans did not interfere, but on all such 
questions left every man alone with his God. The people, I 
said, might assemble at the church, but upon the peril of their 
lives none should attempt to leave the town. Nearly the whole 
French population assembled at tlie church. At the close of 
the meeting a deputation, consisting of M. Gibault and others, 
waited upon me and said, ' that their present situation was the 
fate of war, and that they could submit to the loss of their 
property, but they solicited that they might not be separated 
from their wives and children, and that some clothes and 
provisions might be allowed for their support.' I answered 
them: 'Do you mistake us for savages? lam almost certain 
you do from your language. Do you think that Americans 
intend to strip women and children, or take the bread out of 
their mouths? M}' countrymen disdain to make war on help- 
less innocence. It was to prevent the horrors of Indian 
butchery upon our own wives and children that we have taken 
arms and penetrated into the remote stronghold of British and 
Indian barbarity, and not the despicable pi-ospect of plunder. 
That now the King of France had united his powerful arms with 
those of America, the war, in all probability, would not continue 
long. But the inhabitants of Kaskaskia were at liberty to take 
which side they pleased, without the least danger to either 
their property or their families. Nor would their religion bo 
:tn\' source of disagreement, as all religions were regarded with 
equal respect in the eye of American law, and that any insult 
oflfered to it would be immediately punished. And now to 
prove my sincerity you will please inform your fellow citizens 


that they are quite at liberty to conduct themselves as usual, 
without the least apprehension. I am now convinced, from what 
I have heard since my arrival, that you have been misinformed 
and prejudiced against us by British officers, and your friends 
who are in confinement shall be released.' The speech had its 
desired effect. In a few moments after its delivery expressions 
of joy took the place of the gloom which had rested upon the 
people. The news of the alliance of France with America, and 
the magnanimous conduct of their conqueror, had won them 
over to the American cause. The people, en masse, took the 
oath of allegiance to Virginia, their arms were restored and a 
volunteer company of French militia was formed, and joined a 
detachment under the command of Captain Bowman when that 
officer was dispatched to take Caliokia. The inhabitants of this 
village also took tlie oath of allegiance to Yirginia. 


" Post Yincennes was never out of my mind, and from some 
things I learned I had soon reason to suspeot that M. Gibault, 
the priest, was inclined to the American interest previous to 
(lur arrival in the country. He had great influence over the 
people at this period, and Post Vincennes was under his jurisdic- 
tion. I had no doubt of his integrity to us. I sent for him, 
and had a long conference with him on the subject of Post Vin- 
cennes. In answer to all my queries, lie inlbrmed me that he did 
not think it worth my while to cause any military preparations 
to be made at the Falls of the Ohio for the attack of Post Vin- 
cennes, although the place was strong and a great number of 
Indians in its neighborhood, who, to his knowledge, were gen- 
erally at war; that Governor Abbott had left the place a few 
weeks before on some business at Detroit; that he e.xpected 
when the inhabitants were fully acquainted with what had 
passed in Illinois and the present happiness of their friends, and 
were made fully acquainted with the nature of the war, that their 
sentiments would greatly change; that he knew his appearance 
then would have great weight, even among the savages; that if 
it was agreeable to me he would undertake the business him- 
self, and had no doubt of his being able to bring that place over 
to the American interest without my being to the trouble of 
marching against it; that his business being altogether spiritual. 


he wished that another person niiglit be charged witli the tem- 
poral part of tlie embassy, but he would privately direct the 
whole, and he named Dr. Lafont as liis associate. 

" This was perfectly agreeable, and what I had secretly been 
aiming at for some days. The plan of action was immediately 
settled, and the two doctors, with their intended retinue, among 
whom I had a spj', set about preparing for their journey, and set 
out on the lith of July, with an address to the inhabitants of 
Post Vincennes, authorizing them to garrison their own town 
themselves, which would convince them of the great confidence 
I put in them, etc. All this had the desired efftict. M. Gibault 
and his party arrived safe, and after their spending a day or two 
in explaining to the people they universally acceded to the pro- 
posal (except a few emissaries left by Governor Abbott, who im. 
mediately left the country) and went in a body to the church, 
where the oath of allegiance was administered to them in a most 
solemn manner. An officer was elected, the fort immediately 
garrisoned, and the American flag displayed, to the aitonisli- 
ment of the Indians, and everything settled far beyond our most 
sanguine hopes. Tiie people here immediately began to put on 
new faces, to talk in a diflerent style, and to act as perfect free- 
men. With a garrison of their own, and the United States at 
their elbow, their language to the Indians was immediately 
altered. They besan as citizens of the United States, and in- 
formed the Indians that their old father— the King of France — 
was come to life again, and was angry at them for fighting for 
the English: that they would advise tliem to make peace with 
the Americans as soon as they could, otherwise they might ex- 
pect the land to be very bloody, etc. 

" rrs CAPTCEE. 

"The Indians began to think seriously. Throughout the coun- 
try this was the language they got from their ancient friends of 
the "Wabash and Illinois. Through the means of their correspond- 
ence spreading among the nations, our batteries began to play 
in a proper channel. M. Gibault and party, accompanied by 
several gentlemen of Post Vincennes, returned to Kaskaskia 
about the 1st of August with the joyful news. During his ab- 
sence on this business, which caused great anxiety to me — for 
without the possession of this post all our prospects would have 


been blasted^I was exceedingly engaged in regulating things 
ill Illinois. The reduction of these posts was the period of the 
enlistment of our troops. I was at a great loss at this time to de- 
termine how to act and how far I might venture to strain my 
authority. My instructions were silent on many points of im- 
portance, as it was impossible to foresee the events tliat would 
take place. To abandon the country and all the prospects that 
opened to our view in the Indian department for the want of 
instructions in certain cases i thought would amount to a reiiec- 
tion on the Government as having no confidence in me. I re- 
solved to usurp all the authority necessary to carry my points. 
I had the greater of our troops re-enlisted on a different basis, 
commissioned French officers in the countrj' to command a com- 
pany of the young inhabitants, estal)lished a garrison at Caho- 
kia, commanded by Captain Bowman, and another at Kas- 
kaskia, commanded by Captain Williams. 

"Post Vincennes remained in the situation as mentioned. Colo- 
nel Wm. Linn, who had accompanied us as a volunteer, took 
clwrgo of a party that was to be discharged on their arrival at 
the Falls, and orders were sent to remove that post to the main 
land. Captain John Montgomery was dispatched to Govern- 
ment with letters. 

"I again turned my attention to Post Vincennes. I plainly saw 
that it would be necessary to have an American officer at that 
post, and as Captain Leonard Helm seemed the best calculated 
for the position, being past the meridian of life and a good deal 
acquainted with Indian disposition, I sent him to command at 
tliat post, and also appointed him agent for Indian afl'airs in 
the Department of the Wabash. He left for his command about 
the middle of August, where he arrived safe, and was received 
with acclamation by the people. After the ceremony was over 
he sent for Grand Door, a Piankeshaw chief, and delivered my 
letter to him. After having read it, he informed the Captain 
that he was happy to see him, one of the Big Knife chiefs, in 
this town. * * * He put on all the courtly dig- 

nity he was master of, and Captain Helm followed his example; 
it was several days before this business was finished, as the whole 
proceeding was very ceremonious. At length the Captain was 
invited to the Indian Council, and informed by the Tobacco 
(Grand Door) that they had maturely considered the case in 


hand and had got the nature of the war between the English ami 
lis explained to tlieir satisfaction; * * * that his ideas 
were quite changed, and that he would tell the red people on the 
Wabash to bloody the land no more for the English. He 
jumped up, struck his breast, called himself a man and a war- 
rior, said he was now a Big Knife, and took Captain Helm b}' 
the hand. His example was followed bj all present, and the 
evening was spent in merriment. Thus ended this valuable ne- 
gotiation and the saving of much blood. * * * In 
a short time, almost the whole of the various tribes of the differ- 
ent nations on the Wabash, as high as Ouiatenon, came to Post 
Vinceunes and followed the example of the Grand Door chief. 

* * * The British interests daily lost ground in this 
quarter. * * * In a short time, the Indians of 

the various tribes inhabiting the region of Illinois came in great 
numbers to Cahokia in order to make treaties of peace with us. 
* * * Those treaties, which commenced about 

the last of August and continued between three and four weeks, 
were probably conducted in a way different from any other known 
in America at that time. I had been always convinced that our 
general conduct with the Indians was wrong; that inviting them 
to treaties was considered by them in a different manner to 
what we expected, and imputed" by them to fear, and that giv- 
ing them great presents confirmed it. I resolved to guard 
against this, and took great pains to make mj'self acquainte 1 
with the French and Spanish methods of treating Indians and 
with the manners, genius, and disposition of the Indians in 

At the councils above referred to. Colonel Clarke concluded 
treaties of peace with the Illinois, Kickapoos, Kaskaskias, Peo- 
rias, Piankeshaws, Ouiatenons, and other tribes inhabiting the 
country between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi. 


Tidings of the great success of Colonel Clarke, and that the 
French inhabitants in Illinois and at Post Vincennes had taken 
the oath of .allegiance to the State of Virginia, induced the As- 
sembly of that Commonwealth, in October, 177S, to pass an aet 
containing the following provision: 

"All citizens of the Commonwealth of Virginia who are al- 


ready settled, or shall hereafter settle, on the western side of the 
Ohio, shall be included in a distinct county, which shall be called 
Illinois County; and the Governor of this Coininonwealth, with 
the advice of the council, may appoint a county lieutenant, or 
commandant-in-chief, in that county, during pleasure, who shall 
appoint and commission so many deputy commandants, militia 
officers and commissioners as he shall think proper, in the dif- 
ferent districts, during pleasure; ad of whom, before they enter 
into office, shall take the oath of fidelity to this Commonwealth 
and the oath of office, according to the form oF their own relig- 
ion. And all civil officers to which the people have been accus- 
tomed, necessary to the preservation of peace and the adminis- 
tration of justice, shall be chosen by a m'ljority of the citizens, 
in their respective districts, to be convened for that purpose by 
the county lieutenant or commandant, or his deputy, and shall 
be commissioned by said county lieutenant or commandant-in- 

This first attempt to organize the country west of the Ohio 
was, however, thwarted by the British again taking possession of 
Post Vincennes. On the 15th oi December, 1778, Henry Ham- 
ilton, British Lieutenant-General at Detroit, with an army of 
thirty regular troops, fifty Frenqh volunteers, and four hundred 
Indians, took possession of the post, made a prisoner of Captuiii 
Helm and disarmed a number of the French inhabitants. 

Butler, in his History of Kentucky, says: " When Governor 
Hamilton entered Vincennes, there were but two Americans 
there — Captain Helm, the Commandant, and one Henry. The 
latter had a cannon well charged and placed in the open fort 
gate, while Helm stood by it with a lighted match in his band. 
When Hamilton and his troops got within.hailing distance, the 
American officer, in a loud voice, cried out, 'Halt!' This 
stopped the movements of Hamilton, who, in reply, demanded 
a surrender of the garrison. Helm exclaimed, with an oatii, 
' No man shall enter till I know the terms.' Hamilton answered, 
' You shall have the honors of war.' And then the fort was sur- 
rendered with its garrison of one officer and one private." 


The capture of Post Vincennes by the British necessitated a 
campaign oq the part of Colonel Clarke, to retake the place. On 


the 2!)th of January, 1779, he received the following intelligence 
from a Spanish merchant, Francis Vigo, who had been at Post 
Yincennes and was returning to St. Louis: That Governor Ham- 
ilton had weakened himself by sending his Indians against the 
frontier and to block up the Ohio; that he had not more than 
eighty men in the garrison, three pieces of cannon and some 
swivels mounted; that the hostile Indians were to meet at Post 
Yincennes in the spring, drive us out of the Illinois and attack 
the Kentucky settlements iu a body, joined by their southern 
friends; that all the goods were taken from the merchants at Post 
Yincennes for the King's use; that the troops under Hamilton 
were repairing the fort, and expected a reinforcement from De- 
troit in the spring; that they appeared to have plenty of all kinds 
of stores; that they were strict in their discipline, but that he 
did not believe they were under much apprehension of a visit; 
and believed that if we could get there undiscovered we might 
take the place. 

"In short," says Clarke, " we got every information from the 
gentleman that we could wish for. We saw but one alternative, 
which was, to attack the enemy in their quarters. This met 
the ap]3robation of every individual belonging to us. Orders 
were immediately issued for preparation. The whole country 
took fire at the alarm, and every order was executed with cheer- 
fulness by every description of the inhabitants — preparing 
provisions, encouraging volunteers, etc., etc. — and, as we had 
plenty of stores, every man was completely rigged with what 
he could desire to withstand the cold weather. * * * 
To convey our artillery and stores, it was concluded to send a 
vessel round by water, so strong that she might force her way. 
A large Mississippi boat was immediately purchased and com- 
pletely fitted out as a galley, mounting two four-pounders and 
four large swivels. She was manned by forty-six men, under com- 
mand of Captain John Rogers. He set sail on the 4th of February, 
with orders to force his way up the Wabash as high as the mouth 
of White River and to secrete himself until further orders; but if 
he found himself discovered, to do the enemy all the damage he 
could, without running too great a risk of losing his vessel, and 
not to leave the river until he was out of hope of our arrival by 
land; but by all means to conduct himself so as to give no sus- 
picion of our approach by land. * * * 


" Everything being ready, on tlie 5th of February, after 
receiving a lecture and absolution from the priest, \ye 
crossed the Kaskasliia River with 170 men, marched about 
three miles and encamped, where we lay until the 7tli, and 
set out. The weather was wet, but fortunately not cold for the 
season, and a great part of the plains was under water several 
inches deep. It was difficult and very fatiguing marching. My 
object was now to keep the men in spirits. I suffered tliem to 
shoot game on all occasions, and feast on it like Indian war- 
dancers — each company by turns inviting the others to their 
feasts, which was the case every night, as the company that 
was to give the feast was always supplied with horses to lay up 
a sufficient store of wild meat in the course of the day — my- 
self and principal officers putting on the woodsmen, shouting 
now and then, and running as much through the mud and 
water as any of them. Thus, insensibly, without a murmur, 
were those men led on to the banks of the Little Wabash, 
which we reached on the 13th, through incredible difficulties, 
far surpassing anything that any of us had ever experienced. 
Fortunately the diversions of the night wore off tiie thoughts 
of the preceding day. AVe formed a camp on a heiglit which 
we found on the bank of the river, and suffered our troops to 
amuse themselves. I viewed this sheet of water for some time 
with distrust; but, accusing myself for doubting, I immediately 
set to work, wfthout holding any consultation about it, or suf- 
fering anybody else to do so in my presence, ordered a pi- 
rogue to be built immediately, and acted as though crossing 
the water would only be a piece of diversion. In the evening 
of the 14th our vessel was finished, manned and sent to ex- 
plore the drowned lands on the opposite side of the Little Wa- 
bash, with private instructions what report to make, and, if 
possible, to find some spot of dry land. They found about 
half an acre, and marked the trees from tlience back to the 
camp, and made a very favorable report. 

" Fortunately, the 15th happened to be a warm, moist day 
for the season. The channel of the river where we lay was 
about thirty yards wide. A scaffold was built on the opposite 
shore (which was about three feet under water), and our bag- 
gage ferried across and put on it; our horses swHin across, and 
received their loads at the scaffold, by which time the troops 

were also brouglit across, and we began our march through the 
water. * ' * * 

" By evening we found ourselves encamped on a pretty height 
in high spirits, each party hxughing at the other, in consequence 
of something that had happened during the course of this ferry- 
ing business, as they called it. A little antic drummer afforded 
tiiem great diversion by swimming on his drum. All this was 
greatl3' encouraged, and they really began to think themselves 
superior to other men, and that neither the rivers nor the sea- 
sons could stop their progress. They now began to view the 
main Wabash as a creek, and made no doubt but such men as 
they were could find a way to cross it. They wound themselves 
up to such a pitch that they soon took Post Viucennes, divided 
the spoil, and before bed time were far advanced on their route 
to Detroit. All this was no doubt pleasing to those of us who 
had more serious thoughts. * * * ^g yyefg 

now convinced that the whole of the low country on the 
Wabash was droAvned, and that the enemy could easily get to 
us, if they discovered us and wished to risk an action; if they 
did not, we made no doubt of crossing the river by some means 
or other. Even if Captain Rogers with his galley did not go to 
his station agreeably to his appointment, we flattered ourselves 
that all would be well, and marched on in liigh spirits." 

Major Bowman's manuscript journal, quoted by Dillon, gives 
the following account of the army up to the last "da}'' s march: 

"February 16th, 1779. — Marched all day through rain and 
water. Crossed the Fur Kiver. Provisions begin to be short. 

" I7th. — Marched early; ci-ossed several runs very deep; sent 
Mr. Kernedy, our Commissar}', with three men, to cross the river 
Embarrass, if possible, and proceed to a plantation opposite 
Vincennes, in order to steal boats or canoes, to ferry us across 
the Wabash. About an hour by sun we got near the river Em- 
barrass; found the country all overflowed with water. We 
strove to find the Wabash. Traveled till eight o'clock in mud 
and water; found no place to camp on; still kept marching; but 
after some time Mr. Kernedy and his party returned. Found 
it impossible to cross the Embarrass River. Found the water 
falling from a small spot of ground. Stayed there the remain- 
der of the night. Drizzly and dark n-eather. 


"ISth. — At daybreak heard Govenor Hamilton's morning 
gun. * * * About two o'clock came to the bank 
of the Wabash; made rafts for four men to cross, and go up to 
town to steal boats, but they spent the day and night in the 
water to no purpose; not one foot of dry land to be found. 

" 19th. — Captain McCarthy's company set to making a canoe. 
At three o'clock the four men returned, after spending the night 
on some logs in the water. The canoe finished; Captain Mc- 
Carthy, with three of his men, embarked in the canoe and made 
tlie next attempt to steal boats, but soon returned, having dis- 
covered four large fires about a league distant from our camp; 
they seemed to be fires of whites and Indians. Immediately 
Colonel Clarke sent two men in the canoe down to meet the gal- 
ley, with orders to come on day and night — that being our last 
hope, and we starving. Many of the men much cast down, par- 
ticularly the volunteers. No provisions of any sort now two 
days. Hard fortune. 

"20th. — Camp very quiet, but hungry. Some almost in de- 
spair. Many of the Creole volunteers talking of returning. Fail 
to making more canoes; about two o'clock our sentry on the 
river brought to a boat with five Frenchmen from the fort, who 
told us we were not as yet discovered — that the inhabitants were 
well disposed toward us. * * » They in- 

formed us of two canoes they had seen adrift some distance 
above us. Ordered that Captain Worthington, with a party, go 
in search of them. Returned late with one only. One of our 
men killed a deer, which was brought into camp very ac- 

"21st. — At daybreak began to ferry our men over the 
Wabash in two canoes to a small hill called the Mamelle. * 
* * The whole army being over, we thought to get 
to town 'that night, and so plunged into the water, sometimes to 
the neck for more than one league, when we stopped on a hill 
of the same name, there being no dry land on any side of us 
for many leagues. Our pilots say we cannot get along — that 
it is impossible. The whole army being over, we encamped. 
Rain all this day. No provisions." 

"This last day's march through the water," says Colonel 
Clarke, "was far superior to anything the Frenchmen had any 
idea of. They were backward in speaking — said the nearest 


land to us was a small league called the Sugar Camp, on tbe 
bank of the river. A canoe was sent off, and returned without 
tiading that we could pass. I went in her mj'self, and sounded 
tlie water; found it deep as to my neck. I returned with the 
design to have tlie men transported on board the canoes to the 
Sugar Camp, which I knew would spend the whole day and en- 
suing night, as the vessels would pass slowly through the 
bushes. The loss of so much time to men half-starved was a 
matter of consequence. I would have given now a great deal 
for a day's provision, or for one of our hoises. I returned 
slowly to the troops, giving myself time to think. On our ar- 
rival all ran to hear what was the report. Every eye was fixed 
on me. I unfortunately spoke in a serious manner to one of 
the officers; the whole were alarmed without knowing what I 
said. I viewed their confusion for about one minute — whis- 
pered to those near me to do as I did — immediately put some 
water in my hand, poured on powder, blacked my face, gave 
the war-whoop, and marched into the water, without saying a 
word. The party gazed, and fell in one after another, without 
saying a word, like a flock of sheep. I ordered those near me 
to begin a favorite song of theirs; it soon passed through the 
line, and the whole went on cheerfully. I now intended to have 
them transported across the deepest part of the water, but when 
about waist-deep, one of the men informed me that he thought 
he felt a path. We examined and found it so, and concluded 
that it kept on the highest ground, which it did; and by taking 
pains to follow it, we got to the Sugar Camp without the least 
difficulty, where there was abor.t half an acre of dry ground, at 
least not under water, where we took up our lodging. 

"The Frenchmen that we had taken on the river appeared to 
be uneasy at our situation. They begged that they might bo 
permitted to go in the two canoes to town, in the night. They 
said they would bring from their own houses provisions, without 
a possibility of any one knowing it; that some of our men 
should go with them as surety of their good conduct. Some of 
the officers believed that it might be done. I would not suffer 
it. I never could well account for this jiiece of obstinacy, and 
give satisfactory reasons to myself or anybody else why I denied 
a proposition apparently so easy to execute, and of so much 
advantage; but something seemed to tell me that it should not 
be done, and it was not done." 


The most trying ordeal was yet to be passed. From the point 
which the army occupied that night they had to cross the plain 
through deep water to the woods in the distance. Colonel 
Clarke, in a speech to them, concluded by saying that, passing 
the plain, which was then in full view, and reaching the oppo- 
site woods, would put an end to all their fatigue; that in a few 
hours they would have a sight of their long-wished-for object, 
and immediately stei)ping into the water, led the way. The 
army began to cheer, faint and fatigued as they were. The nar- 
rative proceeds: "As we generally marched through the water 
in a line, before the third entered I halted and called to Major 
Bowman, ordering him to fall in the rear with twenty-live men 
and put to death any man^who refused to march, as we wished 
to have no such person among us. The whole gave a cry of 
approbation, and on we w6nt. This was the most trying of all 
the difficulties we had experienced. I generally kept iifteen or 
twenty of the strongest men near myself, and judged from my 
own feelings what must be those of others. Getting about the 
middle of the plain, the water about mid-deep, I found myself 
sensibly failing; and as there were no trees or bushes for the men 
to support themselves by, I feared that many of the most weak 
would be drowned. I ordered the canoes to make the land, dis- 
charge their loading, and ply backward and forward with all 
diligence, and pick up the men; and, to encourage the party, 
sent some of the strongest men forward with orders, when they 
got to a certain distance to pass the word back that the water 
was getting shallow, and, when getting near the woods, to cry 
out 'Land!' This stratagem had its desired eftect. The men, 
encouraged by it, exerted themselves almost beyond their 
abilities — the weak holding by the stronger. * * * Tiie 
water never got shallower, but continued deepening. Getting 
to the woods, where the men expected land, the water -vas up 
to my shoulders, but gaining the woods was of great conse- 
quence; all the low men and the weakly hung to the trees and 
floated on the logs, and they were taken off by the canoes. The 
strong and the tall got ashore and built fires. Many would 
reach the shore and fall with their bodies half in the water, not 
being able to support themselves without it. 

"This was a delightful dry spot of ground, of about ten acres. 
We soon found that the fires answered no purpose, but thai two 


strong men taking a weaker one by the arms was the only way 
to recover him, and being a delightful day it soon did so. But 
fortunately, as if designed by Providence, a canoe of Indian 
squaws and children was coming up to town, and took through 
part of this plain as a nigh way. It was discovered by our 
canoes as they were out after men. They gave chase and took 
the Indian canoe, on board of which was near half a quarter of 
a buffalo, some corn, tallow, kettles, etc. This was a grand 
prize, and was invaluable. * * * 

"Crossing a narrow, deep lake, in the canoes, and marching 
some distance, we came to a copse of timber called the Warrior's 
Island. We were now in full view of the fort and town, not a 
shrub between us, at about two miles' distance. * * * Our 
situation was now truly critical — no possibility of retreating in 
case of defeat, and in full view of a town that had at this 
time upward of 600 men in it, troops, inhabitants and 
Indians. The crew of the galley, though not fifty men, would 
iiave been now a reinforcement of immense magnitude to our 
little army (if I may so call it), but we would not think of them. 
We were now in the situation that I had labored to get ourselves 
in. The idea of being made prisoners was foreign to almost 
every man, as they expected nothing but torture from the 
savages if they fell into their hands. * * * I knew that a 
number of the inhabitants wished us well, that many were luke- 
warm to the interests of either, and I also learned that the 
grand chief, the Tobacco's son, had but a few days before openly 
declared, in council with the British, that he was a brother and 
friend of the Big Knives. These were favorable circumstances; 
and as there was little probability of our remaining till dark 
undiscovered, I determined to begin the career immediately, 
and wrote the following placard to the inhabitants: 
•' ' 5o the Inhahltanfs of Post Yincennes: 

" ' Gentlemen — Being now within two miles of your village 
with my army, determined to take your fort this night, and not 
being willing to surprise you, I take this method to request 
such of you as are true citizens, and willing to enjoy the libert}' 
I bring you, to remain still in your houses. And those, if any 
there be, that are friends to the King, will instantly repair to 
the fort and join the hair-buyer General, and fight like men. 
And if any such as do not go to the fort shall be discovereil 


afterward, they may depend on severe punishment. On the 
contrary, those who are true friends of liberty may depend on 
being well treated; and I once more request them to keep out 
of the streets. For every one I find in arms on my arrival I 
shall treat him as an enemy. 

" ' [Signed] G. E. CLA KKE.' 

" The little army moved in, in the evening, and took posses- 
sion of the strongest parts of the town. Lieutenant Bayley was 
ordered, with fourteen men, to march and fire on the fort. So 
complete was the surprise, that the garrison did not suspect the 
presence of an enemy till one of their men was shot down 
through a port-hole. ' We now found,' says Colonel Clarke, 
' that the garrison had known nothing of us; that, having fin- 
ished the fort that evening, they had amused themselves at 
different games, and had just retired before ray letter arrived, as 
it was near roll call. The placard being made public, many of 
the inhabitants were afraid to show themselves out of their 
houses for fear of giving offense, and not one dared give infor- 
mation. * * * 

" The Tobacco's sou. being in town with a number of war- 
riors, immediately mustered them, and let us know that he 
wished to join us, saying that by the morning he would have 
100 men. The garrison was soon completely surrounded, 
and the firing continued without intermission (except about fif- 
teen minutes, a little before day) until about 9 o'clock the 
following morning. Colonel Clarke then sent a messenger with 
a letter demanding the surrender of the garrison. Lieutenant- 
Governor Hamilton, in reply, begged 'leave to acquaint Colonel 
Clarke that he and his garrison were not disposed to be awed into 
any action unworthy British subjects.' Upon the receipt of this 
answer, the firing upon the fort was renewed, and cotitinued till 
toward evening on the 2ith of February, when a flag was sent 
from Hamilton requesting a truce for tliree days. Colonel Clarke 
refused to grant it, informing Hamilton that he would agree to 
no other terms than his ' surrender of himself and garrison as 
prisoners at discretion.' He added in his note: 'If Mr. Ham- 
ilton is desirous of a conference with Colonel Clarke, he will 
meet him at the church with Captain Helm.'" The following is 
Colonel Clarke's account of the meeting: 

" We met at the church, about eighty yards from the fort— 


Lieuteuant-Goveraor Hamilton, Major Hay, Superintendent of 
Indian Aiiairs; Captain Helm, their prisoner; Major Bowman, 
and mj'self. The conference began. Hamilton produced terms 
of capitulation, signed, that contained various articles, one of 
wliich was that the garrison should be surrendered on their 
being permitted to go to Pensacola on parole. A.fter deliberat- 
ing on every article, I rejected the whole. He then wished I 
would make some proposition. I told him I had no other to 
make than what I had already made — that of his surrender- 
ing as prisoners at discretion. * * * Various alterca- 
tions took place for a considerable time. Captain Helm at- 
tempted to moderate our lixed determination. I told him he 
was a British prisoner, and it was doubtful whether or not he 
could with propriety speak on the subject. Hamilton then said 
that Captain Helm was from that moment liberated, and could 
use his pleasure. I informed the Captain that I would not re- 
ceive him on such terms — that he must return to the garrison 
and await his fate. I then told Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton 
that hostilities should not commence until five minutes after the 
,drums gave the alarm. We tjok our leave, and parted but a 
few steps, when Hamilton stopped, and politely asked me if I 
would be so kind as to give him my reasons for refusing the 
garrison on any other terms than those I had otiered. I told 
him I had no objections to giving him my real reasons, which 
were simply these: That I knew the greater part of the princi- 
pal Indian partisans of Detroit were with him; that I wanted an 
excuse to put tliem to death, or otherwise treat them as I 
thought proper; that the cries of the widows and the fatherless, 
on the frontiers, which they had occasioned, now required their 
blood from my hands, and that I did not choose to be so timor- 
ous as to disobey the absolute commands of their authority, 
which I looked upon to be next to- divine; that I would rather 
lose fifty men than not empower myself to execute this piece of 
business with propriety; that if he chose to risk the massacre of 
liis garrison for their sakes, it was his own pleasure; and that I 
might, perhaps, take it into my head to send for some of those 
widows to see it executed. Major Hay, paying great attention, 
I had observed a kind of distrust in his countenance, which, in 
a great measure, influenced my conversation at the time. On my 
concluding, 'Pray, sir,' said he, ' who is it that you call Indian 


partisans?' ' Sir,' I replied,'! take Major Hay to be one of 
the principal.' I never saw a man, in the moment of execution, 
so struck as he appeared to be — pale, trembling, and scarcely 
able to stand. Hamilton blushed, and, I observed, was much 
affected at his behavior. Major Bowman's countenance suffi- 
ciently explained his disdain for the one and his sorrow for the 

In the course of the afternoon of the 2ith of February, 1779, 
the following articles were signed and the garrison capitulated: 

"I. Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton engages to deliver up to 
Colonel Clarke Fort Sackville, as it is at present, with all the 
stores, etc. 

" II. The garrison are to deliver themselves as prisoners of 
war, and march out with their arms, accoutrements, etc. 

''III. The garrison to be delivered up at 10 o'clock to-mor- 

"IV. Three days' time to be allowed the garrison to settle 
their accounts with the inhabitants and traders of the place. 

" V. The officers of the garrison to be allowed their necessary 
baggage, etc. 

" Signed at Post St. Vincent (Vincennes), Feb. 2i, 1779. 

"Agreed to for the following reasons: The remoteness from 
succor; the state and quantity of provisions, etc.; unanimity of 
officers and men in its expediency; the honorable terms allowed; 
and, lastly, the confidence in a generous enemy. 

"[Signed] Henry Hamilton, 

^'■Lieutenant-Governor and Superintendent.^^ 

About 10 o'clock, on the 25th, the garrison, consisting of 
seventy-nine men, was formally surrendered. 

On the day following the surrender of the garrison. Colonel 
Clarke sent a detachment, under command of Captain Helm, up 
the Wabash River to intercept some British boats laden with 
provisions and goods from Detroit. The expedition proceeded 
up the river in three armed boats about 120 miles, when the 
British boats, seven in number, were surprised and captured 
without firing a gun. The goods and provisions on board 
amounted in value to about £10,000, and were chiefly distribu- 
ted among the soldiers. 

On the 20th of March, 1779, Colonel Clarke took his depart- 
ure from Post Vincennes for Kaskaskia, on board of the galley 
which had been sent from that place at the commencement of 


the campaign. Before leaving Post Yincenues, he made the fol- 
lowing appointments: Lieutenant Richard Brashear, Com- 
mandant of the garrison, which consisted of Lieutenants 
Bayley and Chapline and forty picked men; Captain Leonard 
Helm, Commandant of the town and Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs; Moses Henry, Indian Agent, and Patrick Kennedy, 

Shortly after Colonel Clarke's arrival at Kaskaskia, ho was in- 
formed by Captain Helm that a part of the Delaware nation, at 
the Forks of White Eiver, had killed and plundered a party of 
men, on their way to the Falls of the Ohio. "I was sorry," 
says Clarke, "for the loss of the men, otherwise pleased at what 
had happened, as it would give me an opportunity of showing 
the other Indians the horrid fate of those who would dare to 
make war on the Big Knife; and to excel them in barbarity I 
knew was, and is, the only way to make war and gain a name 
among the Indians. I immediately sent orders to Post Vin- 
cennes to make war on the Delawares — to show no kind of 
mercy to the men, but to spare the women and children. This 
order was executed without delay. Their camps were attacked in 
every quarter where they could be found. Many fell, and oth- 
ers were brought to Post Yincenues and put to death, the women 
and children secured, etc. They immediately applied for recon- 
ciliation, but were informed that I had ordered the war, * * * 
and that they dare not lay down the tomahawk without permis- 
sion from me; but that if the Indians were agreed, no more 
blood should be spilt until an express could go to Kaskaskia, 
which was immediately sent. I refused to make peace with the 
Delawares, and let them know that we never trusted those who 
had once violated their faith, but that if they had a mind to he 
quiet, they might; and if they could get any of the neighboring 
Indians to be security for their good behavior, I would let them 
alone, but that I cared very little about it, etc. — privately di- 
recting Captain Helm" how to manage." 

Colonel Clarke and his men had entertained the project ot 
taking the post at Detroit from the British. From the time of 
the capture of Post Yincenues, circumstances favoring, this was 
looked to as ihe ulterior object of all their movements, but cir- 
cumstances did not prove favorable, and the plan was aban- 
doned. They were to concentrate the forces and supplies at Post 


" Early in June," says Clarke, "Colonel Montgomery was dis- 
patched by water with the whole of our stores; Major Bowman 
marched the remainder of our troops by land; myself, with a 
party of horse, reached Post Vincennes in four days, where the 
whole safely arrived in a short time after. Instead of 300 men 
from Kentucky (as had been expected), tliere appeared about 
thirty volunteers commanded by Captain McGary. The loss of 
the expedition was too obvious to hesitate aliout it — Colonel 
Bowman had turned his attention against the Shawnee towns and 
got repulsed and his men discouraged. * * * 

"Arranging things to the best advantage was now my prin- 
cipal study. The troops were divided between Post Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia, Cahokia and the Falls of the Ohio. Colonel Mont- 
gomery was 9.ppointed to the eominaud of the Illinois; Major 
Bowman to superintend the recruiting business; a number of 
(liEcers were appointed to that service, and myself to take up 
my quarters at the Falls, as the most convenient spot to have 
an eye over the whole." 

On the 2d of July, 17S3, General George Rogers Clarke was 
dismissed from the service of Virginia. On this occasion, Hon. 
Benjamin Harrison, Governor of Virginia, paid the following 
deserved .tribute to the services of General Clarke: " Before I 
take my leave of you, I feel myself called upon, in the most 
forcible manner, to return you my thanks, and thoseof my coun- 
cil, for the very great and singular services you have rendered 
your country, in wresting so great and valuable a territory 
out of the hands of the British enemy, repelling the attacks of 
their savage allies, and carrying on a successful war in the heart 
of their country. This tribute of praise and thanks so justly 
due, I am happy to communicate to you, as the united voice of 
the Executive." 

Clarke's ingenious ruse against the Indians. 

Tradition says that when Clarke captured Hamilton and his 
garrison at Fort Sackville, he took possession of the fort and kept 
the British flag flying, dressed his sentinels with the uniform of 
the British soldiery, and let everything about the premises re- 
main as it was, so that when the Indians sympathizing with 
the British arrived they would walk right into the citadel, into 
the jaws of death. His success was perfect. Sullen and silent, 
with the scalp-lock of his victims hanging at his girdle, and in 


full expectation of his reward from Hamilton, the unwary sav- 
age, unconscious of danger and wholly ignorant of the change 
tliat liad just been eflPected in his absence, passed the supposed 
British sentry at the gate of the fort unmolested and unchal- 
lenged, but as soon as in, a volley from the rifles of a platuon of 
Clarke's men, drawn up and awaiting his coming, pierced their 
liearts, and sent the unconscious savage, reeking with murder, 
to that tribunal to which he had so frequently, by order of the 
hair-buyer General, sent his American captives, from the infant 
in the cradle to the grandfather of thefomily, tottering with age 
and infirmity. It was a just retribution, and few men but 
Clarke would have planned such a ruse or carried it out so suc- 
cessfully. It is reported that fifty Indians met this fate within 
the fort; and probably Hamilton, a prisoner there, witnessed it all. 


Henry Hamilton, who had acted as Lieutenant and Governor 
of the British possessions under Sir George Carleton, was sent 
forward, with two other prisoners of war, Dejean and La Mothe, 
to Williamsburg, Va,., early in June following, 1779. Procla- 
mations in his own handwriting were found, in which he had 
ofi"ered a specific sum for every American scalp brought into the 
camp, either by his own troops or his allies, the Indians; and 
from this he was denominated " the hair-buyer General." Tliis 
and much other testimony of living witnesses at the time all 
showed what a savage he was. Thomas Jefl'urson, then Governor 
of Virginia, being made aware of the inhumanity of this wretch, 
concluded to resort to a little retaliation by way of closer confine- 
ment. Accordingly he ordered that these three prisoners be put 
in irons, confined in a dungeon, deprived of the use of pen, ink 
and paper, and be excluded from all conversation except with 
their keeper. Major-General Phillips, a British officer out on 
parole in the vicinity of Charlottesville, where the prisoners now 
were, in closer confinement, remonstrated, and President Wash- 
ington, while approving of Jeflferson's course, requested a miti- 
gation of the severe order, lest the British be goaded to desperate 

Soon afterward Hamilton was released on parole, and he subse- 
quently appeared in Canada, still acting as if he had jurisdiction 
in the United States. 



The Siege of Fokt AVayne. — ^The Siege Raised by General 
Harrison. — Cession of the Northwest Territory by Vir- 
ginia. — Civil Organization. — Indian Cruelty. — Hinton, 
Rue and Holm an. — Their Capture. — The Treaty of Paris, 
France. — The Governmknt Owned It. — Ordinance of 
1787. — Its Authors. — Thomas Jefferson and Dr. Manas- 
seh Cutler. — Sale of Land in the jS^orthwest Territory. — 
The First Sale in 1787, in New York. — The Next July 1, 
1801, at Steubenville, Ohio. 

the siege of fort wayne. 
Fort Wayne, erected in 1794, by order of General Anthony 
Wayne on his memorable campaign, became a point of some 
importance, and was besieged by the Indians and came near fall- 
ing into their hands, in the war of 1812. The Indians had a 
settlement there which was called Kekionga, but when the fort 
was built it was given the name of Fort Wayne, after the Gen- 
eral, by Lieutenant-Colonel Hamtranck, since which it has been 
so called, and a large, prosperous and wealthy town has grown 
where once the savage contested for supremacy. Colonel Ham- 
tranck coniiiiaiKled at Fort Wayne from 1794 to 1796. 

Detroit, Mich., having been captured by the British forces, the 
famous Indian Chief Tecumseh proposed to also capture Fort 
Wayne and Fort Harrison, the latter on the Wabash, and near 
tlie site of Terre Haute. He began assembling his warriors 
in September, 1812, not far from his intended scene of opera- 
tions. These actions on the part of the great Chief did not es- 
cape the notice of the garrison. The success of the British at 
Detroit, the shameful surrender of Hull, all gave contidence to 
both the British forces and their Indian allies. They were 
therefore ready to strike another blow for conquest, and Fort 
Wayne was selected as the first place to capture. 


The garrison at Fort Wayne, at this time, was under the com- 
mand of Captain Ehea, "whose habits of intemperance," says 
Mr. Knapp, "disqualified him for the place; and during a pe- 
riod of two weeks the safety of the fort, principally owing to the 
incompetency of the commander, was in jeopardy." 

An express had been sent to General Harrison, requesting 
reinforcements, but many long weary days passed, bringing no 
tidings of the expected assistance. At length, one day a white 
man and four Indians arrived at the fort on horseback. The 
white man was Major William Oliver. He was accompanied 
by four friendly Indians, among whom was the brave Logan. 
The garrison had been in a state of cruel suspense for more than 
two weeks, wishing ardently for reinforcements on the one hand, 
and fearfully expecting the approach of the British forces on the 
other. It is not surprising, then, that in this extremity they 
were anxious to hear news from any quarter. 

The little party, with Oliver at its head, had reached the 
fort in defiance of 500 Indians — "had broken their ranks 
and reached the fort in safety." Oliver reported that Harrison, 
having been informed of the dangerous situation of Fort Wayne, 
had determined to march to its relief Ohio was raising volun- 
teers. Eight hundred were then assembled at St. Mary's, Ohio, 
sixty miles south of Fort Wayne, and would march to the relief 
of the fort in three or four days, or as soon as they were joined 
by reinforcements from Kentucky. Oliver prepared a letter, 
aimouncing to General Harrison liis safe arrival at the besieged 
fort, and giving an account of its beleagured situation, which he 
dispatched by his friendly Shawanees, while he determined to 
take his chances with the occupants of the post. As soon as an 
opportunity presented itself, the brave Logan and his compan- 
ions started with the message to Governor Harrison. They had 
scarcely left the fort when they were discovered and pursued by 
the hostile Indians, but passing the Indian lines in safety, they 
were soon out of reach. 

The Indians now began a furious attack upon the fort, but tlie 
little garrison, with Oliver to cheer them on, bravely met the 
assault, repelling the attack day after day, until the army ap- 
proached to their relief During this siege the commanding 
officer, whose habits of intemperance rendered him unfit for the 
command, was confined in the "black-hole," and the junior 


officer assumed charge. This course was approved by the Gen- 
eral, on his arrival, but Captain Rhea received but little cen- 
sure, undoubtedly owing to his services in the Revolutionarj'- 
war. In those days, to have been a gallant officer in the Revo- 
lutionary war was, to official imperfections, as charit}' is to sins. 

On the 6th of September the army under General Hari-i- 
son moved forward to relieve Fort Wayne. On the 7th it 
reached a point to within three miles of the St. Mary's River, 
making the remaining distance to the river on the 8th, on the 
eve of which they were joined by over 200 mounted vol- 
unteers, under Colonel Richard M- Johnson. On the 9th the 
army marched eighteen miles, reaching " Shane's crossing," on 
the St. Mary's, where it was joined by SOO men from Ohio, 
under Colonels Adams and Hawkins. At this place Chief 
Logan and four other Indians offered their services as spies to 
General Harrison, and were accepted. Logan was immediately 
disguised and sent forward. Passing through the lines of the 
hostile Indians, he ascertained their number to be about 1,500, 
and entering the fort he encouraged the soldiers to hold out, as 
relief was at hand. General Harrison's force, at this time, was 
about 3,500. "Friday morning," says Mr. Knapp, '-we 
were under marching orders, after an early breakfast. It had 
rained, and the guns were damp; we were ordered to dis- 
charge them and reload, as we were then getting into the 
vicinity of the enemy, and knew not how soon we might be 
attacked. A strong detachment of spies, under Captain James 
Snggett, of Scott County, Ohio, marched considerably ahead of 
the army. Indications of the enemy having advanced from 
their position at Fort "Wayne, for the purpose of watching the 
movements of our army, were manifest, and Captain Suggett 
came upon the trail of a large party, which he immediately 
pursued. After following the trail for some distance, he was 
fired on by an Indian who had secreted liimself in a clump uf 
bushes so near to Suggett that the powder burnt his clothes, 
but the ball missed him. The Indian jumped from his covert 
and attempted to escape, but Andrew Johnson, of Scott County, 
Ohio, shot him." 

On the return of Suggett's party, a breastwork was erected 
in expectation of an attack from the Indians, but the night 
passed with repeated alarms but no formidable onset. 


Mr. Bryce, in his history, tells us that on the 10th of Sep- 
tember the army expected to reach Fort Wayne, but thought, 
in all probability, that the march would be a fighting one, as 
the Indians were encamped directly on their route at the 
Black Swamp, but this expectation was happily disappointed, 
as "at the first gray of the morning of tlie 10th of September, 
the distant halloos of the disappointed savages revealed to the 
anxious inmates of the fort the glorious news of the approach 
of the army. Great clouds of dust could be seen from the fort, 
rolling up in the distance, as the valiant soldiery under Gen- 
eral Harrison moved forward to the rescue of the garrison, 
and soon after daybreak the army stood before the fort. The 
Indians had bea^, a retreat to the eastward and northward, 
and the air about the old fort resounded with the glad shouts 
of welcome to General Harrison and the brave boys of Ohio 
and Kentucky." 

This siege of Fort Wayne occasioned great inconvenience 
and considerable loss to the few settlers who had gathered 
around the fort. At the date of its commencement there was 
quite a little village clustered around the military works, but 
with the first demonstrations of the enemy, the occupants of 
these dwellings fled within the fort, leaving their improve- 
ments to be destroyed by the savages. Every building out of 
the reach of the guns of the fort was leveled to the ground, and 
thus was the infant settlement totally destroyed. 

Daring the siege the garrison lost but three men, while the 
Indians lost about twenty-five. There was a plenty of provis- 
ions in the fort, and the soldiers sufi'ered only from anxiety and 
a fear of slaughter at the hands of the savages. 


The movement of General Harrison for the relief of the gar- 
rison is taken from the writings of Knapp and Bryce. It makes 
interesting reading even at this day. It says: 

"The second day following the arrival of the army at Fort 
Wayne, General Harrison sent out two detachments, with the 
view of destroying the Indian villages in the region of country 
lying some miles around Fort Wayne, the first division being 
composed of the regiments under Colonels Lewis and Allen, 
and Captain Garrard's troop of horse, under General Payne, 


accompanied by General Harrison. The second division, under 
Colonel Wells, accompanied by a battalion of his own regi- 
ment under Major Davenport (Scott's regiment), the mounted 
battalion under Johnson, and the mounted Ohio men under 
Adams. These expeditions were all successful; and after the 
return of the divisions under Paj^ne and Wells, General Har- 
rison sent them to destroy Little Turtle Town, some twenty 
miles northwest of the fort, with orders not to molest build- 
ings formerly erected by the United States for the benefit of 
Little Turtle, whose friendship for the Americans liad ever been 
firm after the treaty of Greenville. Colonel Simrall most faith- 
fully performed the task assigned him, and on the evening of the 
19th returned to the fort. 

" In addition to these movements. General Harrison took 
IM-eeaution to remove all the undergrowth in the locality sur- 
rounding the fort, extending toward the confluence of the St. 
Joseph and St. Mary, to where now stands Rudisill's mill, and 
westward as far as St. Mary, to the point where now stands the 
Fort Wayne College; thence southeast to about the point of the 
ri'sidence of the late Allen Hamilton; and to the east down the 
Maumee a short distance. And so well cleared was the ground, 
including a very large part of the entire limits of the present site 
of the city of Fort Wayne, that it was said by those who were 
here at that early day, and to a later period, a sentinel 'on the 
bastions of the fort looking westward could see a rabbit run- 
ning across the grounds as far as so small an object was discern- 
ible to the naked eye.' The seclusive points were thus cut off, 
and the Indians now had no longer any means of concealing 
their approach upon the fort. Some thirty or forty acres of 
what is now known as the Cole farm, extending to the junction 
of the rivers, and just opposite the Maumee, was then known as 
the Public Meadow, which, of course was then, as it had long 
before been, a considerable open space. The soldiers were tiiiis 
readily enabled to observe the approach of any hostile movement 
against the fort, and to open the batteries, with formidable effect, 
upon any advance that might be made against the garrison from 
any direction." 

It will be observed that Fort Wayne, up to this period, and for 
several years after, was but little else than a military post. This 
may be said of it during the whole psriod of its existence, or 


from 1705, when the first French stockade was erected, until the 
evacuation of Fort Wayne in 1819. During this time it had 
been in charge of different commanders. Captain Hngli Moore 
succeeded Captain Rhea in 1812, who, in 1813, was superseded 
by Josepli Jenkinson. In the spring of 1814 Major Whistler 
took charge of the post and repaired it, or built an addition 
to it, which he occupied until 1817, when he was succeeded by 
Major J . H. Vase, who held the command until the post was 
permanently evacuated in 1819. 


At the treaty between Great Britain and the United States, 
in 1783, the former ceded to the latter all her possessions on the 
east side of the Mississippi River. At the same time Great 
Britain ceded to Spain all the Floridas, comprising all the ter- 
ritory east of the Mississippi and south of the southern limits of 
the United States, as the latter was then bounded. The great 
territory northwest of the Ohio River belonged to the State of 
Virginia. On the 2d of January, 17S1, the General Assembly 
of Virginia had passed a resolution that, on certain conditions, 
they would cede to Congress, for the benefit of the United States, 
all the right, title and claim of Virginia to the territory north- 
west of the Ohio. Congress, by an act of the 13th of September, 
1783, agreed to accept the territory. The General Assembly of 
Virginia, on the 20th of December, 1783, authorized her dele- 
gates in Congress to make the cession of the territory to the 
United States. This was carried into effect on the first day of 
March, 1784. At this date Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Hardy, 
Arthur Lee and James Monroe, delegates in Congress on the 
part of Virginia, executed the deed of cession with the following 
conditions: "That the territory so ceded shall be laid out and 
formed into States, containing a suitable extent of territory, not 
less than one hundred nor more than one hundred and fifty 
miles square; or as near thereto as circumstances will admit; 
and that the States so formed shall be distinct Republican States, 
and admitted members of the Federal Union, having the same 
rights of sovereignt}', freedom and independence as the other 
States. That the necessary and reasonable expenses incurred by 
Virginia, in subduing any British posts, or in maintaining forts 
and garrisons within, and for the defense, or in acquiring any 


part of the territory so ceded or relinquished, shall be fully re- 
imbursed by the United States. That the French and Canadian 
inhabitants, and other settlers of Kaskaskia, Post Yincennes 
and the neighboring villages, who have professed themselves 
•citizens of Virginia, shall have their possessions and titles con- 
iirmed to them, and be protected in the enjoyment of their rights 
and liberties. That a quantity not exceeding fifty thousand acres 
of hind, promised by Virginia, shall be allowed and granted to 
the then Colonel, now General, George Rogers Clarke, and to 
the officers and soldiers of his regiment, who marched with him 
when the posts of Kaskaskia and Vincennes were reduced, and 
to the officers and soldiers that have since been incorporated 
into said regiment, to be laid off in one tract, the length of which 
not to exceed double the breadth, in such place on the northwest 
side of the Ohio as a majority of the officers shall choose, and to 
be afterward divided among the officers and soldiers in due pro- 
portion according to the laws of Virginia." 

This reservation, called "Clarke's Grant," was laid off on the 
Ohio River, near the Falls, in what is now Clark County, Ind. 
In October, 1783, the General Assembly of Virginia passed an 
act for laying off the town of Clarkesville on this reservation. 
The act provided that the lots, of half an acre each, should be sold 
at public auction for the best price that could be had. The pur- 
chasers respectively were to hold their lots subject to the condi- 
tion of building on each, within three years from the day of sale, 
a dwelling-house, "twenty feet by eighteen at least, witli a brick 
or stone chimney." William Fleming, John Edwards, John 
Campbell, "Walker Daniel, George R. Clarke, Abraham Ciiaplin, 
John Montgomery, John Bayley, Robert Todd and "William 
Clark were, by the act of the Assembly, constituted Trustees ot 
the town. 


Colonel John Todd, the County Lieutenant for the county of 
Illinois, in the spring of 1779, visited the old settlements at 
Vincennes and Kaskaskia, and organized temporary civil gov- 
ernments in nearly all the settlements west of the Ohio. Pre- 
vious to this movement Ciarke had established a military 
government at Kaskaskia and Vincennes, appointed command- 
ants in both places, and taken up his headquarters at the falls of 


the Oliio, where he could watch the operations of the enemy and 
save the frontier settlements from the depredations of Indian 

On reaching tlie settlements Colonel Todd issued a proclama- 
tion* regulating the settlement of unoccupied lands, and requir- 
ing the presentation of all claims to tlie lands settled. He also 
organized a court of civil and criminal jurisdiction at Viiicennes 
in the month of June, 1779. This court was composed of 
several magistrates and presided over by Colonel J. M. P. 
Legras, who had been appointed commandant at Vincennes. 
Acting from the precedents established by the early French 
commandants in the West, this court began to grant tracts of 
land to the French and American inhabitants, and down to the 
year 1783 it had granted to different parties about 26,000 acres 
of land. From this date down to 1787, when the practice of 
granting lands was prohibited by General Harmer, the quantity 
of land granted exceeded 22,000 acres. The tracts graiite<i were 
generally small, ranging from a small "house lot "to 4:00 and 
500 acres. But aside from the granting of the small tracts, the 
court entered into a stupendous speculation — one not altogether 
creditable to its honor and dignity. The commandant and 

* Illinois [CouNxy] to wit — 

Whereas, from the fertility and beautiful situation of the lands bordering 
upon the Mississippi, Ohio, Illinois and Wabash rivers, the taking up of the 
usual quantity of land heretofore allowed for a settlement by the government 
of Virginia would injure both the strength and commerce of this couatry; I 
do, therefore, issue this ptoclamation, strictly enjoining all persons whatso- 
<:ver from making any new settlements upon the flat lands of the slid rivers, 
"r within one league of said lands, unless in manner and form of setlle- 
ments as heretofore made by the French inhabitants, until further orders 
herein given. And, in order that all the claims to lands in said county may 
be fully known, and some method provided for perpetuating, by record, the 
just claims, every inhabitant is required, as soon as conveniently may be, to 
lay before the person, in each district, appointed for that purpose, a memo- 
randum of his or her land, with copies of all their vouchers; and where 
vouchers have never been given, or are lost, such depositions or certificates 
US will tend to support their claims, — the memorandum to mention the 
quantity of land, to whom originally granted, and when,— deducing the title 
through the various occupants to the present possessor. The number of 
adventurers who will shortly overrun this country renders the above method 
necessary, as well to ascertain the vacant lands as to guard against trespasses 
which will probably be committed on lands not on record. Given under my 
hand and seal, at Kaskaskia, the 15th of June, in the third year of the Com- 
monwealth, 1779. John Todd, Jr. 


magistrates over whom he presided suddenly adopted the 
opinion that they were invested with authority to dispose of the 
whole of that large region which, in 1742, had been granted by 
the tribe of Piaukeshaw Indians to the French inhabitants of 
Yineennes. Accordingly a very convenient arrangement was 
entered into by which the whole tract of country mentioned 
was to be divided between the members of the honorable court. 
A record was made to that effect, and perhaps the most inter- 
esting part of this job — modern politicians would call it a 
steal — was that each member found it convenient to be absent 
from court on the day that the order was made in his favor.* 

During the progress of the conflict between civilization and 
barbarism in the JSTorthwest, from 1779 to 1787, the date at 
which the territory of the United States northwest of the Ohio 
was organized, there were but few events of importance in 
which the settlements in Indiana were not concerned, or by 
which they were not affected. In the fall of 1780 La Balme, a 
Frenchman, made an attempt to capture the British garrison of 
Detroit by leading an expedition against it from Kaskaskia. 
At the head of thirty men he marched to Vincennes, where his 
force was slightly increased. From this town he proceeded to 
the British trading post at tiie head of the Maumee, where Fort 
Wayne now stands, where he plundered the British traders and 
Indians and then retired. While encamped on the bank of a 
small stream on his retreat, he was attacked by a band of 
Miamis, a number of his men were killed, and the expedition 
against Detroit ended in ruin. Thus ran the current of border 
war, sometimes resulting in a victory for the Americans and 
sometimes for the enemy, during the long struggle for indepen- 
dence, until in 1783 the treaty of Paris was concluded, and the 
Congress of the United States declared a cessation of hostilities 
between the United States and Great Britain. 

Up to this date the territory now included within the limits 
of the State of Indiana belonged, by conquest, to the State of 
Virginia, but in January. 17^3, the General Assembly of that 
State resolved to cede to the Congress of the United States all 
right, title and claim which held to the territory northwest of 
the Ohio. The conditions oflered by Virginia were accepted 

♦Harrison's Letters. 


by Congress ou the 20th of December of the same year, and 
the transfer was eflected early in 1784. In the year preceding, 
however, the Assembly of Virginia passed an act for platting 
the town of Clarksville, at the falls of the Ohio. The act stipu- 
lated that the lots, consisting of half an acre each, should be 
sold at public auction to the highest bidder, and that purchasers 
were to hold their lots subject to the conditions of building on 
them within three years from the date of sale. 

In the spring of 1784, after the deed of cession* had been 
accepted by Congress, the subject of the future government of 
the territory was referred to a committee consisting of Messrs. 
Jefferson of Virginia, Chase of Maryland, and Howell of Rhode 
Island. The committee reported an ordinance for the govern- 
ment of the territory northwest of the Ohio, which, among 
other things, declared, that neither slavery nor involuntary 

* That the territory so ceded shall be laid out and formed into States, con- 
taining a suitable extent of territory, not leas than 100 nor more than 150 
miles square, or as near thereto as circumstances will admit; and that 'he 
States so t'ormed shall be distinct Republican States, and admitted members 
of the Federal Union, having the same rights of sovereignty, freedom and 
independence as the other States. That the necessary and reasonable 
expenses incurred by Virginia in subduing any British posts, or in maintain- 
ing forts and garrisons within, and for the defense, or in acquiring any part 
of, the territory so ceded or relinquished, shall be fully reimbursed by the 
United States. That the French and Canadian inhabitants, and other settleis 
of the Kaskaskia, Post Vincennes, and the neighboring villages, who have 
professed themselves citizens of Virginia, shall have their possessions and 
titles confirmed to them, and be protected in the enjoyment of their rights 
and liberties. That a quantity not exceeding 150,000 acres of land, promised 
by Virginia, shall be allowed and granted to the then Colonel, now Generali 
George Rogers Clarke, and to the officers and soldiers of his regiment, who 
marched with him when the posts of Kaskaskia and Vincennes were reduced, 
and to the officers and soldiers that have been since incorporated into the said 
regiment, to be laid off in one tract, the length of which not to exceed 
double the breadth, in such place on the northwest side of the Ohio as a 
majority of the officers shall choose, and to be afterward divided among the 
officers and soldiers in due proportion, according to the laws of Virginia. 
That in case the quantity of good lands on the southeast side of the Ohio, 
upon the waters of Cumberland River, and between the Green River and 
Tennessee River, which have been reserved by law for the Virginia troops 
upon continental establishment, should, from the North Carolina line, bear- 
ing in further upon the Cumberland lands than was expected, prove insuffi 
cient for their legal bounties, the deficiency shall be made up to the said 
troops, in good lands, to be laid off between the rivers Scioto and Little 
Miami, on the northwest side of the river Ohio, in such pioportions as have 


servitude, otherwise than iu the punishment of criminals, should 
exist in the territory after the year 1800. This article of the 
ordinance was rejected, but an ordinance for the temporary 
government of the county was adopted, and, in the following 
year, laws were passed by Congress for disposing of lands in 
the western territory, and for prohibiting the settlement of un- 
appropriated lands by reckless speculators. 


There were many hair-breadth escapes and many horrible cru- 
elties suffered during these Indian wars, and among the many 
that have come down in liistory few were more horrible and 
thrilling than the death of Irvin Hinton, and the captivity of 
Kichard Rue and George Holraan, who afterward became the 
first settlers of Wayne County. This report of the death of their 
comrade and their own years of bitter captivity is taken from 
" Cox's Recollections of the Wabash Valley," and as it happened 
while Colonel Clarke was in his great campaign against British 
and Indians in Indiana and Illinois, it is appropriate to place it 


A wagoner named Irvin Hinton was, on Feb. 11, 17S1, 
sent from the block-house at Louisville, Ky., to Harrodsburg, for 
a load of provisions for the fort. Two young men, or the^' 
should be called boys, aged respectively nineteen and sixteen 
years, named Ricliard Rue and George Hoi man, were sent us 
guards to protect the wagon from the depredations of the Indi- 
ans who might be lurking along the route through which they 
must pass. Soon after they started a severe snow-storm set in, 
which lasted until afternoon. Lest the melting of the snow 
might dampen the powder in their rifles, the guards fired them 

been engaged to them by the laws of Virginia. That all the lands wilhin the 
territory so ceded to the United States, and not reserved for or appropriated to 
any of the before mentioned purposes, or disposed of in bounties to the officers 
and soldiers of the American army, shall be considered as a common fund for 
the use and benefit of such of the United States as have become, or shall become, 
members of the confederation or federal alliance of the said States, Virginia 
inclusive, according to their usual respective proportions in the general 
charge and expenditure, and shall be faithfully and bona fide disposed of for 
that purpose, and for no other use or purpose whatsoever. 



off, intending to re-load them as soon as the storm ceased. Hinton 
drove the horses, while Rue walked a few rods ahead, and Hol- 
man about the same distance behind. As they ascended a hill 
about eight miles from Louisville, Hinton heard some one say 
'• Whoa," to the horses. Supposing that soinelhing was wrong 
about the wagon he stopped, and asked Holman why he had 
called him to halt. Holman said he had not spoken. Rue also 
denied it, but said he heard the voice distinctly. At this time 
a voice cried out, " I will solve the mystery for you; it was Simon 
Girty that cried ' whoa,' and he meant what he said" — at the same 
time emerging from a sink-hole a few rods from the roadside, 
followed by thirteen Indians, who immediately surrounded the 
three Kentuckians, and demanded them to surrender or die in- 
stantly. The little party, making a virtue of necessity, surren- 
dered to this renegade white man and his Indian allies. 

Being so near two forts, Girty made all possible speed in 
making fast his prisoners; selecting the lines and other parts of 
tlie harness, he prepared for an immediate flight across the 
Ohio. The pantaloons of the prisoners were cut oft about four 
inches above the knees, and thus they started through the deep 
snow as fast as the horses could trot, leaving the wagon, con- 
taining a few empty barrels, standing in the road. They con- 
tinued their march for several cold diys, without fire at night, 
until they reached Wa-pucca-nat-ta, where they compelled their 
prisoners to run the gauntlet as they entered the village. Hin- 
ton first ran the gauntlet and reached the council-house after 
receiving several severe blows upon the head and shoulders. 
Rue next ran between the lines, pursued by an Indian with an 
uplifted tomahawk. He far outstripped his pursuer, and dodged 
most of the blows aimed at him. Holman, complaining that it 
was too severe a test for a worn-out stripling like himself, was 
allowed to run between two lines of squaws and boys, and was 
followed by an Indian with a long switch. 

The first council of the Indians did not dispose of these young 
men; they were waiting for the presence of other chiefs and 
warriors. Hinton escaped, but on the afternoon of the second 
day he was re-captured. Now the Indians were glad that they 
had an occasion to indulge in the infernal joy of burning him at 
once. Soon after their supper, which they shared with their 
victim, they drove the stake into the ground, piled up the fagots 


in a circle around it, stripped and blackened the prisoner, tied 
him to the stake, and applied the torch. It was a slow fire. The 
war-whoop then thrilled through the dark snrronndinw forest 
like the chorus of a band of infernal spirits escaped from pande- 
monium, and the scalp dance was struck up by those demons in 
human shape, who for hours encircled their victim, brandishing 
their tomahawks and war clubs, and venting their execrations 
upon the helpless sufferer, who died about midnight from the 
effects of the slow heat. As soon as he fell upon the ground, 
the Indian who first discovered him in the woods that evening 
sprang in, sunk his tomahawk into his skull above the ear, and 
with his knife stripped off the scalp, which he bore back with 
him to the town as a trophy, and which was tauntingly thrust 
into the faces of Rue and Holman, with the question, " Can 
you smell the fire on the scalp of your red-headed friend ? We 
cooked him and left him for the wolves to make a breaklast 
upon; that is the way we serve runaway prisoners." 

After a march of three days more the prisoners. Rue and 
Holman, had to run the gauntlets again, and barely got through 
with their lives. It was decided that they should both be burned 
at the stake that night, though this decision was far from being 
unanimous. The necessary preparations were made, dry sticks 
and brush were gathered and piled around two stakes, the faces 
and hands of the doomed men were blackened in the customary 
manner, and as the evening approached the poor wretches sat 
looking upon the setting sun for the last time. An unusual ex- 
citement was mauifest in a number of chiefs who still lingered 
about the council-house. At a pause in the contention, a no- 
ble-looking Indian approached the prisoners, and, after speaking 
a few words to the guards, took Holman by the hand, lifted him 
to his feet, cut the cords that bound him to his fellow-prisoners, 
removed the black from his face and hands, put his hand kindly 
upon his head and said: " I adopt you as my son, to fill the 
place of the one I have lately buried; you are now a kinsman of 
Logan, the white man's friend, as he has been called, but who 
has lately proven himself to be a terrible avenger of the wrongs 
inflicted upon him by the bloody Cresap and his men." With 
evident reluctance Girty interpreted this to Holman, who was 
thus unexpectedly freed. 

But the preparations for the burning of Rue went on. Hoi 


man and K.ue embraced each other most affectionately, witii a 
sorrow too deep for description. Hue was then tied to one of 
the stakes, but the general contention among the Indians ha 1 
not ceased. Just as the lighted fagots were about to be applied 
to the dry brush piled around the devoted youth, a tall, active 
young Shawnee, a son of the victim's captor, sprang into the 
ring, and cutting the cords which bound him to the stake led 
him out amidst the deafening plaudits of a part of the crowd and 
the execrations of the rest. Regardless of threats, he caused 
water to be brought and the black to be washed from the face 
and hands of the prisoner, whose clothes were then returned to 
him, when the young brave said: "I cake this young man to 
be my brother, in the place of one I lately lost. I loved that 
brother well; I will love this one, too. My old mother will bu 
glad when I tell her that I have brought her a son, in place of 
the dear departed one. We want no more victims. The burn- 
ing of Red-head [Hinton] ought to satisfy us. These innocent 
young men do not merit such cruel fate. I would rather die my- 
self than see this adopted brother burned at the stake." 

A loud shout of approbation showed that the young Shawnee 
had triumphed, though dissension was manifest among the va- 
rious tribes afterward. Some of them abandoned their trip to 
Detroit, others returned to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, a few turned 
toward theMississiuewa and the Wabash towns, while a portion 
continued to Detroit. Holman was taken back to Wa-puc-ca- 
nat-ta, where he remained most of the time of his captivity. Rue 
was taken lirst to the Mississinewa, then to the Wabash towns. 
Two years of his eventful captivity were spent in the region of 
tlie Wabash and Illinois rivers, but the last few months at De- 
troit; was in captivity altogether about three years and a half 

Rue effected his escape in the following manner: During onu 
of the drunken revels of tlie Indians near Detroit, one of theai 
lost a ](urse of 8'"*; various tribes were suspected of feloniously 
kee])ing tlie treasure, and much ugly speculation was indulged 
in as to who was the thief. At length a prophet of a tribe that 
was not suspected was called to divine the mystery. He spread 
sand over a green deer-skin, watched it awhile and performed 
various manipulations, and professed to see that the money had 
been stolen and carried away by a tribe entirely different from 
any that had been suspicioned; but he was shrewd enough not. 


to announce who the thief was or the tribe he belonged to, lest 
a war might arise. His decision quieted the belligerent upris- 
ings threatened by the excited Indians. 

Rue and two other prisoners saw this display of the prophet's 
skill, and concluded to interrogate him soon concerning their 
families at home. The opportunity occurred in a few days, and 
the Indian seer actually astonished Rue with the accuracy with 
which he described his family, and added: " Yon all intend to 
make your escape, and you will effect it soon. Tou will meet 
with many trials and hardships in passing over so wild a district 
of country, inhabited by so many hostile nations of Indians. 
You will almost starve to death; but about the time you have 
given up all hope of finding game to sustain you in your fam- 
ished condition, succor will come when you least expect it. The 
first game you will succeed in taking will be a male of some 
kind; after that you will have plenty of game, and return home 
in safety." 

The propliet kept this matter a secret for the prisoners, and 
the latter in a few days set off upon their terrible journey, and 
liiid just such experience as the Indian prophet had foretold. 
They arrived home with their lives, but were pretty well worn 
out with the exposures and privations of a three weeks' journey. 

On the return of Holman's party of Indians to Wa-puc-ca- 
nat-ta much dissatisfaction existed in regard to the manner of 
his release from the sentence of condemnation pronounced 
against him by the council. Many were in favor of recalling 
the council and trying him again, and this was finally agreed tu. 
The young man was again put upon trial for his life, with a 
strong probability of his being condemned to the stake. Both 
parties worked hard for victory in the final vote, which eventu- 
ally proved to give a majority of one for the prisoner's ac- 

While with the Indians, Holman saw them burn at the stake 
a Kentuckian named Richard Hogeland, who had been taken 
prisoner at the defeat of Colonel Crawford. They commenced 
burning him at nine o'clock at night, and continued roasting 
him until ten o'clock the next day, before he expired. During 
his excruciating tortures he begged for some of them to end his 
life and sufferings with a gun or tomahawk. Finally his cruel 
tormentors promised they would, and cut several deep gashes 


in his flesli with their tomahawks, and shoveled up hot ashes 
and embers and threw them into the gaping wounds. Wlieu he 
was dead they stripped off his scalp, cut him to pieces and burnt 
him to ashes, which they scattered through the town to expel the 
evil spirits from it. 

After a captivity of about three years and a half, Holman saw 
an opportunity of going on a mission for the destitute Indians; 
namely, of going to Harrodsburg, Ky., where he had a rich 
uncle, from whom they could get what supplies they wanted. 
They let him go with a guard, but on arriving at Louisville, 
where General Clarke was in command, he was ransomed, and 
he reached home only three days after the arrival of Rue. Both 
these men lived to a good old age, terminating their lives at 
their home about two miles south of Richmond, lud, 


Although the United States had declared their independence 
and become a distinct nation since 1776, it was not until Sept. 
3, 1783, that the British monarch renounced his claim to the late 
Northwest Territory by a treaty signed at Paris, France, on that 
date. The provisional articles which formed the basis of that 
treaty, more especially as related to the boundary, were, how- 
ever, signed at Paris the preceding November. During the pen- 
dency of tlie negotiation relative to these preliminary articles, Mr. 
Oswald, the British Commissioner, proposed the Ohio as the west- 
ern boundary of the United States and, but for the indomitable 
perseverance of the Revolutionary patriot, John Adams, one of 
the American commissioners, who insisted upon the Mississippi 
as the boundary, it is probable that the proposition of Mr. 
Oswald would have been acceded to. 

Numerous tribes of Indian savages, by virtue of prior posses- 
sion, asserted their respective rights which also had to be 
satisfied. A treaty for this purpose was accordingly made at 
Fort Stanwix, Oct. 27, 1784, with the sachems and warriors of 
the Mohawks, Onondagas, Senacas, Cayugas, Oneidas and Tus- 
caroras, by tlie third article of which treaty the above Six 
Nations ceded their claims to a country west of a line extend- 
ing along the west boundary of Pennsylvania, from the mouth 
of the Oyounayea to the river Ohio. 

By acts of Congress all citizens of the United States were 


prohibited settling on lands of the Indians, as well as on those 
of the United States. 


The United States Govern iiient was the only one claiming 
authority over the northwest, for at this time, 1786, all the States 
had ceded their claims to the country, and there remained only 
the task of extinguishing the Indian title before the qnestion of 
ownership could be finally settled. This was no easy matter, as 
the Indian tribes were allies of the English and hostile to the 
Americans, and they did not relish the idea of giving up their 
homes without a struggle. The result was a series of hostile 
movements and numerous acts of revenge. The Government 
prosecuted almost a continuous war against them without 
bringing about a satisfactory peace, until by a series of par- 
chases and treaties, made at various dates, the title of the 
Indians was peaceably extinguished. 


In 1784 a committee, of which Thomas Jefferson was chair- 
man, i-eported to, Congress an ordinance providing for the estab- 
lishment and maintenance of Government in the Northwest 
Territory. This measure of 1784, although it remained nom- 
inally in force until repealed by the ordinance of 1787, was 
really inoperative — a dead letter. May 20, 1785, an ordinance 
was passed for the survey of "Western lands. A surveyor was 
cliosen from each State, to act under the geographer of the 
United States, in laying off the land into townships of six miles 
square. The geographer was instructed to designate the town- 
ships by numbers, beginning at the south, and the ranges by 
numbers, beginning, at the east and going westward. It is this 
simple system of describing land that has been adopted by the 
Government in the survey of all its lands since that time. 

The famous ordinance of 1787, passed July 13, and from its 
most important provision often termed the " Ordinance of Free- 
dom," was the last gift of the Congress of the old Confeder. 
ation to the people of the States. The ordinance of 1787 above 
referred to, besides the above freedom clause, provided that 
there should be formed not less than three nor more than five 
States. The western State of said Territory, if only three States 


were formed, should be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio 
and the Wabash rivers, a direct line drawn from the Wabash 
aud Post Vincent (Vincennes) due north to the territorial line 
between the United States and Canada, and by the said terri- 
torial line to the Lake of the Woods and the Mississippi. The 
middle State was to be bounded by said direct line and the 
Wabash from Post Vincent to the Ohio; and the Ohio by a line 
drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami to the said 
territorial line, and by the said territorial line, which formed its 
eastern boundary, this State being Indiana, and the first Illinois. 
The third State, Ohio, was to have the east line above of Indiana 
as its western line, the Ohio River, Pennsylvania and the terri- 
torial line. But it also was provided that Congress could form 
iwo States north of the line drawn due east and west, through 
the most southerly bend of Lake Michigan; this was done and 
Michigan and Wisconsin became those States. When Ohio 
became a State, under the rules prescribed by Congress, this east 
and west line and Lake Erie became her northern boundary, 
and tiie lines above quoted her western, soutliern and eastern 

It was but a short time after the close of the Kevolutionary 
war before Congress decided upon some action in regard to the 
disposal of the lands which had been acquired from the States 
and the Indian tribes. Some arrangement leading to the sale of 
this land at a nominal price to actual settlers or to companies 
who would guarantee its occupation within a seasonable time 
was decided upon. Only, however, a pai-t or a small part of the 
acquisition was placed upon sale. 


The great ordinance of 1787, which even at this day stands 
out boldly as an act of consummate wisdom, was undoubtedly 
the work and inspiration of more than one man, — and while 
Jefferson was absent, yet it is clear that his views were known 
to the author, and while Dr. Manasseh Cutler was a strong 
factor, and the probable hand that drew this masterpiece of 
political wisdom, — yet it is not going beyond the bounds of 
facts to state that the views of Thomas Jefferson were well 
known to him, and were the foundation upon which the cele- 
brated ordinance was built, that his own inspired mind was 


strengthened, and that the ordinance above mentioned was the 
work of Dr. Cutler, while it embraced the views of both Cutler 
and Jeiferson, and was really the joint work of these master 
minds, who have left the impress of their greatness and wisdom 
upon their country's history. It was the product of wiiat we 
may call inspired statesmanship, the foundation upon which five 
great commonwealths were to be built up, the fundamental law, 
the constitution of the Northwest Territory, and a sacred com- 
pact between the old colonies and the yet uncreated States to 
come into being under its benign influence. The Congress of 
1787 " builded wiser than it knew," and more grandly. Let us 
pass the broader significance and vaster value of the ordinance, 
and look upon it simply as the act of legislation providing for 
the opening, development and government of the territory; we 
find it alike admirable and effective. It provided for successive 
forms of territorial government, and upon it wure based all of 
the territorial enactments and much of the subsequent State 
legislation. It was so constructed as to give the utmost encour- 
agement to immigration, and it offered the utmost protection to 
those who became settlers, for " when they came into the wilder- 
ness," says Chief Justice Chase, "they found the law already 
there. It was impressed upon the soil, while as yet it bore up 
nothing but the forest." 

The authorship of the ordinance of 17S7 has been variously 
ascribed to Nathan Dane, a Congressman from Massachusetts, 
to Rnfus King of the same State, and to Thomas Jefferson; and 
arguments more or less weighty have from time to time been 
advanced to support their claims or those of their friends. 
Thomas Jefferson was, however, identified with the ordinance 
of 1784, which introduced the clause prohibiting slavery after 
tlie year 1800, which did not pass. Mr. King was undoubtedly 
the author of the anti-slavery clause in an ordinance which 
secured some attention in 1785, but he was not even a member 
of the Congress of 1787. Mr. Dane's claim is combatted chiefly 
on the ground that it was never made while any of the other 
men, who, from their position, were supposed to know about 
the formation of the ordinance, were alive, and on the ground 
that he had none of those graces of composition which are 
exhibited in the ordinance. Of later years investigation has 
convinced many prominent writers on the subject that Dr. 



Manasseh Cutler, embodying the views of Tlioraas Jefferson 
with his own, was the real author. The evidence is too lengthy 
to introduce here, but it has not been refuted, and the supposi- 
tion accords very well with the known facts of history. Dr. 
Cutler had come before Congress to purchase for a company, 
composed chiefly of Massachusetts men, a large body of public 
lands. The purchase would have been almost entirely worthless 
in the opinion of most of the purchasers if they could not have 
the lands to which they proposed to emigrate covered with the 
law to which they had been accustomed. It was considered by 
Congress, after the plan had been lully examined, very desirable 
that the public domains should be disposed of, and that a colony 
should be established in the Federal Territory. Such a colony 
would form a, barrier against the British and Indians, it was 
argued, and this initiative step would be followed speedily by 
other purchases in which additional settlements would be 
founded. The Southern States had a greater interest in the 
West than New England had, and Virginia, especially from her 
past protection, future prospect and geographical location, was 
especially eager for the development of the country beyond the 
Ohio. Virginia and the South in general may have justly 
regarded the planting in the West of a colony of men whose 
patriotism was well known a measure calculated to bind together 
the old and new parts of the nation, and promote union. It is 
presumable that much was said by Dr. Cutler upon these advan- 
tages, and that it was their inaportance which led the Southern 
members to favor the measure and procure the enactment of 
such an ordinance. 

In May, 1785, Congress passed an ordinance for ascertaining 
the mode of disposing of these lands. Under that ordinance 
the first seven ranges, bounded on the east by Pennsylvania and 
on the south by the Ohio River, were surveyed. Sales of parts 
of these were made at New York in 1787, the avails of which 
amounted to $72,974, and other sales of the same were made at 
Pittsburg and Philadelphia in 1796, the aggregate of these 
latter sales amounting to $48,566. A portion of these lands 
were located under United States military land warrants. No 
further sales were made in that district until the land oflice was 
opened at Steubenville, July 1, 1801. This sale of land was the 
first made in the Northwestern Territory. 


1787 TO THE YEAR 1800. 

Progress of Events.— St. Clair Appointed Governor. — The 
Machinery of Government Set in Motion. — Trying to 
KEEP THE Indians Friendly. — Knox County Organized. — 
The Laws of the Territory. — ^Complimentary Testimonial. 
— Indian War of i79i. — Wayne's Campaign.— Wayne's 
Address. — Wayne's Treaty. — Cessions of Lands. — Treaty 
WITH Spain. — Other Indian Treaties. — What they Ceded. 
— Indian Annuities. — Purchase of Louisiana. — Progress 
OF the New Northwest. — First Territoeial Legislature. 
— Immigeation and Organization. 

progress of events. 

It is fully evident that the first white settlement in the North- 
west Territory was as early as 1774, but there is no evidence to 
prove that any fixed settlement was founded for the active devel- 
opment of the country until the close of the Revolutionary war, 
which proclaimed to the world a nation born and liberty trium- 
phant. The counti-y then was in an exhausted condition, and the 
people had little means, either for home comforts or to travel to 
unknown and far-ofi" lands. However, the wonderful recupera- 
tive power and energies of the people from the devastation of a 
seven years' war was remarkable, and the desire to explore the 
great unknown West became a consuming one. A government 
of peace, however, had to be founded, laws made, and all the 
machinery of popular government and the inalienable rights of 
a free people was to be inaugurated that would secure a contin- 
uation of that peace which had cost so much, and for a prosperity 
which was absolutely necessary to the welfare of an impoverished 
land. This was the labor of years, yet the year 17S7 saw the 
groundwork of a glorious structure laid, which lias reared a tern- 


pie to liberty and self-government tliat has stood the test of time, 
the assaults of a foreign foe, and a civil strife unparalleled in the 
history of nations. Under the ;sgis of this law the pioneer left 
his Eastern home and planted the banner of civilization and 
Christianity upon the boundary line of the great Northwest, and 
from there took up his line of march into the interior, blazinga 
pathway for others to follow, and, at times, leaving his body as 
a bloody offering upon tlie shrine of freedom, and the burning of 
his cabin a torch to light the footsteps of those who came after. 
All was not peace in the West when freedom sat enthroned on 
the Atlantic Coast. The Indians were not willing to give up 
their hunting grounds without a struggle, and bravely they 
repelled the pale-faces. But destiny had decreed their doom, 
and the white man was master of the country. 


Under the Act of Congress of July 13, 1787, Arthur St. Clair 
was appointed Governor of the Northwest Territory; Samuel H. 
Parsons, James M. Varnum and John Armstrong were appointed 
Judges; the latter not accepting John Cleves Symmes was 
appointed in his place. Winthrop Sargent was appointed Sec- 
retary. The officers of the territory started for their destination 
and arrived at Marietta on the 9th of July, 1788, excepting 
Judge Symmes, who joined them, however, soon after, and their 
commissions were published as well as the ordinance governing 
the territory. The Governor called the attention of the judges 
to the organization of the militia, but they paid no attention to 
it, but got up a land law for dividing real-estate, which was 
rejected for its crudities, and the fact that non-resident land- 
liiilders would have been deprived of their land. Oti the 26th of 
July, 1788, the county of "Washington was organized by proc- 
lamation, and the Governor appointed Eufus Putnam, Benjamin 
Tupper and Winthrop Sargent, Justices of the Peace. 

Its boundary was defined as follows: " Beginning on the bank 
of the Ohio River where the western line of Pennsylvania crosses 
it, and running with tiiat lino to Lake Erie; thence along the 
southern shore of said lake to the north ijank of the Cuya- 
hoga River; thence up the said river to the portage between it 
and the Tuscarawas branch of the Muskingum; thence down 
that branch to the forks, at the crossing place above Fort Lau- 


rens; thence with a line to be drawn westwardly to the portage 
of that branch of the Big Miami upon which the fort stood that 
was taken and destroyed by the French in 1752, until it meets 
the road from the Lower Shawanese town to the Sandusky; 
thence south to the Scioto River, down that to its mouth, and 
thence up the Ohio River to the place of beginning." 

He erected a Court of Probate, established a Court of Quarter 
Sessions, divided tlie militia into two classes, Seniors and Jun- 
iurs, then added, Aug. 30, 17SS, three more Justices of the Peace 
in the persons of Archibald Cary, Isaac Pierce and Thomas 
Lord, and giving them power to hold tlie Court of Quarter 
Sessions. They were, in fact, Judges of the Court of Common 
Pleas. Return Jonathan Meigs was the Clerk of this court. 


On the closing of the court at Marietta, and securing the work- 
ing of the machinery of government for the Territory, Governor 
St. Clair, accompanied by the judges, visited Kaskaskia for the 
purpose of organizing a civil government there. Meanwhile 
full instructions had been sent to Major Hamtranck, Command- 
ant at Vincennes, requiring him to ascertain the e.xact feeling 
and temper of the Indian tribes of the Wabash. These instruc- 
tions were accompanied by speeches to each of the tribes. On 
the 5th of April, 1790, a Frenchman named Antoine Gamelin 
was dispatched from Vincennes with these speeches. He visited 
nearly all the tribes on the Wabash, St. Joseph and St. Mary's riv- 
ers, but was coldly received, most of the chiefs being dissatisfied 
with the policy of the Americans toward them, and prejudiced 
through English misrepresentation. Full accounts of his advent- 
ures among the tribes reached Governor St. Clair at Kaskaskia in 
June, 1790. Being satisfied that there was no prospect of eflTect- 
ing a general peace with the Indians of Indiana, he resolved to 
visit General Harmer at his headquarters at Fort Washington, 
and there to consult with that ofiicer upon the means of carrying 
an expedition against the hostile Indians. Before leaving Kas- 
kaskia, however, St. Clair instructed the Secretary of the Terri- 
tory, Winthrop Sargent, with the execution of the resolutions of 
Congress regarding the lands and settlers on the Wabash. He 
directed that officer to proceed to Vincennes, lay out a county 
there, establish the militia, and appoint the necessary civil and 


military officers. Mr. Sargent at once proceeded to Viucennes, 
wiiere he organized the camp of Knox, appointed the necessary 
civil and military officers, and notified the inhabitants to pre- 
sent their claims to lands. In establishing these claims the set- 
tlers found great difficulty, and regarding it, the Secretary in his 
report to the President remarked : 

"Although the lauds and lots which were awarded to the in- 
habitants, appeared, from good oral testimony, to belong to 
those persons to whom they were awarded, either by original 
grants, purchase, or inheritance, yet there was scarcely one case 
in twenty where the title was complete, owing to the desultory 
manner in which public business had been transacted, and some 
other unfortunate causes. Theoriginal concessions by the French 
and British commandants were generally made upon a small 
scrap of paper, which it has been customary to lodge in the no- 
tary's office, who has seldom kept any book of record, but com- 
mitted the most important land concerns to loose sheets, which, 
in process of time, have come into possession of persons that 
have fraudulently destroyed them, or, unacquainted with their 
consequence, innocently lost or trifled them away; for by the 
French usage they are considered as family inheritances, and 
often descend to women and children. In one instance, and 
during the government of Mr. St. Ange here, a royal notary 
ran off with all the public papers in his possession, as by a cer- 
tificate produced to me. And lam very sorry further to observe 
that in the office of Mr. Le Grand, which continued from the 
year 1777 to 1787, and where should have been the vouchers for 
important land transactions, the records have been so falsified, 
and there is such gross fraud in forgery, as to invalidate all evi- 
dence and information which I might otherwise have acquired 
from his papers." 

Winthrop Sargent informs us that there were about 150 
French families at Vincennes in 1790. The heads of these 
families had all been at some time vested with certain titles 
to a portion of the soil, and while the Secretary was busily 
engaged endeavoring to straighten out these claims, he received 
a petition signed by eighty Americans, praying for the confirma- 
tion of the grants of lands ceded by the court which had been 
organized by Colonel John Todd, under the authority of Vir- 
ginia, to which reference has already been made. 


This case was met in the action of Congress on the 3d of 
March, 1791, empowering the Governor of the Territory, in ca^^es . 
where land had been actually improved and cultivated under a 
supposed grant for the same, to confirm to the persons who made 
such improvements the lands supposed to have been granted, 
not, however, exceeding the quantity of 400 acres to any one 

In the summer of 1790 a session of the general court was held 
at Vincennes, acting Governor Sargent* presiding, when the fol- 
lowing laws were adopted: 

I. An act to prohibit the giving or selling intoxicating liquors 
to Indians residing in, or coming into, the territory of the 
United States northwest of the Ohio River, and for preventing 
foreigners from trading with Indians tlierein. 

II. An act prohibiting the sale of spirituous or other intoxi- 
cating liquors to soldiers in the service of the United States, 
being within ten miles of any military post within the territory 
of the United States northwest of the river Ohio; and to preveiit 
the selling or pawning of arms, ammunition, clothing and ac 

III. An act for suppressing and prohibiting every species of 
gaming for monej' or other property, and for making void con- 
tracts and payments made in cmsequence thereof, and for re- 
straining the disorderly practice of discharging arms at certain 
hours and places. 

We give here the sentiments of the principal inhabitants ot 
Yincennes, which were addressed to Mr. Sargent while at that 
place, in 1790, in the following language: "The citizens of the 
town of Vincennes approach you, sir, to express as well their 
personal respect for your honor as the full approbation of tlie 
measures you have been pleased to pursue in regard to their 
government and the adjustment of their claims, as inhabitants 
of the territory over which you at present preside. While we 
deem it a singular blessing to behold the principles of free gov- 
ernment unfolding among us, we cherish the pleasing reflection 
that our posterity will also liave cause to rejoice at the political 
change now originating. A frae and efficient government, 
wisely administered, and fostered under the protecting wings of 

*Mr. Sargent acted in tliB capacity of Governor at the request of St. Clair . 
wlio during the time was busily engaged with military affairs. 


an august anion of States, cannot fail to render the citizens of 
this wide-extended territory securely happy in the possession of 
every public blessing. 

"We cannot take leave, sir, without offering to your notice a 
tribute of gratitude and esteem, which every citizen of Yin- 
cennes conceives he owes to the merits of an officer [Major Ham- 
tranck] who has long commanded at this post. The unsettled 
situation of things, for a series of years previous to this gentle- 
man's arrival, tended in many instances to derange, and in 
others to suspend, tlie operations of tliose municipal customs by 
wiiich the citizens of tliis town were used to be governed. They 
were in the habit of submitting the superintendence of tlieir 
civil regulations to the officer who happened to command the 
troops posted among them. Hence, in the course of the late 
war, and from the frequent change of masters, they labored un- 
der heavy and various grievances. But the judicious and lui- 
mane attention paid by Major Hamtranck, during his whole 
command, to the rights and feelings of every individual craving 
his interposition, demands, and will always receive, our warmest 

" We beg you, sir, to assure the supreme authority of the 
United States of our fidelity and attachment; and that our great- 
est ambition is to deserve its fostering care, by acting the part 
of good citizens. 

" Bj order, and on behalf, of the citizens of Yincennes. 

"Antoine Gamelin, Magistrate. 

" Pieeke Gamelin, do. 

"Paul Gamelin, do. 

"James Johnson, do. 

"Louis Edeline, do. 

" Luke Decree, do. 

"Francis Bosseron, do. 

"Francis Yioo, Major Commandant of Militia. 

"Heney Yanderbcjrgh, Major of Militia." 
To this complimentary testimonial Winthrop Sargent made a 
brief but appropriate reply. 


For a while after the close of tiie Revolutionary war peace and 
prosperity had been the lot of the white settlers, and they had 


been spreading their cabins into tlie interior of tlie country, un- 
til at last they aroused the red man to a sense of his danger in 
his being dispossessed of his hunting grounds. Tlien again tlie 
frontiersmen, those who, in a measure, made hunting their oc- 
cupation, liad, since their advent in the Western wilds, the im- 
pression that an Indian, like a wild beast, was game, and he was 
generally killed on sight. The Indians were by no means back- 
ward in retaliation, and the scalp of a hunter was something 
they considered a legitimate trophy, and a great one if the hun- 
ter was a good fighter. Of course this state of aifairs was bound 
to breed trouble, and when in addition to this the palefaces over- 
ran their lands or hunting grounds, they determined upon driving 
them out of the country. The result was a general rising, in 
which the shriek of their victims and the light of their burning 
cabins called upon the Government for immediate action. 

The Indians were urged on to their terrible work by British 
spies and agents, doing their utmost to precipitate a serious con- 
flict. The latter were supplied with arms, ammunition, blan- 
kets, etc., by these agents, and through their evil and persistent 
machinations at last succeeded in lighting the flames of an Indian 
war. The settlers were soon surrounded by hostile Indians, and 
every pioneer carried his life in his hands — who stepped even 
beyond their threshold, in many cases. The first display of hos- 
tility by the Indians was upon the groups of Government sur- 
veyors, who were regarded by the Indians as their especial 
enemies. Their lining out or surveying the land was definite 
enough for the Indians to understand something of its nature, 
and that what they thus marked out was forever lost to them. 
Their hatred to these bands of surveyors resulted in sudden at- 
tacks, and many were killed. It soon became evident that the 
land could not be surveyed and brought into market until some- 
thing more definite was determined upon. The Indians all 
seemed to be united in their determined opposition to the fur- 
ther encroachment of the whites, and to defend their hunting- 
grounds from the invasion of the palefaces. Nothing was to be 
done but to chastise the Indians and bring them to terms of 
peace. This was not accomplished without a long and bitter 



Peace overtures having failed and the Indians aggressive to a 
murderous degree, General Harmer was directed to attack their 
towns. In September, 1790, with 1,300 men, he marched from 
Cincinnati through the wilderness to the Indian villages on the 
Miami, which he burned. On his homeward march he was at- 
tacked bj a superior force of savages and, after a desperate 
battle, was totally defeated. General Harmer was barely able 
to make good his retreat to Cincinnati. His expedition was a 
failure, and gave the Indians renewed courage and hope. 

From this time there were four years of uninterrupted war 
with the Indians, and sad indeed was the condition of the set- 
tlers. "Wherever the settlements extended, the whole frontier 
was lighted by the flames of burning cabins and destruction of 
improvements. An attack was made on the settlement at Big 
Bottom, in Washington County, on the Muskingum Kiver, Jan. 
2, 1791, characterized by the usual horrible features of stealth 
and sudden surprise by the savages, of quick massacre and scalp- 
ing of the victims, and of hasty retreat into the wilderness. 
In this attack twelve persons were killed and five carried into 

The surprise and slaughter of the troops under General St. 
Clair in their camp, on the morning of Nov. 4, 1791, was a scene 
of appalling horror. Then came a rest. The Indians and their 
British allies were jubilant. A day of retribution, however, was 
in store for them. Refusing peace overtures, the Government de- 
termined to wage a vigorous and relentless war upon the savages 
until they would cry for peace, but no more overtures would be 
held out. If peace came, it must come from the actions of the 
forest chiefs who had commenced hostilities. . 

Wayne's campaign. 

The next move was to call upon General Anthony Wayne to 
take full command of the troops and to wage active warfare 
against the Indians, giving them no rest, and destroying as they 
liad destroyed. " Mad Anthony" did not belie his reputation 
gained in the war of the Revolution. Daring the negotiation 
of the commissioners, which he felt would be a failure, he 
marched to the scene of war with a strong force ready for active 


operations as soon as negotiations should cease. In the fall of 
1793 he marched into the Indian country and commenced forti- 
tjing, or finishing the work commenced by the unfortunate 
St. Clair. He built a fort at Greenville, Darke County, where 
St. Clair was surprised and defeated, and gave it the name of 
Fort Kecovery, an appropriate name, as it was truly recovered. 
In the following summer, that of 1794, Genei-al Wayne organ- 
ized his forces and marched to the junction of the ilaumee and 
Auglaize Rivers, and there built another fort and called it " Fort 
Defiance," and as an auxiliary line of defense he erected Fort 
Adams, at what is known as St. Mary's, in Auglaize County. 
By August his command, numbering 3,000 men, was ready for 
active duty, and he at once sought the enemy upon their own 
ground by marching down the Maumee River to the rapids, and 
to where there was a British military post. Here, at the foot of 
Maumee Rapids, he built Fort Miami, and feeling himself strong 
enough for offensive action, he ofl'ered the enemy peace. This 
was defiantly refused, but time was asked. This Wayne refused 
and immediately marched to an open strip of ground, known by 
the name of "Fallen Timbers," at the head of the Maumee 
Rapids, not far from the site of the present Maumee City, and 
there attacked the Indians in force, the 10th of August, and over- 
whelmingly defeated them. General Wayne followed up his 
victory by laying waste the country, destroying the Indian towns 
and crops, and, moving with celerity, prevented another organi- 
zation of the Indian forces. From the battle-field of "Fallen 
Timbers" he marched to the site of the present city of Fort 
Wayne, Ind., and there erected another fort which he named 
"Fort Wayne," after himself, the name the town assumed when 
incorporated. Having garrisoned his forts he returned with his 
army to Greenville, or Fort Recovery, and there went into win- 
ter quarters. During his sojourn there General Wayne issued 
the following proclamation, which refers to this section as well 
as to other parts of the Territory: 

" To the Cherokees now settled on the headwaters of the Scioto, 
and to all other Indians in that quarter whom it may 

"Whereas, I, Anthony Wayne, Major-General and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Legion, and Commissioner Plenipoten- 
tiary of the United States of America for settling a permanent 


peace with all the late hostile tribes and nations northwest of 
the Ohio, have entered into preliminary articles with the Wjan- 
dots, Chippewas, Ottawas, Pottawatomies, Sankeys, Shawanese, 
Delawares and Miamis for a cessation of hostilities, for the, mu- 
tual exchange of prisoners, and for holding a general treaty for 
the establishing a permanent peace at this place on the 15tli day 
of June next; and, Whereas, His Excellency, Governor "Will- 
iam Blount, has concluded a treaty on the 7th and 8th days of 
November last, with Colonel John Watts, of Milltown, one of 
the lower Cherokee towns, and Scolacutta, or Hanging Maw 
and other Chiefs of the Cherokee Nation, at which were present 
400 Cherokee warriors and a number of citizens of the South- 
western Territory, I, the said General and Commander-in-Chief, 
do now send this authentic information to the Cherokees and 
other Indians residing on the waters of the Scioto, by Captain 
Reid, in order to warn all and every of the said Indians against 
committing any murder or theft or insult upon any of the in- 
habitants or soldiers of the United States, but to remain peacea- 
ble and quiet, and to bring in all such prisoners as they may 
have in their possession to this place at the time agreed upon; 
that is, the 15th day of June next, for holding the general 

"If after this friendly warning and invitation any more 
murders, or robberies, or injuries shall be committed by the 
aforesaid Indians residing on the waters of the Scioto, the said 
General does hereby declare that he will send out his warriors 
and destroy them without distinction, as it will not be in his 
power to distinguish the innocent from the guilty. He, there- 
fore, advises all peaceable Indians to withdraw themselves from 
the bad Indians, and leave them to the fate that immediately 
awaits them. 

"Given at the headquarters of the Legion, at Greenville, this 
2d day of March, 1795. 

"Anthony Wayne." 
A treaty. 

The Indians accepted this warning, and a treaty of peace was 
concluded with them Aug. 3, 1795, the preliminaries being 
partly agreed upon in the previous June. Twelve tribes signed 
the treaty of peace at Greenville, and by this treaty the Indians 
ceded to the United States Government the present territory of 


Ohio, Indiana and Miciiigan, except the Upper Peninsula, be- 
sides some sixteen separate tracts of lands including forts. This 
covered about 25,000 square miles of territory, and the tribes 
signing this treaty were the Pottawatomies, Delawares, Wyan- 
dots, Shawanese, Chippewas, Sankeys, Ottawas, Kaskaskias, 
Miamis, Senecas and Kickapoos. General "Wavne addressed 
the Indians in well-worded sentences, which met their under- 
standing, and the treaty of Greenville was an established fact, 
and the pioneer could now live in his rude cabin in peace, with 
a bright future before him. 

In connection with this treaty can be mentioned the special 
treaty with Great Britain, which was one of the results of the 
subjugation and the Indian treaty above. Under the provisions 
of this special treaty the British Government evacuated all its 
Western military posts, and no foreign potentate or power was 
now upon the soil of the United States or her territory. The 
era of a new prosperity was dawning upon the great West 

General Anthony Wayne died the following year after mak- 
ing the treaty. He breathed his last at Presque Isle, on Dec. 
15, 1796. At his death the Army of the West was commanded 
by General James Wilkinson. 

Among the lands c.eded by this treaty are the following, which 
are stated in Chamberlain's Indiana Gazetteer, published in 1850, 
to be at present a part of this State: "First, a tract lying 
southeast of a line from the mouth of Kentucky River, running 
northeast to Fort Recovery, near the head of the Wabash, and 
embracing the present counties of Dearborn, Ohio, and parts of 
Switzerland, Franklin, Union and Wayne; and then various 
tracts at the head of the Maumee, the portage of the Wabash, 
and the Ouiatenon. All claims to other lands within this State 
were, at that time, relinquished to the Indians, except the 150,- 
000 acres granted to Clarke's regiment, the French grants near 
Vincennes, and other lands occupied by the French, or other 
whites, to which the Indian title had been extinguished." 

The tract first above mentioned as " embracing the present 
counties of Dearborn and Ohio, and parts of Switzerland, Frank- 
lin, Union and Wayne," is the gore which constituted Dearborn 
jn-ior to the formation of Wayne in 1810, and laid between the 
])resent west line of Ohio and the west line of the tract ceded to 
the United States by the treaty of Greenville in 1795, which 


latter line was also the eastern boundary of the Twelve Mile 
Purchase. It was provided, however, in the act of May, 1800, 
dividing the Northwestern Territory, that when theeastern divis- 
ion should be admitted into the Union as a State its western 
boundary should be altered, probably with the view of establish- 
ing a boundary line running due north and south. Instead of 
beginning on the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Kentucky 
River, it was to begin at the mouth of the Great M!ami, and run 
due north to Fort Eecovery. When, in 1802, Ohio was admitted 
as a State into the Union, its western boundary was made to con- 
form to this provision. 

In October, 1795, a treaty with Spain was concluded, by which 
the riglit to navigate the Mississippi River to the Gulf was con- 
ceded to the United States, together with a right of deposit at 
New Orleans, which embrace all that the people of the Northwest 
Territory desired. 


"When William Henry Harrison became Governor of the Ter- 
ritory of Indiana, he was invested by the Government of the 
United States with authority to make further treaties with the 
Indians, and thereby to extinguish their title to lands lying 
within the boundaries of the Territory. In the exercise of this 
authority he made the following treaties: 

1. At Yincennes, Sept. 17, 1802, certain chiefs and head men' 
of the Pottawatomie, Eel River, Piankashaw, Wea, Kaskaskia 
and Kickapoo tribes nominated and appointed the Miami chiefs 
Little Turtle and Richardville, and the Pottawatomie chiefs 
Winamac and Topinepik, to settle the terms of a treat}' for the 
extinguishment of Indian claims to certain lands on the bor- 
ders of the Wabash, in the vicinity of Vincennes. 

2. At Fort Wayne, June 7, 1803, certain chiefs and head men 
of the Delaware, Shawanese, Pottawatomie, Eel Rirer, Kick- 
apoo, Piankashaw and Kaskaskia tribes, ceded to the United 
States about 1,600,000 acres of land. 

3. By the provision of a treaty concluded at Vincennes, Aug. 
13, 1803, certain chiefs and warriors of the Kaskaskia tribe 
ceded to the United States 8,600,000 acres of land lying on the 
borders of the Mississippi and Illinois rivers. 

4. At Vincennes, Aug. 18, 1804, those in authority of the 


Delaware tribe ceded to the United States their claim to the 
land lying between tlie "Wabash and the Ohio rivers, and south 
of the road leading from the falls of the Ohio River to Vincennes. 
Tiie Piankeshaws relinquished their claim to the same territory 
by a treaty at the same place, Aug. 27, 1804. 

5. By a treaty made at St. Louis, Nov. 3, ISOi, several chiefs 
of the Sac and Fox tribes ceded to tiie United States a vast extent 
of territory lying principally on the east side of the Mississippi 
River, between the Illinois and Wisconsin rivers. 

It was the dispute afterward about these lands that brought 
on the Black Hawk war, in 1832. 

6. At a treaty concluded at Groveland, near Yincennes, Aug. 
21, 1805, the chiefs and warriors of the Delaware, Pottawatomie, 
Eel River, Wea and Miami tribes ceded to the United States 
their territory lying southeast of the line running northeasterly 
(rem a point about fifty-seven miles due east from Vincennes, so 
as to sti-ike the boundary line (running from a point opposite 
the mouth of the Kentucky River to Fort Recovery), at the dis- 
tance of fifty miles Irom the commencement on the Ohio. 

7. At a treaty concluded at Vincennes, Dec. 10, 1805, the 
cliiefs and certain leading men of the Piankeshaw tribe 
ceded to the United States about 2,600,000 acres of land lying 
west of the AYabash River. 

8. At Fort AVayne. Sept. 30, 1809, the chiefs of the Delaware, 
Eel River, Miami and Pottawatomie tribes ceded to the United 
States about 2,900,000 acres of land lying principally on the 
southeastern side of the Wabash, below the mouth of Raccoon 
Creek. The chiefs and head men of the Wea tribe met Governor 
Harrison at Vincennes, Oct. 26, 1809, and acknowledged the 
validity of the above treaty at Fort Wayne. The same treaty 
was confirmed also by the sachems and war chiefs of the Kicka- 
poos, Dec. 9, 1809, they having ceded, in the above, to the 
United States, about 113,000 acres of land. 

Up to this period the total quantity of land ceded and secured 
to the United States, through the treaties made by Governor 
Harrison, amounted to 29,719,530 acres. 


The United States was bound by that treaty to pay the fol- 
lowing tribes, annually, forever, the following sums: To the 


Delawares, $1,000; "Wyandots, $1,000; Shawanoese, $1,000; 
Miamies, $1,000; Ottawas, $1,000; Chippewas, $1,000; Potta- 
watomies, $1,000; Kickapoos, $500; Weas, $500; Eel Rivers, 
$500; Piankesbaws, $500; Kaskaskias, $500; total, $9,500. 
Tlie above named were so spelled at tbe time of this treaty. By 
the treaty of Fort Industry, July 4, 1805, the Wyandot, Mun- 
see, Delaware, and Shawanoese tribes were to be paid $1,000 
annually, forever, by the United States. The treaty of Detroit, 
Nov. 17, 1807, the Ottawas and Chippewas were to receive 
$800 annually, forever, and the Wyandots and Pottawatomies 
$400 annually, forever. In 1809 another treaty was effected 
with five tribes at Fort Wayne, and the following annuities were 
to be paid annually, forever: Delawares, $500; Miamis, $700; 
Eel Elvers, $350; Pottawatomies, $500, and the Weas, $100. 
The latter also got $300 annually at the treaty of Yinceimes, 
while the Kickapoos were granted $500 something over a month 

The treaty of Fort Meigs, Sept. 29, 1817, the tribes below were 
allowed the following annuities, annually, forever: Wyandots, 
$4,000; Shawanoese, $2,000; Senecas, $500; Pottawatomies, 
for fifteen years, $1,300; Chippewas, fifteen years, $1,000, and 
tlie Ottawas, $1,000, for the same lengtli of time. 

Tiie several treaties concluded at St. Mary's, in Ohio, in the 
fall of 1818, the tribes below named received permanent an- 
nuities: Wyandots, $500; the Senecas and Shawanoese, of Lewis- 
ton, $1,000; the Senecas, of Upper Sandusky, $500; Ottawas, 
$1,500; Delawares, $4,000; Miamis, $15,000; Pottawatomies, 
$2,500, and the Weas, $1,850. The United States was also to 
give to blacksmiths and armories iron, steel, and tools to the 
value of not less than [$5,000, annually, and the Wyandots and 
Miamis were each to have a saw and grist mill erected by the 

In 1804, the Territory of Louisiana, purchased of France in 
1803, was divided into two Territories, the south part constitut- 
ing the Territory of Orleans, and the residue, lying nortii ot 
the 33d degree of north latitude, the district of Louisiana. 
There being within this district but few inhabitants, and these 
chiefly residing along the river, in villages, of which the princi- 
pal was St. Louis, the district was, for the purpose of govern- 
ment, placed under the jurisdiction of Indiana, then comprising 


all the original Northwestern Territory except the State of Ohio, 
which had recently been formed [180ii]. In March, 1805, this 
district was detached from Indiana and organized as a separate 

The criminal code of 1807 contained some unusual provis- 
ions. Horse-stealing, with treason, murder, and arson, was 
made punishable by death. Whipping might be inflicted for 
burglary, robbery, larceny, hog-stealing, and bigamy. ISTor did 
the early law-makers seem to underrate the importance of the 
observance of the fifth commandment. Children or servants 
for resistance or disobedience to the lawful commands of their 
parents or masters, might be sent by a justice of the peace to 
jail or the house of correction, thei-e to remain until they should 
"humble themselves to the said parents' or masters' satisfac- 
tion." And for assaulting or striking a parent or master they 
were liable to be " whipped not exceeding ten stripes." 


The era of peace dawned upon as energetic a people as ever 
pioneered a path of civilization in the wilderness, and not only 
were those who had lived, fought, and defended their homes 
against the ruthless savages ready to strike giant blows for re- 
newed lite, but thousands of others, brave and hardy men, came 
West, the advance guard, to blaze the way for men of less nerve 
to follow, when civilization and Christianity had established a 
permanent foothold in the great Northwest. The Ohio Eiver 
was laden with flatboats and pirogues, bearing living freight and 
household goods. The years from 171)6 to 1805 showed a con- 
stant immigration, and thousands of people were seeking homes 
in the new country. They came from all the Atlantic States. 
This immigration was encouraged by Congress, which offered 
special inducements to the soldiers of the lievolution and of the 
Indian wars. The river towns of the Ohio, from Marietta to the 
mouth of the Wabash, nearly all became places of rendezvous. 


began its session at Cincinnati on Monday, Sept. 16, 1799. 
The Legislative Council consisted of Jacob Burnet, of Cincin- 
nati; Henry Vanderburg, of Vincennes; David Vance, of Yance- 
ville, Jefferson Co., Ohio, and Eobert Oliver, of Marietta. 
Henry Vanderburg was elected President of the Council, or Leg- 


islature; William C. Schenk, Secretary; George Howard, Door- 
keeper and Abraham Gary, Sergeant-at-arms. 

The first House of Kepresentatives under territorial govern- 
ment, consisting of William Goforth, William McMillan, John 
Smith, John Ludlow, Eobert Benham, Aaron Caldwell, and Isaac 
Martin, from Hamilton County; Thomas Worthington, Samuel 
Finley, Elias Langham and Edwin Tiffin, of Ross County; 
Wayne County, now State of Michigan, and a portion then of 
Ohio and Indiana, as now known, came Solomon Sibley, Charles 
F. Chobert de Joncarie and Jacob Visger; Adams County sent 
Joseph Darlington and Nathaniel Massie; Knox County, 
which covered most of Indiana and all of Illinois, Shadrack 
Bond; Jefierson County, Ohio, James Pritchard; and Wash- 
ington County, Ohio, Return J. Meigs. Edwin Tifiin was elected 
Speaker; John Riley, Clerk; Joshua Rowland, Door-keeper, 
and Abraham Cary, Sergeant-at-arms, be serving in that capac- 
ity for both houses. 

This was the first Legislature elected by the people of the 
Northwestern Territory, now embracing Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Wisconsin and Michigan. Governor St. Clair delivered his first 
message, Sept. 25, 1799, and the first public printer, Joseph 
Carpenter, was appointed Sept. 30. Winthrop Sai-gent, having 
been appointed Governor of Mississippi Territory, resigned his 
office of Secretary, and Charles Willing Bird was appointed, and 
following him came William Henry Harrison, who held the office 
until Oct. 3, 1799, when both Houses having met to elect a ter- 
ritorial representative or delegate to Congress, he was chosen, 
receiving eleven votes; to Arthur St. Clair, a son of Governor St. 
Clair, ten votes. Francis Dunlevy acted as Secretary after Har- 
rison's resignation to the end of the session, which ended the 
term, and the office was vacated by the election of Harrison to 

In the session of the Territorial Legislature in 1800, William 
H. Harrison, then delegate in Congress, was appointed first 
Governor of Indiana Territory, and Return J. Meigs, of Marietta, 
one of its first Judges. It is stated that the most efficient mem- 
ber of the first Legislature was Jacob Bnrnet. He wrote the 
reply to Governor St. Clair's first message, drafted the rules gov- 
erning the session, wrote the address to the President of the 
United States, and drafted some or most of the laws passed. 
Governor St. Clair ruled as a military martinet and prorogued 


the Legislature in true British style. After the first session of 
the Territorial Legislature the seat of Grovernment was removed 
to Chillicothe where it remained during territorial existence. 


All classes of citizens came West to find homes and peace in 
this fruitful region, and the Ohio and its tributaries were soon 
peopled with an industrious race, and towns and villages sprang 
up, while the farmers themselves formed settlements, locating 
their lands within neighborly distances of each other. Schools 
and churches, those sure harbingers of a moral and contented 
people, alive alike to the present and the future, reared their 
humble roofs, and when the dawn of prosperity began to show 
itself in field and farm-house, the school-houses and church of 
logs began to disappear and the frame church painted white 
appeared, and the same arrangements for the advance of the 
pupils in the Atlantic States were found in the West. Education 
and Christianity went hand in hand, and the people of the West 
were in nowise behind those of the East in advancing the work 
of civilization and enjoying its fruits, albeit their struggles and 
their trials would cause at times some discouraging thoughts. 

The next 'county established in the Territory after that of 
'Washington on July 27, 1788, Marietta being the county seat, 
was Hamilton, erected Jan. 2, 1790. Its bounds included the 
country between the Miamis, extending northward from the 
Ohio Eiver to a line drawn due east from the standing stone 
forks of the Great Miami. The name of the settlement opposite 
the Licking was, at this time, called Cincinnati. Knox County 
was formed Aug. 20, 1790, and up to the time of the organiza- 
ton of Wayne County, in 1796, included all of Indiana and Illi- 
nois. It was named after General Henry Knox, then Secretary 
of War. Aug. 15, 1796, Wayne County was established, in- 
cluding all the northwestern part of Ohio, a large tract in North- 
eastern Indiana, and the whole Territory of Michigan. Detroit 
was the seat of justice. July 10, 1797, Adams County was erected, 
comprehending a large tract lying on the west side of the 
Scioto and extending northward to Wayne. Other counties 
were afterward formed out of those already established, and be- 
jfore the end of the year 1798 the Northwest Territory contained 
a population of 5,000 free male inhabitants of full age and nine 
organized counties. 



Organization of the Territory. — Vincennes and other Set- 
tlements. — Territorial Legislature. — Its First Session. 
— Burr's Expedition. — Territory of Illinois. — The Cen- 
sus OF IS 10. — Population and Products. — The Indian War 
OF 1811. — Tecumseh. — The Latter Defiant. — Governor 
Harrison's Speech. — Tecumseh's Reply. — Conference End- 
ed. — War Inevitable. — Battle of Tippecanoe. — Harrison's 
Victory. — The Indians Willing to Treat for Peace. 


The Territory of Indiana was organized by Act of Congress 
May 7, 1800, the material parts of the ordinance of 1787 remain- 
ing in force; and the inhabitants were invested with all the rights, 
privileges and advantages granted and secured to the people by 
that ordinance. The seat of government was fixed at Vincennes. 
May 13, 1800, William Henry Harrison, a native of Virginia, 
was appointed Governor of this new Territory; John Gibson, a 
native of Pennsylvania and a distinguished Western pioneer (to 
whom the Indian chief Logan delivered his celebrated speech 
in 1774), was appointed Secretary of the Territory, and William 
Clark, HenVy Vanderburg and John Griffin were appointed Ter- 
ritorial Judges. 

Secretary Gibson arrived at Vincennes in July, and commenced, 
in the absence of Governor Harrison, the administration of gov- 
ernment. Governor Harrison did not arrive until Jan. 10, 1801. 

The Judges held the first session of the general court of the 
Territory at Vincennes, beginning March 3, 1801. 

The first grand jury of Indiana Territory was as follows: Luke 
Decker, Antoine Marchai, Joseph Beard, Patrick Simpson, 
Antoine Petit, Andre Montplaiseur, John Okiltree, Jonathan 


Marney, Jacob Fevebangh, Alexander Varley, Francois Turpin, 
F. Campagnoitte, Charles Languedoc, Louis Severe, F. Langue- 
doc, George Catt, Jolin Bt. Barvis, Abraham Decker and Phil- 
lip Catt. 

The Territory was sparsely settled at this time, and what few 
there were were scattered over many miles of country. What 
farms were cultivated were principally in the valley of the 
Wabash, and that section had been settled fully a century when 
the first Territorial Legislature met. Along the Ohio Eiver quite 
a number of cabins were found, but the distance was so great 
between them that they could hardly be called neighbors. 


Besides Vincennes there was a small settlement near where 
the town of Lawrenceburg now stands, in Dearborn County, and 
a small settlement was also formed at "Armstrong's Station," 
on the Ohio, within tlie present limits of Clark Count}'. There 
were, of course, several other smaller settlements and trading 
posts in the present limits of Indiana, and the number of civil- 
ized inhabitants comprised within the territory was estimated at 
4,875. Vincennes, the most imfiortant point in the Territory, 
then comprising Indiana and Illinois as now formed, was guarded 
by Fort Knox, which was well arranged for defense against the 
Indian attacks, with a wide and deep ditch, and palisades, the 
guns of the fort bearing directly upon it. There was, of course, 
much poverty and ignorance to be found, and the tide of events 
which had flowed smoothly along, excepting the outbreak of the 
Indians now and then, had not left a very vivid impression upon 
the French residents of that early period. While some writers 
have stated that Vincennes was settled about 1735, and some 
Frenchman had written a letter to that effect, thefe are facts 
enough in existence to show that it was settled as early as 1702. 
It is natural for some writers, for want of a thorough research, 
to take some report of early times and weave a theory of their own, 
based upon supposition and a want of a thorough knowledge of 
our country's history. A thorough search among the archives 
of the early records of this State would utterly astound some of 
these so-called writers of history. This, however, is useless. 
These writers will go on in the good old way of stating theory 
as fact, and a wild imagining as matters of actual occurrence, it 


hoincr SO mucli easier tlian to delve among the archives and dusty 
records that are covered with tlie dust of years, and contain facts 
of great and inestimable value. 

Whea territorial life was given to Indiana, in the year 1800, 
although white settlers had been living in the country for over 
three-quarters of a century, yet the country was but a wilder- 
ness. There was uotliing strange, however, about this. There 
was a good deal of lying out of doors in the Indiana Territory 
in the year 1 SCO. The population, whites, was less than 5,000 
souls, all told, and a centurv later will find some wilderness 
scattered over the two Sta js then composing the Territory, and 
although wealth and population have grown wonderfully, yet 
squalid poverty and ignorance has not been driven altogether 
from the"land. From Yincennes and Kaskaskia and to Detroit 
quite a fur and peltry trade was carried on. Also from Cahokia, 
on the west, and Ft. AVayne, on the cast. The Wabash was the 
principal means of transportation of the packs of dried skins 
and furs up as far as Ft. Wayne, and then the Maumee was used, 
for the principal market was Detroit, and to that point for many 
years all the trade tended. It was the great fur and skin mar- 
ket of the country. 


There was no Territorial Legislature until after the separation 
and organization of the Territory of Michigan, which took place 
June 30, 1805, pursuant to an Act of Congress, approved on the 
11th of January pi-eceding. 

On the 11th of September, 1804, a vote had been taken and a 
majority of 138 of the freeholders of the Territory had voted in 
favor of organizing a General Assembly, whereupon Governor 
Harrison issued a proclamation calling for an election of mei;i- 
bers of a House of Representatives, to be holden on Thursday, 
Jan. 3, 1805, and citing the members elect to meet in Yin- 
cennes on the 1st of February, to take measures for the organi- 
zation of a Territorial Council. The members convened ac- 
cordingly, and on Fek 7, 1805, proceeded to elect, by ballot, 
the names of ten residents of the Territory to be forwarded to 
the President of the United States, five of whom the President 
was authorized by Congress to appoint and commission as mem- 
bers of the Legislative Council of Indiana Territory. Their 


names were: John Eice Jones and Jacob Kuykendall, of Knox 
County; Samuel GwatL-raey and Marston Green Clark, of Clark 
County; Jean Francois Perry and John Hay, of St. Clair County ; 
Benjamin' Chambers, of Dearborn County; Pierre Menard, of 
Randolph County; and James Alay and James Henry, of Detroit, 
Wayne County — the latter being in Indiana at the time of the 
election, but being set off to Michigan prior to the meeting of 
the Legislature on the 29th of July following. President Jeffer- 
son declined to name the five for the Upper Council, and sent 
the names to Governor Harrison, with the following: "Fill the 
blank commissions with the names most suitable, rejecting land 
jobbers, dishonest men, and those who, though honest, might 
suffer themselves to be warped by party prejudices." 

The first General Assembly, or Legislature, of Indiana Terri- 
tory met at Vincennes, July 29, 1805, in pursuance of a guber- 
natorial proclamation. The members of the House of Repre- 
sentatives were: Jesse B. Thomas, of Dearborn County; Davis 
Floyd, of Clark County; Benjamin Park and John Johnson, of 
Knox County; Shadrach Bond and William Biggs, of St. Clair 
County, and George Fisher, of Randolph County. 

On the 30th of July Governor Harrison delivered his first 
message. Tiie House and Council soon after went into joint 
session for the election of a delegate to Congress, from Indiana 
Tei-ritory, and the election resulted in the choice of Benjamin 
Parke, a native of New Jei'sey, and a resident of the Territory 
from 180L 


Tliree land offices were established by Act of Congress Mar:*!! 
26, 1S0±; one at Detroit, another at Vincennes, and the third 
at Kaskaskia. March 3, 1807, the fourth office was established 
at Jeffersonville, which was then five years old, liaving been 
laid out in 1802, from plans made by Thos. Jefferson, tlien Pres- 


A movement of Burr to establish a new government in th.e 
Southwest caused great excitement in the minds of the people in 
the Ohio Valley. Aaron Burr had both brains and energy, but 


his vanltinif ambition overleaped itself. It was a restless and 
active mind which he possessed, and it was ever ready to con- 
ceive, CO do and to dare, but ere the Grovernment was fully aware 
of his intentions he had discovered their impracticability, and his 
dream of power and place had given way to stubborn fact, and 
the grand enterprise conceived was abandoned . The Govern- 
ment arrested him when too late, but that he had contemplated 
the conquest and the organization of a new empire, of which he 
was to be the head and master mind, has been pretty conclusively 
proved. Burr should have lived in the days of the "Forty-niners," 
then his ambition could have had full sway on the Pacific Coast. 
The Rocky Mountain barrier would have been a safeguard, and 
ere the Government could have sent its forces, via the Isthmus 
or the Horn, he could have enthroned himself. Burr gave way 
to his passions, evil thoughts and his ambition. He could have 
been great and powerful, but his ambition was for supreme con- 
trol. That he could not dictate the rules and the laws of the 
country made him restive, and this restlessness evolved from his 
mind the great scheme of a new empire. That, in a measure, 
he meditated treason to his country was pretty certain, and that 
made him a marked man, and he never recovered from the blow, 
for he was avoided by the true patriots of the Eevolution as 
tainted with dishonor and treason, and his future life was 


In 1808 the white population of the Territory was computed 
at 28,000, of whom 11,000 were living west of the Wabasli, or in 
what became the Territory of Illinois the next year. During 
the year 1808 Bjnjamin Parke was appointed to the Supreme 
Bench of the Territory, and the Legislature elected the Hon. 
Jesse B. Thomas, then Speaker of the House, to the vacant 
place as delegate to Congress. 

The question of dividing the Territory of Indiana was agitated 
from 1806 to 1809, when Congress erected the Territory of Illi- 
nois, to comprise all that part of Indiana Territory lying west of 
the Wabash River, and a direct line drawn from that river and 
Post Vincennes due north to the territorial line between the 
United States and Canada. 

The act was passed Feb. 3, 1809, and took effect from the 1st 


day of March following. This left only four counties in the 
Territory of Indiana, viz.: Knox, Harrison, Clark and Dear- 

At an election for delegate to Congress on the 22d of May 
911 votes were polled. Jonathan Jennings received 42S: 
Thomas Eandolph, 402, and John Johnson, SI. 


The census of 1810 gave the following as the population and 
products of the Territory: 

Total population, 21-,520; 33 grist-mills; 14 saw-mills; 3 horse- 
mills; 18 tanneries; 28 distilleries; 3 powder-mills; 1,256 
looms; 1,350 spinning wheels; value of manufactures — woolen, 
cotton, hempen and flaxen cloths — §159,052; of cotton and wool 
spun in mills, $150,000; of nails, 20,000 pounds, $4,000; of 
leather tanned, $9,300; of distillery products, 35,950 gallons, 
$16,230; of gunpowder, 3,600 pounds, $1,800; of wine from 
grapes, 96 barrels, $6,000, and 50,000 pounds of maple sugar. 

This year (1810) was not important in actual events, except, 
it might be said, tiie incipient movement of an Indian war. The 
celebrated Tecuraseh had been conspicuously active in his efforts 
to unite the native tribes against the whites and to arrest the 
further expansion of the white settlements. His actions and 
those of his brother, the Prophet, soon made it evident that the 
"West was about to suffer the calamities of another Indian war, 
and it was resolved to anticipate their movements. In ISU 
General Harrison, the Governor of Indiana Territory, marched 
against the town of the Prophet, on the Wabash, and in the en. 
suing action, the battle of Tippecanoe, in what is now Cass 
County, Ind., the Indians were totally defeated. This battle 
will be described further on. This year (1811) was also made 
important to Western history by the voyage from Pittsburg to 
New Orleans of the first steamboat ever launched upon the 
Western waters. 


After the treaty of Greenville, the Indians remained quiet till 
the year 1810. Discontent, however, had baeu brewing among 
them, through the influence of Tecumseh and his brother, the 
Shawnee Prophet, for several years prior to the outbreak of ace- 


ual hostilities. These noted Indian leaders steadily maintained 
their opposition to the cession of lands to the United States, and 
were encouraged and aided in their discontent by petty ofBcers 
in the British Indian Department, and a number of land specu- 
lators residing in Indiana Territory. 

In 1805 the Shawnee warrior, Tecaniseh, and his brother, La- 
le-was-ikaw (Loud Voice), resided at one of the Delaware 
villages, on the borders of the West Fork of White River, 
within the present boundaries of Delaware County. Sometime 
during 1805 La-le-was-i-kaw took upon himself the character 
of a prophet and reformer,assuming the name of Pems-quat-a- wall, 
which in the Shawnee dialect signifies Open Door. Among the 
many evils he declaimed against as the sins of his times and his 
people, the chief prominence was given to witchcraft, the use of 
intoxicating liquors by the Indians, the custom of Indian women 
intermarrying with white men, and the practice of selling In- 
dian lands to the United States. He saw that the Indian tribes 
had become vastly detei-iorated by contact with the whites, and a 
departure froni their ancient spirit and customs, and were fa-t 
being swept away before the advance of the white race; and his 
purpose was to reform them, unite them, and, by infusing into 
tliem their ancient courage, virtue, and endurance, to make 
them equal to the task of resisting the encroachments of the 
Americans upon their territory. With this general purpose in 
view he commenced preaching to his people — preaching refor- 
mation as to their personal behavior, and, at the same time, a 
sort of Indian state policy, which he taught them would make 
them a great confederacy or nation. He professed to be in- 
spired b}' the Great Spirit, to be able to cure all kinds of dis- 
eases, to confound his enemies, and to stay the arm of death on 
the battle-field. By his preaching he gathered around him a 
considerable band of Shawnees, and, about the close of the year 
1805, took up his residence at Greenville, Ohio, where he re- 
mained, increasing the number of his followers and creating 
considerable excitement and alarm among the settlers, till the 
spring of 1808, when he settled on the banks of the AYabash, 
near the mouth of the Tippecanoe River, at a place which after- 
ward became famous as the Prophet's town. Here in June, 
1808, his followers numbered about 140 persons, of whom about 
forty were Siiawnees. 


Meantime Teeumseh was actively engaged in an effort to form 
the various tribes into one great confederacy, and openly pro- 
claimed in the councils which he held with the Indians that the 
treaties made with the United States for the cession of their 
lands were unfair and of no binding force. 

Early in 1808 Governor Harrison sent John Conner, an early 
pioneer and friend of the Indians, with a message to the Shaw- 
nees. It contained the following passage: " My children — 
This business must be stopped. I will no longer suffer it. You 
have called a number of men from the most distant parts to lis- 
ten to a fool, who speaks not the words of the Great Spirit, but 
those of the devi! and the British agents. My children, your 
conduct has much alarmed the wliite settlers. They desire that 
you will send away these people; and if they wish to have the 
impostor with them, they can carry him. Let him go to the 
lakes; he can hear the British more distinctly'." 

In the latter part of June, 1808, a deputation of Indians ar- 
rived at Vincennes, with a message from the Prophet to Gover- 
nor Harrison, assuring him that his followers had no intention 
but to live in peace with the white people. In August, 1808, the 
Prophet himself visited Vincennes, and, in an interview with 
Governor Harrison, said: " Father, it is three years since I first 
began with that system of religion which I practice. The white 
people and some of the Indians were against me; but I had no 
other intention than to introduce among the Indians those good 
principles of religion which the white people profess. The 
Great Spirit told me to tell the Indians that he had made them 
and made the world; that he had placed them on it to do good, 
and not evil. I told all the red-skins that the way they were in 
was not good, and that they ought to abandon it, and that it is 
the cause of all the mischief the Indians suffer; that we must 
always follow the directions of the Great Spirit, determined to 
listen to nothing that is bad. Do not take up the tomahawk 
should it be offered by the British or by the Long Knives. Do 
not meddle with anything that does not belong to you, but mind 
your own business and cultivate tlie ground, that your women 
and children may have enough to live on. My father, I have in- 
formed you what we mean to do, and I call the Great Spirit to 
witness the truth of my declaration." 

The professions of the Prophet and the temperate conduct of 


the few of his followers who were with him induced Governor 
Harrison to take a more favorable view of their pacific inten- 
tions for a time; but this opinion was soon changed by reports 
which he constantly received of the conduct of the Indians at the 
Prophet's town, and he was compelled to regard the Prophet and 
Tecumseh as very dangerous persons to the safety and peace of 
the country. 

During the year 1810 Governor Harrison frequently sent confi- 
dential messengers to the Prophet's town and to the principal 
villages of the Indians throughout the Territory, to assure them 
of the protection and friendship of the United States, and to warn 
them of the danger of encouraging the pretensions and claims 
of the Shawnee Prophet. 

Among the most influential persons sent on these missions 
were Francis Vigo, Tonssaint Dubois, Josepli Barron, Pierre La- 
plante, John Conner, M. Brouilette and William Prince. 

In the spring of 1810 certain boatmen, who were sent up to 
the Prophet's town to deliver to the Indians their annuity of 
salt, were insulted and called "American dogs," the Indians 
refusing to receive the salt. In July Governor Harrison sent 
the Prophet a letter, designed to convince him of his folly in at- 
tempting to make war upon the United States: but it seems to 
have had little effect. Mr. Barron — who carried the letter— was 
conducted, in a ceremonious manner, to the place where the 
Prophet was sitting, surrounded by a number of his followers, 
and left standing at a distance of some twelve feet from him. 
Tlie Prophet lo(;ked steadily at him for several minutes, without 
saying a word or making a sign of recognition. At length he 
demanded, "For what purpose do you come here? Brouilette 
was here; he was a spy. Dubois was here; he was a spy. Now 
you have come; you, too, are a spy. Tltexe is your grave; look 
on UP " pointing to the ground near where Barron stood. His 
intent was evidently to frighten the messenger. But just attliat 
moment Tecumseh entered from one of the lodges. He told him 
his life was not in danger, and wished to know the object of his 

After receiving Mr. Barron's answer Tecumseh Informed him 
that he would soon visit Vincennes in person and have an inter- 
view with Governor Harrison. Accordingly, on the 12th of 
August, attended by seventy-five of his warriors, he arrived at 


Vinceniies, and from that time until the 22il Governor Harrison 
was almost constantly engaged in holding conference with Te- 
cum seh. 

In one of these interviews the latter said: " Brother, since the 
treaty of Greenville you have killed some of the Shawnees, Win- 
nebagoes, Delawares and Miamis, and you have taken our lands 
from us; and I do not see how we can remain at peace with you, 
]f you continue to do so. You try to force the red people to do 
some injury. It is you that are pushing them on to do mis- 
chief You endeavor to make distinctions. You wish to prevent 
the Indians from doing as we wish them — to unite and let thein 
consider their lands as the common property of the whole. Yon 
take tribes aside and advise them not to come into this measure; 
and until our design is accomplished we do not wish to accept your 
invitation and go to see the President. * * * If the land is 
not restored to us, you will see, when we return to our homes, 
how it will be settled. We shall have a great council, at which 
all the tribes shall be present, when we shall show to those who 
sold that they had no right to the claim they set up; and we shall 
see what will be done with those chiefs that did sell the land 
to you. I am not alone in this determination. It is the de- 
termination of all the warriors and red people that listen to me." 

Tecumseh seems to have become considerably excited dur- 
ing the delivery of this speech. When Governor Harrison 
commenced his reply, he was interrupted and contradicted by 
this Shawnee chief, who, with angry and violent gestures, declared 
the statements of the Governor to be false. At the same time 
the armed warriors of Tecumseh sprang to their feet and stood in :i 
menacing attitude. The Governor ordered General Gibson to Ije 
ready with a guard of twelve men, under command of Lieutenant 
Jesse Jennings. The guard was brought forward. Governor Har- 
rison then closed the interview, declaring that he was determined 
to extinguish the council fires and no longer to hold any communi- 
cation with the Indians. He, however, afterward consented to 
another interview with Tecumseh, who, when the conference was 
opened on the 21st of August, addressed the Governor in a 
respectful and dignified manner. At this conference Governor 
Harrison asked Tecumseh, explicitly, if the Indians would forci- 
lily resist an attempt to survey the lands ceded by the treaty of 
Fort Wayne, and was answered, in substance, that they would 


resist. Said he: " "We do not wish you to take the land." Governor 
Harrison answered that his •' claims and pretensions would not bj 
acknowledged by the President of the United States." " Well,'' 
said Tecuinseh, "as the great chief is to determine tiie matter, 
I hope the Great Spirit will put sense enough into his head to 
induce him to direct you to give up the land. It is true, he is 
so far off that he will not be injured by the war. He may sit 
still in his town and drink his wine while you and I will 
have to fight it out." 

Thus ended the last conference on earth between the chival- 
rous Tecuinseh and the hero of the battle of Tippecanoe. The 
bones of the first lie bleaching on the battle-field of the Thames, 
and those of the last in a mausolenm on the banks of the Ohio; 
each struggled for the mastery of his race, and each no doubt 
was equally honest and patriotic in his purposes. The weak 
yielded to the strong, the defenseless to the powerful, and the 
hunting-ground of the Shawnee is all occupied by his enemy. 

Tecnmseh, with four of his braves, immediately embarked in 
a birch canoe, descended the Wabash, and went on to the South 
to unite the tribes of that country in a general system of self- 
defense against the encroachment of the whites. His emblem 
was a disjointed snake, with the motto, "Join or die!" In 
union alone was strength. 

Before Tecuraseh left the Prophet's town at the mouth of the 
Tippecanoe River, on his excursion to the South, he had a defi- 
nite understanding with his brother and the chieftains of the 
other tribes in the Wabash country, that they should preserve 
perfect peace with the whites until his arrangements were com- 
pleted for a confederacy of the tribes on both sides of the Ohio 
and on the Mississippi River; but it seems that while he was in 
the South engaged in his work of uniting the tribes of that coun. 
try some of the Northern tribes showed signs of fight and pre- 
cipitated Harrison into that campaign which ended in the 
battle of Tippecanoe and the total rout of the Indians. 
Tecumseh, on his return from the South, learning what had 
happened, was overcome with chagrin, disappointment, and 
anger, and accused his brother of duplicity and cowardice; in- 
deed, it is said that he never forgave him to the day of his death. 
A short time afterward, on the breaking out of the war of Great 
Britain, he joined Proctor, at Maiden, with a party of his war- 


riors, and was killed at the battle of the Thames, Oct. 5, 1813. 

In October, 1810, Governor Harrison sent a Mr. McDonald to 
survey the boundary line of the tract of land which had been 
acquired by the treaty of Fort Wayne. 

In the early part of 1811 the British Agent of Indian Affairs 
in Canada, believing that a war was soon to break out between 
the United States an'd Great Britain, adopted a policy calculated 
to secure for his government the friendship of the Northwestern 
tribes of Indians. Governor Harrison, in the meantime, acting 
upon the instructions received from the President of the United 
States, continued his efforts to break up the confederacy of In- 
dians at the Prophet's town, and began to make preparations to 
erect a fort on the Wabash for the protection of the settlers in 
that quarter. 

Indian disturbances bi-oke out during the summer of this 
year, and depredations were committed by straggling parties 
upon the property of the white settlers. Several white men en- 
gaged in surveying land were frightened away; others were 
killed. A quantity of "annuity salt" being conveyed in boats 
from Viucenues to the Indian villages up the Wabash was 
seized at the Prophet's town, and appropriated to the use of the 
Indians at that place. The Prophet sent back word by the boat- 
men to the Governor requesting him " not to be angry at his 
seizing the salt, as he had got none last year, and had more than 
2,000 men to feed." 

On the 24th of June, 1811, Governor Harrison dispatched 
Captain Walter Wilson to the Prophet's town as the bearer of 
a speech addressed to the Prophet and Tecumseh. In this 
speech the Governor still remonstrated against violence, and 
tried to maintain peace. 


He said: "This is the third year that all the white people in 
this country have been alarmed at your proceedings; you 
threaten us with war; you invite all the tribes north and west of 
you to join against us, while your warriors who have lately 
been here deny this. The tribes on the Mississippi have sent 
me word that you intend to murder me and then commence a 
war upon m}' people, and your seizing the salt I recently sent 
up the Wabash is also sufficient evidence of such intentions on 


your part. My warriors are preparing themselves, not to strike 
you, but to defend themselves and their women and cliiidren. 
You shall not surprise us, as you expect to do. Tour intended 
act is a rash one; consider well of it. What can induce you to 
undertake such a thing when there is so little .prospect of suc- 
cess? Do you really think that the handful of men you have 
about you are able to contend with the seventeen ' fires' ? or even 
that the whole of the tribes united could contend against the 
Kentucky 'fire' alone? I am myself of the Long Knife 'fire.' 
As soon as they hear my voice you will see them pouring forth 
their swarms of hunting-shirt men as numerous as the mos- 
quitoes on the shores of the "Wabash. Take care of their stings. 
It is not our wish to hurt you; if it was, we certainly have the 
power to do it. 

" You have also insulted the Government of the United States, 
by seizing the salt that was intended for other tribes. Satisfac- 
tion must be given for that also. You talk offcoming to see 
me, attended by all of your young men, but this must not be. 
If your intentions are good, you have no need to bring but a few 
of your young men with 3'ou. I must be plain with you. I will 
not sufi'er you to come into our settlements with such a force. 
My advice is that you visit the President of the United States 
and lay your grievances before him. 

" With respect to the lands that were purchased last fall I 
can enter into no negotiations with you; the affair is witli the 
President. If you wish to go and see him, I will supply you 
with the means. 

"Tiie person who delivers this is one of my war officers, and 
is a man in whom I have entire confidence; whatever he says to 
you, although it may not be contained in this paper, you may 
believe comes from me. My friend Tecumseh, the bearer, is a 
good man and a brave warrior; I hope you will treat him well. 
You are yourself a warrior, and all such should have esteem for 
each other." 

The bearer of this speech was politely received by Tecumseh, 
who sent back a lengthy answer by the messenger, in which, 
among other things, he proposed to visit the Governor again in 
person at the head of a band of his young warriors, and on the 
27th of July he appeared at Vincennes, with about 300 attend- 
ants, among whom were twenty or thirty women and children. 


The approach of so large a force created considerable alarm 
among the inhabitants; but the militia were in readiness, num- 
bering about 750, well armed, and Governor Harrison stationed 
two companies and a detachment of dragoons on the borders of 
the town. Teeumseh, however, declared that it was not his in- 
tention to go to war with the United States. In this declaration 
he was undoubtedly insincere, for immediately upon the close 
of the conference he proceeded down the Mississippi, in com- 
pany with some twenty Indians, to propagate his scheme of con- 
federating the Indian tribes among the Creeks, Chickasaws, and 
Choctaws of the South. 


On the 17th of Jnly, 1811, the President of the United States 
instructed the Secretary of War to authorize Governor Harrison 
to call out the militia of the Territory, and to attack the Propliet 
and his followers, in case circumstances should render such ac- 
tion necessary or expedient. The Governor was further author- 
ized, at his discretion, to call into his service the Fourth Eegiment 
of United States Infantry, under command of Colonel John P. 
Boyd. The Fourth Regiment was ordered to move from the 
Falls of the Ohio to Vincennes, where it was to be joined by the 
militia of the Territory. Governor Harrison, however, before 
moving his military expedition, sent out special messengers 
with written speeches to all the Indian tribes of the Territory, 
requiring them to fulfill the conditions of their treaties with the 
United States; to avoid all acts of hostility toward the white 
settlers, and to make an absolute disavowal of union or co-opera- 
tion with the Shawnee Prophet. 

About the 25th of September, as the array was read\' to move 
on the Prophet's town, a deputation of Indians from tliat place 
arrived at Vincennes. These deputies made strong professions 
of peace, and declared that the Indians would comply with the 
terms of the Governor. 

The army, under tlie command of Governor Harrison, left Vin- 
cennes on the 26th of September, ISll, and moved up the Wa- 
bash to the place where Fort Harrison was afterward built, on tlie 
east bank of tlie Wabash, above where the city of Terre Haute 
now stands. Here they selected a sight and erected Fort Harri- 
son, which was completed on the 28th of October, 1811. The 


fort was garrisoned by a small number of men under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant-Colonel J ames Miller. The remainder of the 
troops moved from the post on the 29th of October, en route 
for tlie Prophet's town. The force amounted to about 910 men, 
composed of 250 regular troops, under the command of Colonel 
Boyd, about gixt}' volunteers from Kentucky, and about 600 cit- 
izens of Indiana Territory. The mounted troops, consisting of 
light dragoons and riflemen, numbered about 270 men. On the 
2d of jSTovember the army encamped about two miles below the 
mouth of the Big Vermillion River. Here a small block-house 
was ei'ected on the west bank of the Wabash, in which was sta- 
tioned a Sergeant and eight men, with orders to protect the boa*^s 
which had been employed in the transportation of supplies up 
to this point. On the afternoon of the 6th of November the 
army arrived at the Prophet's town, and, finding the Indians not 
disposed to give battle. Governor Harrison sent forward a detach- 
ment to select a camping ground near the Wabash. Governor 
Harrison, in a letter written on the 18th of November, 1811, and 
addressed to the Secretary of War, describes the camping ground 
on which the battle of Tippecanoe was fought as not being alto- 
gether such as he could wish. " It was," he says, " admirably 
► calculated for the encampment of regular troops that were opposed 
to regulars, but it afforded great fixcility to the approach of sav- 
ages." It is situated on the borders of Burnett's Creek, about 
seven miles northwest of the city of Lafayette, in Tippecanoe 
County. At the time of the encampment of Harrison's army 
it was "a piece of dry oak land, rising about ten feet above the 
level of a marshy jirairie in front (toward the Prophet's town), 
and nearly twice that height above a similar prairie in the rear, 
through which, and near to this bank, ran a small stream, clothed 
with willows and other brushwood." Toward the leu. flank this 
bench of land widened considerably, but became gradually nar- 
rower in the opposite direction, and at the distance of 140 yards 
from the right flank terminated in an abrupt point. 

" The army encamped in the order of battle. The men were 
instructed to sleep with their clothes and accoutrements on, with 
their fire-arms loaded and their bayonets fixed; and each corps 
that formed a part of the exterior line of the encampment was 
ordered, in case of an attack, to hold its own ground until 


" The two columns of infantry occupied tlie front and rear of 
theencampinentground, at adistanceof aboutl50 yards from each 
other on the left flank, and something more than half that dis- 
tance on the right flank. The left flank was filled up by two 
companies of mounted riflemen, numbering about 120 men, 
under the command of Major General Wells, of the Kentucky 
militia, who served as Major. The right flank was filled up by 
Captain Spier Spencer's company of mounted riflemen, consist- 
ing of eighty men. The front line was composed of one battal- 
ion of United States Infantry, under the command of Major 
Floyd — flanked on the right by two companies of militia, and on 
the left by one company. The rear line was composed of a bat- 
talion of United States troops under the command of Captain 
Baen, acting as Major, and four companies of militia infantry, un- 
der command of Lieutenant-Colonel Decker. The regular troops on 
the rear line joined the mounted riflemen under General Wells, on 
the left flank, and Colonel Decker's battalion formed an angle 
with Captain Spencer's company on the right flank. Two troops 
of dragoons, amounting, aggregately, to about sixty men, were 
encamped in the rear of the left flank; and Captain Parke's troop 
of dragoons, which was larger than the other two, was encamped 
in the rear of the front line. The dragoons were directed, in ' 
case of a night attack, to parade dismounted witli their pistols 
in their belts, and to act as a corps de reserve. " 

Altliough strong guards were placed on duty on the night of 
the 6th ofJSToreinber, it seems that the principal officers did not 
expect that the Indians would attack them that night. But 
about two hours before sunrise, on the morning of the 7th of 
November, an attack was m.ado on the left flank of the encamped 
army, " so suddenly that the Indians were in camp before many 
of the men could get out of their tents." 

The following particulars of the battle of Tippecanoe are cop- 
ied from the official report which was addressed to the Secretary 
of War by General Harrison, Nov. IS, 1811, ten days after the 
battle. We quote from Dillon's History of Indiana: 

" I had arisen at a quarter after four o'clock, and the signal 
for calling out the men would have been given in two minutes, 
when the attack commenced. It began on the left flank; but a 
signal gun was fired by the sentinels, or by the guard in that 
direction which made not the least resistance, but abandoned 


their officer and fled into camp; and the first notice which the 
troops of that flank had of the danorer was from the yells of the 
savages within a short distance of the line; but even under these 
circumstances the men were not wanting to themselves and to 
the occasion. Such of them as were awake, or were easily 
awakened, seized their arms and took their stations; others who 
were more tardy had to contend with the enemy in the doors 
of their tents. The storm first fell upon Captain Barton's com- 
pany, of the Fourth United States Regiment, and Captain Gui- 
ger's company of mounted riflemen, which formed the left angle 
of the rear line. The fire upon these was excessively severe, 
and they sufiered considerably before relief could be brought to 
them. Some few Indians passed into the encampment near 
the angle, and one or two penetrated some distance before they 
were killed. I believe all the other companies were underarms, 
and tolerably formed before they were fired on. The morning 
was dark and cloudy. Our fires afforded a partial light, which, 
if it gave us some opportunity of taking our position, was still 
more advantageous to the enemy — affording them the means of 
taking a surer aim. They were, therefore, extinguished as soon 
as possible. 

''Under these discouraging circumstances the troops (nine- 
teen-twentieths of whom had never been in action before) be- 
haved in a manner that can never be too much applauded. They 
took their places without noise, and with less confusion than 
could have been expected from veterans placed ia a similar situ- 
ation. As soon as I could mount my horse I rode to the angle 
that was attacked. I found that Barton's company had suffered 
severely, and the left of Guiger's entirely broken. I immedi- 
ately ordered Cook's company-, and the late Captain Weiitworth's, 
under Lieutenant Peters, to be brought up from the center of 
the rear line, where the ground was much more defensible, and 
formed across the angle, in support of Barton's and Guiger's. 
My attention was then engaged by a heavy firing upon the left 
of the front line, where were stationed the small company of 
United States riflemen (then, however, armed with muskets) and 
the companies of Baen, Snelling and Prescott, of the Fourth 

" I found Major Daviess forming the dragoons in the rear of 
those companies, and understanding that the heaviest part of the 


uiieiny's fire proceeded from some trees about fifteen paces in 
Iront of those companies, I directed the Major to dislodge them 
with a part of the dragoons. Unfortunately, the Major's gal- 
lantry determined him to execute the order with a smaller force 
than was suflicient, which enabled the enemy to avoid him In the 
front, and attack his flanks. The Major was mortally wounded, 
and his party driven back. The Indians were, however, immedi- 
ately and gallantly dislodged from their advantageous position by 
Captain Snelling, at the head of his company. 

"In the course of a few minutes after the commencement of 
the attack, the fire extended along the left flank, the whole of the 
front, the right flank and part of the rear line. Upon Spencer's 
mounted riflemen, and the right of Warrick's company, which 
was posted on the right of the rear line, it was excesiively severe. 
Captaiu Speiicer and his First and Second Lieutenants were 
killed, and Captain Warrick mortally wounded. Those compa- 
nies, however, still bravely maintained their posts; but Spencer's 
having suftered so severely, and having originally too much 
ground to occupy, I re-enforced ihem with Robb's company of 
riflemen, which had been driven— or, by some mistake, ordered 
— from their position in the left flank, toward the center of the 
camp, and tilled the vacancy that had been occupied by Robb 
with Prescott's company of the Fourth United States Regiment. 
My great object was to keep the lines entire — to prevent the en- 
emy from breaking into the camp, until daylight should enable 
me to make a general and eftectual charge. With this view 1 
had re-enforced every part of the line that had sntiered much, and 
as soon as the approach of morning discovered itself, I withdrew 
from the front line, Suelliug's, Posey's, (under Lieutenant Al- 
bright) and Scott's, and from the rear line, Wilson's companies and 
drew them up u])on the left flank; and, at the same time, I ordered 
Cook's and Baen's companies — the former from the rear and the 
latter from the front line-to re-enforee the right flank, foreseeing 
that at these points the enemy would make their last efiorts. 
Major Wells, who commanded on the left flank, not knowing my 
intentions precisely, had taken the command of these companies- 
had charged the enemy before I had formed the body of dragoons 
with which I meant to support the infantry; a small detachment 
uf these were, however, ready, and proved amply suflicient for 
the purpose. The Indians were driven by the infantry at the point 


of the bayonet, and the drar^oons pursued and forced tliem into 
A marsh, where they could not be followed. * * '" 

"The whole of the infimtry formed a small brigade under the 
immediate orders of Colonel Boyd. The Colonel, throuo;hout 
the action, manifested equal zeal and bravery in carrying into 
execution my orders, in keepinnj the men to their posts, and ex- 
horting them to fight with valor. His Brigade-Major, Clark, and 
his Aid-de-camp, George Croghan, Esq., were also very servicea- 
bly employed. Colonel Joseph Bartholomew, a very valuable offi- 
cer, commanded, under Colonel Boyd, the militia infantry. 
He was wounded early in the action, and his services lost to me. 
Major G. E. C. Floyd, the senior officer of the Fourth United 
States Regiment, commanded immediately the battalion of that 
regiment, which was in the front line. His conduct during the 
action was entirely to my satisfaction. Lieutenant-Colonel Deckei', 
who commanded the battalion of infmtry on the right of the rear 
line, preserved his command in good order. He was, Iiowever, 
but partially attacked. I have before mentioned to you that Ma- 
jor-General Wells, of the Fourth Division of Kentucky militia, 
acted, under my command, as Mnjor, at the head of two compa- 
nies of mounted volunteers. The General maintained the fame 
which he had already acquired in almost every campaign and in 
almost every battle which has been foughtwith the Indians since 
the settlement of Kentucky. 

" Of the several corps, the Fourth United States Eegiment and 
the two small companies attached to it were certainly the 
most conspicuous for undaunted valor. The companies com- 
manded by Captains Cook, Snelling and Barton, Lieutenants 
Larrabee, Peters and Hawkins, were placed in situations where 
they could render most service and encounter most danger, and 
those officers eminently distinguished themselves. Captains 
Prescott and Brown performed their duty, also, to my entire 
satisfaction, as did Posey's company of the Seventh Regiment, 
headed by Lieutenant Albright. 

" Several of the militia companies were in no wise inferior to 
the regulars. Spencer's, Guiger's and Warrick's maintained 
their posts amid a monstrous carnage; as, indeed, did Robb's, 
after it was posted on the left flank. Its loss of men (seventeen 
killed and wounded) and its keeping its ground are sufficient 
evidence of its firmness. Wilson's and Scott's companies 


charged with the regular troops, and proved themselves worthy 
of so doing. Norris's company also behaved well. Hargrove's 
and Wilkins's companies were placed in a situation where they 
had no opportunity of distinguishing themselves, or I am satis- 
lied they would have done it. This was the case with the 
squadron of dragoons also. After Major Daviess had received 
his wound, knowing it to be mortal, I promoted Captain Parke 
to the Majority, than whom there is no better officer. My two 
Aides-de-camp, Majors Hurst and Taylor, with Lieutenant 
Adams of the Fourth Regiment, the Adjutant of the troops, 
afforded me the most essential aid, as well iai the action as 
througliont the campaign." 

The loss of General Harrison's force, in the battle of Tippe- 
canoe amounted to thirty-seven killed and 151 wounded, of 
which latter number twenty-live afterward died of their wounds. 
Among those killed or mortally wounded in the battle were 
Colonel Joseph Hamilton Daviess, Colonel Abraham Owen, 
Captain W. C, Baen, Captain Jacob Warrick, Captain Spier 
Spencer, Lieutenant Eichard McMahan, Lieutenant Thomas 
Berry, Thomas Eandolph, Esq., and Colonel Isaac White. 
Among the wounded were Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Bartholo- 
mew, Lieutenant-Colonel Luke Decker, Dr. Edward Scull, Ad- 
jutant James Hunter, Lieutenant George P. Peters, Lieutenant 
George Gooding, Ensign Henry Burchstead, Captain John Nor- 
ris and Captain Frederick Guiger. 

The Indians engaged in the battle were probably between 600 
and 700, and their loss was about equal to that of the American. 
Thirty-eight warriors are known to have been killed on the 
battle-field. The Prophet, during the action, stood on an ele- 
vated piece of ground within hearing of his warriors, and 
encouraged them by singing a war song. His voice was remark- 
ably loud, and could be distinctly heard above the din of battle 
calling out to them at intervals and assuring them of victory. 

Immediately after their defeat, the surviving Indians, having 
lost all faith in their leader, returned to their respective tribes. 
The Prophet took up his residence among a small band of Wy- 
andots, and his deserted town was destroyed on the 8th of 


War of 1812. — People's Hatred of the British. — Indian 
Council.- — Tecumseh Opposes Peace.- — Governor Appointed 
General of the Forces. — Assumes Command of the North- 
western Army Sept. 24, 1812. — Destruction of the Prophet's 
Town. — The Indians Driven Back. — The March Against 
Malden. — The Miami Indians. — Their Towns Destroyed. — - 
The Battle on the Mississinewa. — Terrible Suffering on 
THE Return March. — Close of the War. — The Situation. — 
Territorial Laws Oppressive. — Civil and Political Events. 
— Population in 1815. — The Several Territorial Legis- 
latures. — Last Session. — Members of Constitutional Con- 
vention. — Close of Territorial History. 

the war of 1812. 

In many respects the old settlers of the Northwest Territory, 
if not trained to arms when they removed from their Eastern 
homes, soon found the necessity of knowing how to use the rifle 
and the knife. Then the youth who were coming np to man- 
hood's estate were at once trained to the use of arms, and a 
spirit, war-like in its nature, aggressive, was implanted in their 
bosoms. Thus it was that when Indian raids came upon them 
they were prepared for the emergency, and many settlers did 
not hesitate to carry the war into the enemy's country and 
equal in strategy the Indians themselves. Therefore, when the 
war with England in 1812 broke out, though not trained to any 
great extent in the manual of arms, the volunteers were inured 
• to danger, and cool in all emergencies, and when they went 
into battle took the same care to see that their bullets went 
straight to their mark as when on the trail of an Indian or a buck. 
The war of 1812 aroused the patriotism as well as the hatred of 
the people against the English, which had been implanted in 


their breasts by the cruelties of the Revolutionary war. Thus it 
was when war was declared, that the people responded with a 
promptness that surprised the Government. It was not pre- 
pared to meet the universal response of patriotism exhibited by 
the people, and more volunteers were at hand than could be 
thoroughly equipped. To meet the emergency the volunteers in 
many cases took with them their own arms. At that time the 
United States was truly a nation of soldiers. 

In June, 1812, the United States declared war against Great 
Britain. This war lasted till the treaty of Ghent, Dec. 24, 1814. 
It is not our purpose to go into the details of the events cover- 
ing this period, but, keeping in view the Territory of Indiana, 
we shall outline the part plaj'ed by her in the struggle. The 
breaking out of the war was the signal for renewed hostilities 
on the part of those Indian tribes which were unfriendly to the 
United States. Of these were the Pottawatomies, Winneba- 
goes, Kickapoos and Sacs. On the 11th of April, preceding the 
declaration of war, an attack was made on a settlement on the 
Wabash, about thirty-five miles above Vincennes; Mr. Hutson, 
his wife, four of his children and a hired man were killed by the 
Indians. On the 22d Mr. Haryman, his wife and five children 
were massacred at the mouth of Embarrass Creek, about five 
miles from Vincennes. 

In the course of the spring and summer of 1812 block-houses 
and picketed forts were erected throughout the principal settle- 
ments of Indiana exposed to Indian depredations. 

About the middle of May, 1812, a great Indian council was 
commenced at an Indian village on the Missfssinewa River, at 
which nearly all the Northwestern tribes were represented. At 
this council the general expression was in favor of preserving 
peace with the United States. But the Indians, notwithstand- 
ing their professions, were unwilling to surrender the murderers 
of the white people killed by their straggling bands. Tecumseh 
was dissatisfied with the proceedings of the council. On the 17th 
of July, 1812, the British and Indians made an attack on the 
military post at Mackinaw, garrisoned by fifty- seven men, un. ■ 
der command of Lieutenant Hanks, and the post was compelled 
to surrender to a superior force. On the 15th of August the 
troops at Fort Dearborn (Chicago), under command of Captain 
Ileald, evacuated the fort by order of General Hull, who sent 


Captain Wells, of Fort Wayne, with about thirty friendly Mi- 
amis, as an escort; and. after marching about a mile and a half 
from Fort Dearborn, they were attacked by a superior force of 
Indians, who killed twent3'-six rec;ulars, all the militia, two 
women, twelve children, and took twenty-eight prisoners. 

On the 16th of August, 1812, the town of Detroit and the 
Territory of Michigan were surrendered by General Hull, with- 
out firing a gun, to the British forces under command of General 
Brock. The respective forces were as follows: General Hull 
had at his command 340 regulars and about 2,000 militia and 
volunteers; General Brock's forces, including regulars, militia 
and Indians, was about 1,300. 

Encouraged by this temporary success of the British and their 
allies, the Winnebagoes, Pottawatomies and Kickapoos became 
emboldened to send out war parties and attack the frontier set- 
tlers in Indiana Territory. Two men were killed and scalped 
while making hay in the vicinity of Fort Harrison, on the 3d of 
September, and on the 4th an attack was made on the fort by set- 
ting fire to one of the block-houses. The place was held by Cap- 
tain Zachary Taylor, with a small body of men, who bravely 
resisted the attack, which was continued till about six o'clock 
ou the morning of the 5th, when the Indians retired beyond 
reach of their guns. Ou the 15th of September, eleven men, un- 
der command of Lieutenant Kichardson, acting as an escort to 
a party conveying provisions to Fort Harrison, were attacked 
by a band of Indians, and seven of the men were killed and one 

Fort Harrison was re-enforced on the 16th of September, by a 
regiment of Kentucky volunteers, under command of Colonel 

On the 3d of September, 1812, occurred the slaughter of 
"Pigeon Eoost settlement," known as "Pigeon Roost mas- 
sacre." The location of this settlement was within the present 
limits of Scott County. It was confined to about a square mile 
of land, on which a few families had settled in 1809, and was five 
or six miles distant from any other settlement. While Jeremiah 
Payne and a man by the name of Cofi'man were hunting for 
"bee trees" in the woods, they were surprised and killed by a 
party of Indians, on the 3d of September. Tliis party, which 
consisted of ten or twelve Shawnee warriors, attacked "Pigeon 


Roost settlement" tliat evening at sunset, and, in the space of 
about an hour, killed one man, five women and sixteen children. 
The bodies of some of these victims of savage warfare were 
burned in the fires which consumed tlieir cabins. 

Some of the militia of Clark County immediately proceeded 
to the scene of the massacre, where they found several of the 
mangled bodies of the dead surrounded by the smoking ruins of 
their houses. These remains were collected and buried in a 
common grave. The Indians were pursued by Major John Mc- 
Coy and Captain Devault. The latter discovered and attacked 
them, with the loss of one man killed, but they continued their 
flight through the woods and escaped. 

After the Pigeon Roost massacre, many of the settlers on the 
northern and western frontiers of Clark, Jefferson, Harrison 
and Knox counties lived in a constant state of alarm till the 
close of the war. The feeling of danger and apprehension wliich 
prevailed is well described by Mr. Zebulon Collings, who lived 
within six miles of Pigeon Roostsettleraent. He says: "The 
manner in which I used to work in those perilous times was as 
follows: On all occasions I carried my rifle, tomahawk and 
butcher-knife, with a loaded pistol in my belt. When I went to 
plow I laid my gun on the plowed ground, and stuck up a stick 
hj it for a mark, so that I could get it quick in case it was 
wanted. I had two good dogs. I took one into the house, leaving 
the other out. The one outside was expected to give the alarm, 
which would cause the one inside to bark, by which I would be 
awakened, having my arms always loaded. I kept my horses 
in a stable close to the house, having a port-hole so that I could 
shoot to the stable door. During two years I never went from 
home with any certainty of returning, not knowing the minute 
I might receive a ball from an unknown hand. But in the 
midst of all these dangers, that God who never sleeps nor slum- 
bers has kept me." 

In August, 1812, Governor Harrison was appointed Major-Gon- 
eral by the Governor of Kentucky, and assumed the chief com- 
mand of the forces raised in that State. About 2,000 Kentuckians 
and 700 citizens of Ohio joined his army and marched from 
Piqua, Ohio, to Fort Wayne, arriving at the latter post on the 
12th of September. The post of Fort Wayne liad been invested 
by hostile Indians from the commencement of the war, but they 


withdrew on the arrival of the Kentucky and Ohio troops, hav- 
ing, during the time of their investment of the fort, killed three 
or four white men. Qovernor Harrison, on his arrival at Fort 
Wayne, sent out different detachmsnts in pursuitof the Indians, 
but not finding any, they burnt the villages and corn-fields, and 
returned to the fort. On one of these expeditions the village of 
_0-no.x-see, or Five Medals, a noted Pottawatomie chief, on the 
banks of Elkhart River, was destroyed; and on another occasioa 
a detachment, under command of Colonel Simrali, destroyed 
Little Turtle's town, on Eel River, and a Miami village which 
stood near the forks of the Wabash was destroyed by forces under 
command of General Payne. 


On the 19th of September, General Harrison gave up the com- 
mand of the troops at Fort Wayne to Brigadier-General James 
Winchester, a citizen of Tennessee, and who had been an officer 
in the Revolutionary war. But on the 24th, while at Piqu:i, 
Ohio, General Harrison was notified by dispatches that the 
President of the United States had assigned to him the command 
.)f the Northwestern army. The plan for raising this army had 
been adopted. It was to consist of regular troops, rangers, the 
volunteer militia of the States of Kentucky and Ohio, and 3,000 
men from Virginia and Pennsylvania — a force, in all, estimated 
at 10,000 men. From the instructions given to General Harri- 
son, it appears that an invasion of Canada was contemplated by 
the authorities at Washington. His letter of instruction con- 
tained the following order: " Having provided for the protection 
of the Western frontier, you will retake Djtroit, and, with a 
view to the conquest of Upper Canada, you will penetrate that 
(■ountry as far as the force under your command will, in your 
judgment, justify." 

General Harrison having assumed the command of the Nortli- 
western army, the number of Kentucky volunteers that re- 
sponded to his call was so great that he was obligid to decline 
the services of several hundred at Frankfort and Louisville. In 
thelatter partof September there were at Vincennes about 2,000 
mounted volunteers from that State, under command of General 
Samuel Hopkins, and these were assigned to tne duty of operating 
against the enemy in thedistricts along theWabash and the Illinois 


rivers, with a view to breaking up and destroying the settlements 
of the hostile Indians in those quartet's. Little was accomplished 
save the destruction of one Kickapoo town at the head of Lake 
Peoria; and the forces, after suffering great hardships and pri- 
vations, returned to Vineennes. The mounted volunteers had 
refused to obey their commander and were discharged. General 
Hopkins immediately organized a force, chiefly of infantry, fur 
the purpose of penetrating the Indian country as far as the 
Prophet's town, and of destroying the villages which had been 
rebuilt in that vicinity. Tlie main body of the army moved from 
Vineennes, and arrived at Fort Harrison on the 5th of November, 
1812. On the morning of the 191-h, General Hopkins, having 
reached the Prophet's town, sent a detachment of 300 men, under 
command of General Butler, to surprise and capture the Win- 
nebago town, lying one mile from the "Wabash, on Wild Cat 
Creek. They surrounded the place about the bi-eak of day, but 
found that the Indians had fled. General Hopkins says in his 
report of this expedition: "There were in the main town about 
forty houses; many of them from thirty to fifty feet in length, 
besides many temporary huts in the surrounding prairie, in 
which they had cultivated a good deal of corn." 

" On the 20th, 21st and 22d," says General Hopkins, " we were 
embarked in the complete destruction of the Prophet's town, 
which had about forty cabins and huts, and the large Kickapoo 
village adjoining below it, on the west side of the river, consist- 
ing of about 160 cabins and huts — finding and destroying their 
corn, reconnoitering the circumjacent country, and constructing 
works for the defense of our boats and army. Seven miles east 
of us, on Ponce Passu (Wild Cat) Creek, a party of Indians were 
discovered. They had fired on a party of ours on the 21st, and 
killed a man by the nanae of Dunn, a gallant soldier in Captain 
Duval's company. On the 22d upward of sixty horsemen, 
under command of Lieutenant-Colonels Miller and Wilcox, 
anxious to bury their comrade, as well as to gain a more com- 
jdete knowledge of their ground, went on to a point near the 
Indian encampment, fell into an ambush, and eighteen of our 
party were killed, wounded and missing. * * * Qn the 
return of this party, and the information of a large assemblage 
of the enemy, who, encouraged by the strength of their camp, 
ujipeared to be waiting for us, every preparation was made 


to march early and engage the enemy at every i-isk; when, 
from the most violent storm and fall of snow, attended with the 
coldest weather I ever saw or felt at this season of the year, and 
which did not subside till the evening of the 23d, we were de- 
layed until the 2'±th. Upon arriving on the ground, we found 
tliat the enemy had deserted their camp before the fall of snow, 
and had passed the Ponce Passu (Wild Cat) Creek. I have no 
doubt but their ground was the strongest I have ever seen. The 
deep, rapid creek spoken of was in their rear, running in a semi- 
circle, and fronted by a bluff 100 feet high, almost perpendicu- 
lar, and only to be penetrated by three steep ravines. If the 
enemy would not defend themselves here, it was evident they 
did not intend fighting at all. 

"After reconnoitering sufBciently, we returned to camp, and 
found the ice so accumulated as to alarm us for the return of the 
boats. I had fully determined to have spent one week more in 
endeavoring to find the Indians' camps, but the shoeless, shirtless 
state of the troops, now clad in tlie remnants of their summer 
dress, a river full of ice, the hills covered with snow, a rigid 
climate, and no certain point to which we could further dirt^et 
our operation — under the influence and advice of every staff and 
field officer, orders were given and measures pursued for our 
return on the 25th." 

During the latter part of the year 1812, General Harrison 
was engaged in establishing a depot of supplies at the rapids of 
the Maumee, with a view of moving thence with a choice de- 
tachment of the army, and with as much provision, artillery and 
ammunition as the means of transportation would allow, and 
making a demonstration toward Detroit, and by a sudden pass- 
age of the strait upon the ice, an actual investure of Maiden. 

Before carrying out this plan it became necessary to break up 
and destroy the Miami settlements on the Mississinewa River, 
in the Territory of Indiana. 

Although the Miamis professed to be neutral in the war be- 
tween the United States and Great Britain, yet, from their par- 
' ticipation in the attacks upon Fort Wayne and Fort Harrison 
and other acts of hostility, their neutrality was strongly sus- 
pected. At any time they might be influenced by other hostile 
Indians "to take up the tomahawk." 



The duty of attacking; the Miami villages, on the Mississine- 
wa, was assigned to a detachment of about 600 mounted men, 
commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel John B. Campbell, of the 
Nineteenth Regiment of United States Infantry.- This detach- 
ment was composed ehiofly of a regiment of Kentucky dragoons 
commanded by Major James V. Ball, and a body of infantry 
consisting of Captain Elliott's Company of the Nineteenth 
United States Regiment, Butler's Pittsburg Blues and Alexan- 
der's Pennsylvania Riflemen, together with a small company of 
spies and guides. 

The expedition marched from Dayton, Ohio, on the l-tth of 
December, 1812. Early on the morning of the 17th they 
reached an Indian town on the Mississinewa, inhabited l)y a 
number of Delawares and Miamis. The troops rushed into 
the town, unexpected by the enemy, and killed eight warriors 
and took forty-two prisoners. The town was immediately 
burned, excepting the two houses in which the prisoners were 
confined. Advancing down the river, three villages, deserted 
by their inhabitants, wore burned, several horses captured and 
many cattle killed. The detachment then returned and en- 
camped near the first village that had been destroyed, and on 
the 18th, about half an hour before day, while the ofiicers were 
Jiolding a council of war, a party of Indians made a furious 
attack upon the camp. 

The battle that ensued is thus described by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Campbell, who commanded: "The attack commenced at that 
angle of the camp formed by the left of Captain Hopkins's 
troops, and the right of Captain Garrard's, but in a few moments 
became general from the entrance to the right of Ball's squad- 
ron. The enemy boldly advanced to within a few yards of the 
line, and seemed determined to rush in. The guards posted at 
the diflferent redoubts retreated to camp, and di-persed among 
their different companies, thus leaving me without a disposable 

"Captain Smith, of the Kentucky Light Dragoons, who com- 
manded one of the redoubts, kept his position in a gallant and 
military manner, although abandoned by halt' his guards, until 
ordered to fill up the interval in the rear line, between the regi- 

ment and the squadron. The redoubt which Captain Pierce 
commanded was first attacked. He maintained his position 
until too late to get within the line and he was killed, receiving 
two balls through the body and was tomahawked. He made a 
gallant defense and died bravely and mach lamented. 

" The enemy then took possession of Captain Pierce's redoubt 
aud poured a heavy fire upon the angles, ;to the right and left 
of which were posted Hopkins's and Garrard's troops, but it was 
as warmly returned and not an inch of ground was yielded. 
Every man and officer stood firm and animated and encouraged 
each other. The fire also became warm on the left of the 
squadron, at which point Captain Markle's troops were posted, 
and the right of Elliott's company, which with Markle's formed 
an angle of the camp, was severely annoyed by the enemy's fire. 

" I had assisted in forrahig the infantry, composed as above 
stated, and ordered them to advance to the brink of a declivitv, 
from which they could more efiectually defend themselves and 
harrass the enemy if they should attempt an attack upon their 
line. "While I was thus engaged, Major Ball rode up and 
observed that he was hard pressed and must be relieved. I 
galloped immediately to the left wing with the intention of 
ordering Captain Trotter's troops to reinforce the squadron, but 
was there informed that the enemy was seen approaching in that 
direction. Believing it improper to weaken the line which cov- 
ered an angle of the camp, I determined to give the relief from 
the infantry. I wheeled my horse and met Major McDowell, who 
observed that the spies and guides under command of Captain 
Bain, consisting of ten men, were unemployed. We rode to 
them together and ordered Captain Bain to the support of the 
squadron. Seven of them — James Adrian, William Connor, 
Silas McCoUough, James Thompson, James Noggs, John Rut- 
land and Joseph Gr. McClelland — followed their brave leader and 
rendered most effectual assistance. I then ordered Captain 
Butler with the Pittsburg Blues to reinforce the squadron also, 
and directed Captains Elliott and Alexander to extend to the 
right and left to fill the interval caused by the withdrawal of the 
Blues. Captain Butler, in a most gallant manner and worthy 
of the names he. bears, formed his men at once and in excellent 
order and marched rapidly to the ]>oint ordered. The alacrity 
with which they formed and moved was never exceeded by any 


troops on earth. Hopkins made room for them bj extending 
his troops to the right, and the Bhies were scarcely at the post 
assigned them before I discovered the effect tiiey produced. A 
well-directed fire from them and Hopkins's Dragoons, near by, 
silenced the enemy in that quarter. They (the enemy) then 
moved in force to the left of the squadron and right of tlie 
infantry, at which point Captains Markle's and Elliott's troops 
were posted, and here they were again warmly received. 

" At this time daylight began to dawn, and I ordered Captain 
Trotter, whose troops had been ordered by Colonel Simrall to 
mount, to make a charge. The charge was gallantly made. 
Major McDowell, with a small part of his force, rushed into the 
midst of the enemy, and did effective work. I cannot say too 
much for this gallant veteran. Captain Markle, with about 
fifteen of his men, and Lieutenant Warren also made daring 
charges on the enemy, and Captain Markle avenged the death of 
his relative. Lieutenant Waltz, upon an Indian with his own 
sword. Fearing that Captain Trotter might Ije hard pressed, I 
ordered Captain Johnson, of the Kentucky Light Dragoons, to 
advance with his troops to support him. I found Johnson ready, 
and Colonel Simrall reported to me that all his other Captains, 
viz., Elmore, Young and Smith, were anxious to join the charge, 
but I called for only one troop. The Colonel had the whole in 
excellent order. Captain Johnson did not join Trotter until the 
enemy was out of reach, but picked up a straggler or two that 
Trotter had passed over. The cavalry returned and reported 
that the enemy had fled precipitately. 

" I have, on this occasion, to lament the loss of several brave 
men, and many wounded. Among the former are Captain 
Pierce, of tlie Ohio Volunteers, and Lieutenant Waltz, of 
Markle's troops." 

Dillon's History of Indiana, says: "In this engagement, 
which lasted about one hour, the loss of troops under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell amounted to eight killed 
and forty-two wounded, several afterward dying of their wounds. 
There were a large nurabtr of horses killed, and it was said 
saved the lives of a great many men. Fifteen Indians were 
found dead on the battle-field, and it is probable that an equal 
number were carried away from the field dead or mortally 
wounded before the close of the action. The Indian force 


engaged in the battle was inferior in number to that under Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Campbell, who, in his official report, says: 'I am 
persuaded there could not liave been less than 1,300 of the 
enein}'.' A nephew of the great Miami Chief, Little Turtle, 
was in the engagement. His name was Little Thunder, and he 
distinguished himself by his efforts to inspii'e the Indians with 
courage and confidence. 

" Nearly all the Indians who were taken prisoners at this time 
were Nuncia's, and were included among those composing Silver 
Heel's band. The villages destroyed were situated on the banks 
of the river, at points fifteen to twenty miles distant from its 
junction with the Wabash, where the principal Mississinewa 
village stood. The want of provisions and forage, the loss of 
horses, the suffering condition of the troops, the severity of the 
cold, and the rumor of a large force at the Mississinewa village, 
under the command of Tecumseh, induced Lieutenant-Colonel 
Campbell to send an express to Greenville for reinforcements, 
and to commence immediately his march toward that post. 
His camp was fortified every night by a breastwork. The expe- 
dition was compelled to move slowly on its return, owing to 
the condition of the wounded — seventeen of whom were carried 
on litters. The intense coldness of the weather, scarcity of 
provisions and the fear that the whites might kill their prisoners 
combined to save the retiring troops from the pursuit and 
annoyance of about 130 Miami Indians. At a place about forty 
miles from Greenville, the sufi^ering expedition was met and 
furnished with supplies by a detachment of ninety men under 
the command of Major Adams. The number of men rendered 
unfit for duty by being frost-bitten, on their arrival in Green- 
ville, were, in Major Ball's squadron, 107; in Colonel Simrall's 
regiment of Dragoons, 138, and in the infantry corps and rifle 
men, 58, a total of 303." 

Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell sent two messages to the Dela- 
wares.who lived on White River, and who had been previously di- 
rected and requested to abandon their towns on that river, and 
remove into Ohio. In these messages he expressed his regret at 
unfortunately killing some of their men, and urged them to move 
to the Shawnee settlement on the Auglaize River. He assured 
them that their people, in his power, would be compensated by the 
Government for their losses, if not found to be hostile, and the 


friends of those killed satisfied by presents, if such satisfaction 
would be received. Thisadvice was heeded by the main body of 
the Delawares and a few Miamis. The Shawnee Prophet and 
some of the principal chiefs of the Miamis, retired from the 
country of the Wabash, and, with their destitute and suffering 
bauds, moved to Detroit, where tliey were received as friends 
and allies of Great Britain. 

On the approach of General Harrison with his army, in Sep- 
tember, 1813, the British evacuated Detroit, and the Ottawas, 
Chippewas, Pottawatomies, Miamis and Kickapoos sued for 
peace with the United States, which was granted temporarily by 
Brigadier-General McArthur, on condition of their becoming 
allies of the United States in case of war. 

In June, 1813, an expedition composed of 137 men, under com- 
mand of Colonel Joseph Bartholomew, moved from Valonia 
toward the Delaware towns on the west fork of White Hiver, to 
surprise and punish some hostile Indians who were supposed to 
be lurking about those villages. Most of these places they found 
deserted ; some of them burnt. They had been but temporarily 
occupied for the purpose of collecting and carrying away corn. 
Colonel Bartholomew's forces succeeded in killing one or two 
Indians and destroying considerable corn, and they returned to 
Valonia on the 21st of this month. 

July 1, 1813, Colonel William Russell, of the Seventh U. S., 
organized a force of 573 effective men at Valonia and marched 
to the Indian villages about the mouth of the Mississinewa. His 
experience was very much like that of Colonel Bartholomew, who 
had just preceded him. He had rainy weather, suffered many 
losses, found the villages deserted, destroyed stores of corn, etc. 
The Colonel reported that he went to every place where he ex- 
pected to find the enemy, but they nearly always seemed to have 
fled the country. The march from Valonia to the mouth of the 
Mississinewa and return was about 250 miles. 

Several smaller expeditions helped to "checker" the surround- 
ing country, and find that the Indians were very careful to keep 
themselves out of sight, and thus closed this series of campaigns. 


The war with England closed on the 24th of December, 1S14, 
when a treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. The 9th article of 


the treaty required the United States to put an end to hostilities 
with all tribes or nations of Indians with whom they had been 
at war. To restore to such tribes or nations respectively all the 
rights and possessions to which they were entitled in 1811, before 
the war, on condition that such Indians should agree to desist 
from all hostilities against the United States. But in February, 
just before the treaty was sanctioned by our Government, there 
were signs of Indians accumulating arms and ammunition, 
and a cautionary order was therefore issued to have all the white 
forces in readiness for an attack by the Indians; but the attack 
was not made. During the ensuing summer and fall the United 
States Government acquainted the Indians with the provisions 
of the treaty, and entered into subordinate treaties of peace with 
the principal tribes. 

Just before the treaty of Spring Wells (near Detroit) was 
signed, the Shawnee Prophet retired to Canada, but declaring 
his resolution to abide by any treaty which the chiefs might 
sign. Some time afterward he returned to the Shawnee settle- 
ment in Ohio, and lastly to the westof the Mississippi, where he 
died, in 1834. The British Government allowed him a pension 
from 1813 until his death. His brother Tecamseh was killed at 
tiie battle of the Thames, Oct. 5, 1813. General Johnson has 
the credit of killing Tecumseh. 


During the pendency of the war with Great Britain, Indiana 
Territory made but little progress. The Indians were rampant, 
and the settlers found little to encourage them. Bevond 
securing the necessaries of life, their principal occupation was 
to defend themselves and families from the surprise parties of 
lurking savages. The wheels of civil progress, however, turned 
siowly, and Territorial legislation was carried on even under 
ditficulty. The capital, however, was in the southern part of 
the State, or Territory, being removed from Vincennes. At the 
last session held at this latter place in December, 1812, John 
Gibson being acting Governor, the question of removing the 
seat of government from Yincennes was acted upon, and the 
new capital was declared to be Gorydon, in Harrison County, 
and immediately acting Governor Gibson prorogued the Legisla- 
ture to meet at that place, the first Monday of December, 1813 


During this year the Territory was almost defenseless; Indian 
iiiitrd,e;es were of common occurrence, but no general outbreak was 
made. The militia-men were armed with rifles and long knives, 
and many of the rangers carried tomahawks. 

Governor Posey was appointed Governor of the Indiana Ter- 
ritory, and took up his duties in March, 1813. 

In his first message to the Legislature the following Decem- 
ber, at Corydon, Governor Posey said: " The present crisis is 
awful, and big with great events. Our land and nation is in- 
volved in the common calamity of war; but we are under the 
protecting care of the beneficent Being, who has on a former oc- 
casion brought us safely through an arduous struggle and placed 
us on a foundation of independence." 

The Legislature appi'oved the views of the Governor, and, as 
far as possible, relieved the wants of the people. Not only 
were the people really in distress from the disturbed and dan- 
gerous condition of the country from carrying on the war, but 
their civil rights and political prospects were hampered by a 
Territorial government, not altogether embracing a political lib- 
erty which the citizens claimed as their right. 


The people of Indiana began to chafe under the Territorial 
laws under which they lived, and began to organize to eflTect a 
change and form a State government more in consonance with 
a Republican farm of government and the freedom of the peo- 
ple. They were hampered by property qualifications in their 
elective franchise, and the right to select their own servants or 
oflicers debarred them. The authority to appoint Territorial 
Governors, Territorial Secretaries, and Judges of the Superior 
Court of the Territory was vested in the President of the 
United States and the National Senate. The organization of a 
Territorial Legislature or General Assembly depended upon 
the vote of a majority of the freeholders of the Territory. Be- 
fore the organization of such a Legislature, the Governor and 
the Judges of the Territory, or a majority of them, were in- 
vested with power to adojst and publish such laws, civil and 
criminal, of the original States as might be best suited to the 
circumstances of the people; but laws thus adopted and pub- 
lished were subject to the disapproval of Congress, and they fretted 


niifler the restriction. A freehold estate of 500 acres of land was 
one of the necessary qualifications of each member of the Legis- 
lative Council of the Territory, every member of the Territorial 
House of Representatives was required to hold in his own right 
200 acres of land, and the privilege of voting for members of 
the House of Representatives was restricted to those inhabit- 
ants who, in addition to other qualifications, owned, severally, 
at least fifty acres of land. The Governor of the Territory was 
vested with the power of appointing officers of the Territorial 
militia, judges of the inferior courts, clerks of the courts, jus- 
tices of the peace, sherifi's, coroners, county treasurers, and 
county surveyors. He was also authorized to divide the Terri- 
tory into districts; to apportion among the several counties the 
members of the House of Representatives; to prevent the pas- 
sage of any Territorial law; and to convene, prorogue and dis- 
solve the General Assembly of the Territory, whenever, in his 
opinion, it might be deemed expedient to exorcise such author- 
ity. It may now be stated, to the honor of the Territorial Gov- 
ernors of Indiana, that neither of them ever exercised these 
extraordinary powers arbitrarily. Nevertheless the people 
were constantly agitating the question of the extension of the 
right of sufi'rage. Five years after the organization of the Ter 
ritory, the Legislative Council, in reply to the Governor's me?- 
sage, said: "Although we are not as completely independent in 
our legislative capacity as we would wish to be, we are sen- 
sible that we must wait with patience for that period of time 
when our population will burst the trammels of a Territorial 
government, and we shall assume the character more consonant 
to republicanism. * * * ^Yhe confidence which our 
fellow-citizens have uniformly had in your administration has 
been such that they have hitherto had no reason to be jealous of 
the unlimited power which you possess over our legislative 
proceedings. We, however, can not help regretting that such 
powers have been lodged in the hands of any one, especially 
when it is recollected to what dangerous lengths the exercise of 
those powers may be extended." 

After repeated petitions the people of Indiana were em- 
powered by Congress to elect the members of the Legislative 
Council by popular vote. This act was passed in 1S09, and de 
fined what was known as the properly qualification of voter.-. 


These qualifications were abolished by an act of Congress in 
1811, which extended the right of voting for members of the 
General Assembly and for a Territorial delegate to Congress to 
every free white male person who had attained the age of twenty- 
one years, and who, having paid a county or Territorial tax, 
was a resident of the Territory, and had resided in it for the 
period of one year. In 1814 the voting qualification in In- 
diana was defined by an act of Congi ess, " to every free white 
male person having a freehold in the Territory, and being a 
resident of the same." The House of Representatives of the 
Indiana Territory was authorized, by an act of Congress of the 
4th of March, 1814, to lay oft' the Territory into five districts, in 
each of wiiich the qualified voters wore empowered to elect a 
member of the Legislative Council. The members of the House 
convened at Corydon, in the month of June, 1814, and the ' 
records show that they divided the Territory into districts, as 
anthorized by Congress. These districts were as follows: 
The counties of Washington and Knox constituted one district; 
the counties of Gibson and Warrick one district; the counties 
of Harrison and Clark one district; the counties of Jeflerson 
and Dearborn one district, and the counties of Franklin and 
Wayne one district. 

At the session of the General Assembly held at Corydon, in 
August, 1814, an act was passed dividing the Territory into 
three judicial circuits, and making provisions for the holding of 
courts in these circuits, and defining the jurisdiction of such 
courts, and investing the Governor with power to appoint a 
presiding judge in each circuit, and two associate judges of the 
Circuit Court in each county. The compensation of these 
judges was fixed at $700 per annum. 

The same year the General Assembly granted charters to two 
banking institutions, the Farmers & Mechanics' Bank of 
Madison and the Bank of Vincennes. The first was authorized 
to raise a capital of $750,000, and the other $500,000. On the 
organization of the State these banks were metged into the 
State Bank and its branches. 

The happy close of the war with Great Britain in JS14 
followed by a great rush of immigrants to the great Territory of 
the Northwest, including the new States, all now recently 
cleared of the enemy; and by 1820 the State of Indiana had 


more than doubled her population, having at this time 147,178, 
and by 1825 nearly doubled this again: that is to say, a round 
quarter of a million — a growth more rapid, probably, than that of 
nny other section in this country since the days of Columbus. 

That Indiana prospered greatly and advanced rapidly in popu- 
lation may be gathered from the figures below. As above 
stated, Indiana had a population in 1820 of 147,178, and the 
census taken by the Territorial Legislature, with a view to the 
organization of a State government, is given below. 


The population of the Territory of Indiana, as given in the 
otKcial returns to the Legislature of 1815, was as follows, by 




Switzerland. . 



Washington. . 






Grard Totals.. 

63 897 

Thus it will be seen that the population more than doubled 
in five years. "When the State was organized it had sixteen 
counties, two more than the above, the last Territorial Legisla- 
ture organizing Jackson and Orange counties from Washing- 
ton County. 


A resume of the Territorial Legislature shows that the first 
session, the men being elected by the people, was composed of 
nine members, and met at Vincennes, then the capital of the 
Territory, in 1805. 

The first session met as above, July 29. 1805. Benjamin 
Chambers, of Dearborn County, being elected President of the 


Legislative Council, and Jasper B. Thomas, of the same county, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

The second session of the First General Assembly met in 
October, 1806, with the same officers. The first session of the 
Second General Assembly was prorogued by the Governor 
Aug. 16, 1807. The same officers were elected as aD the first 
general session, but at its close President Benj. Chambers 

The second session of this Assembly met Sept. 26, 1808. 
John Eice Jones, of Knox County, was elected President of the 
Legislative Council, and Jesse B. Thomas still remained the 
Speaker of the House. He resigned Oct. 24, 1808, to accept tlie 
position as Delegate to Congress, and he was succeeded as 
Speaker for the remainder of the session by General Washing- 
ton Johnson, of Knox County. This session closed Oct. 2(3, 

The Third General Assembly met Nov. 10, 1810, James 
Beggs, of Clark County, being the choice for President of the 
Legislative Council, and Dennis Pennington, of Harrison 
County, Speaker of the House of Eepresentatives. The session 
adjourned Dec. 7, 1810. The second session met Nov. 11, 1811, 
President Beggs calling the Council to order, and "Wasliington 
Johnson, Speaker of the House for the session, which adjourned 
Dec. 19, 1811. The Fourth General Assembly, and the last held 
at Vincennes, commenced its first session Feb. 1, 1813. James 
Beggs was again elected President of the Council, and James 
Scott, of Clark County, was elected Speaker of the House, re- 
taining his position only one month, when he was succeeded by 
James Dill, of Dearborn County, who remained in the Speaker's 
chair during the remainder of the session. It closed its labors 
March 12, 1813. The second session of the Fourth General 
Assembly met at Corydon, the new capital, Dec. 14, 181.3. 
Jiimes Beggs called the Council to order; James Noble, of 
Franklin County, was elected Speaker, and Isaac Blackford, of 
Knox County, Clerk of the House. Mr. Noble resigned the 
Speakership at the close of the year, and Isaac Dunn held the 
chair the next seven days, the Legislature adjourning Jan. 7, 



This was the last Assembly of the Territorial Government, 
and its first session was commenced at Corydon, Aug. 14, 181-4. 
Jesse L. Hohnan, of Dearborn County, was elected President of 
the Legislative Council, and William Hendricks, of Jefferson 
County, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and Isaac 
Blackford was chosen Clerk of the House again. George R. C. 
Sullivan became Secretary of the Council. 

In the second and last session of the Fifth Assembly the offi- 
cers were nearly all changed for reasons not stated particularly. 
David Robb, of Gibson County, became President of the Legis- 
lative Council; Mr. Sullivan retained the Secretaryship; Dennis 
Pennington was elected Speaker, and William Hendricks, Clerk. 
The session was an exceedingly short one, commencini^ Djc. 4, 
and ending Dec. 28, 1815. The Governor's message referred 
to the new order of things to be inaugurated. 


Governor Posey was absent on account of sickness, but his 
message was delivered to both Houses in joint session by his Pri- 
vate Secretary Colonel Allen D. Thorn. This session was held 
in December, 1815. In this message the Governor congratulated 
the people of tlie Territory upon the prosperity of the people 
and upon the increase of immigration, recommended light taxes, 
and a careful attention to the promotion of education, and the 
improvement of the State roads and highways. He also recom- 
mended a revision of the Territorial laws, and an amendment of 
the militia system. During this session, which lasted only a 
month, several laws were passed, and measures adopted, most 
of which were calculated to promote the desired change from a 
Territorial to a State government. On the 14th of December a 
memorial was adopted praying for the authority to adopt a Con- 
stitution and State government. This was laid before Congress 
by Delegate Jennings on the 28th of the same month, and the 
President approved the bill April 19, 1816, which gave the peo- 
ple of Indiana the right to form a Constitution and a State gov- 
ernment, and provided for the administration of such as co-equal 
in the Union with the original States. 

The news of this result was joyfully received by the people of 


the Territory, and steps were immediately taken to carry out the 
full provisions of the law, and an election called to elect mem- 
bers of a convention to form a State Constitution. This was 
lield in the several counties of the Territory on Monday, the 
13th day of May, 1816, with the following resnlt: 

Wayne County: Jeremiah Cox, Patrick Baird, Joseph Hol- 
man and Hugh Cull. 

Franklin County: William H. Eads, James Brownlee, Enoch 
McCarty, Robert Hanna, Jr., and James Noble. 

Dearborn County: James Dill, Solomon Manwaring and Ezra 

Switzerland County: William Cotton. 

Jefferson County: David H. Maxwell, Samuel Smock and 
Nathaniel Hunt. 

Clark County: Jonathan Jennings, James Scott, Thomas Carr, 
Jno. K. Graham and James Lemon. 

Harrison County: Dennis Pennington, Davis Floyd, Daniel 
C. Lane, John Boone and Patrick Shields. 

Washington County: John De Pauw, Samuel Milroy, Robert 
Mclntire, William Lowe and William Graham. 

Knox County: John Johnson, John BadoUet, William Polke, 
Benjamin Polke and John Benefiel. 

Gibson County: David Robb, James Smith, Alexander Devia 
and Frederick Rappe. 

Warrick County: Daniel Grass. 

Perry County: Charles Polke. 

Posey County: Dan. Lynn. 

The convention met at Corydon, June 10,1816, and completed 
its labors on the 29th. Jonathan Jennings presided, and Wm. 
Hendricks acted as Secretary. 

The result of their labor was a Constitution of such excellence 
that it remained in force thirty-five years, or until the present 
Constitution of Indiana came in force in the year 1851. 

On the 12th of June the President appointed the following 

Committee to Prepare a Bill of Rights and Preamble to the 
Constitution — Messrs. Badollet, Manwaring, Graham (of Clark 
County), Lane, Smith and Pennington. 

Committee on the Distribution of the Powers of the Govern- 


inent — Messrs. Johnson, Polke (of Perry County), Floyd, Max- 
well and McCarty. 

Committee on the Legislative Department of the Goveru- 
inent — Messrs. Noble, Ferris, Milroy, Benetiel and Grass. 

Committee on the Executive Department of the Govern- 
ment — Messrs. Graham (of Clark), Polke (of Knox), Rappe, 
Shield, Smock, Smith, Ferris and Brownlee. 

Committee on the Judicial Department of the Government — 
Messrs. Scott, Johnson, Dill, Milroy, Noble, Cotton and Lowe. 

Committee on Impeachments — Messrs. Dill, Cox, Hunt, 
Eads and Carr. 

Committee on the General Provisions of the Constitution (nut 
embraced in the subjects referred to other cDmmittees) — -Messrs. 
Maxwell, De Pauw, Robb, Scott and Baird. 

Committee on the Mode of Kevising the Constitution — 
Messrs. Hanna, Pennington, Devin, Johnson and Graham (of 
Washington County). 

Committee Relative to the Change of Government and Pre- 
serving the Existing Laws until Repealed by the State Legis- 
lature, and Providing for Appeals from the Territorial Courts to 
the State Courts — Messrs. Floyd, Lemon, Holman, Benefiel, 
Mclntire and Man waring. 

Committee on Education and the Universal Dissemination of 
Useful Knowledge, and other Subjects it Might be Proper to 
Advise the State Legislature to Provide for — Messrs. Scott, 
BadoUet, Polke (of Knox County), Lynn and Boone. . 

Committee on the Militia — Messrs. Dill, Hanna, Carr, Cot- 
ton, Robb, Holman, Cox, De Pauw, Noble, Rappe and Benefiel. 

Committee on Elective Franchise and Elections — Messrs, 
Ferris, Lemon, Grass, Polke (of Perry County), Cull, Smith 
and DePauw. 

Committee on Prisons— Messrs. Carr, Pennington, Milroy 
Grass, Hunt, Graham (of Washington County), and McCarty. 

This last committee was appointed a few days later, and on 
June 21 the following was added: 

Committee on General Revisions — Messrs. Parke, Badollet, 
Scott, Johnson and Ferris. 

The adoption of this Constitution closed the life of the Terri. 
torial Government of Indiana, and the people awoke to new life 
and spirit. They believed in the future of their new State, and 


they proposed to press on until what was then the far West 
should step to the front in the sisterhood of States, so that in 
the civilization of her people, in her schools and churches, in 
the energies and statesmanship of her leadintjj men, she could 
hold herself proudly in the galaxy of confederated States, a peer, 
young as she was, in the sisterhood. 



Aechjjology. — The Indian Eace. — Who Weee They? — The 
Mound-Builders. — Their Works in the Mississippi Yal- 
LET. — The Bone Bank, on the Wabash. — Where the 
Mounds are Found. — Piketown Walls. — Signal Station 
in Indiana. — Stone Fort. — A Description of It. — 
Science Has as yet Failed. — The Mound-Builders are 
Still Unknown. — Fauna. — The Wild Animals of the 
Forest. — Fishes of the Streams. — Birds of the Air. — 
Flora. — Nature's Beautiful Carpet of Flowers. — Me- 


AVhat race of men occupied this rei^ion before tlie white 
man entered it and the forests began to retire before tJie 
march of civilization? To answer this question intelligently 
and with entire satisfaction's an impossibility, and the data 
of what is known is not all at hand, nor could it be recorded 
in one ordinary sized volume. 

But who were the Indians? Were tliey indigenous to the 
soil, natives born out of the earth of the valley, or were they 
exotics? Elias Boudinot, LL. D., held that the Indians were 
of the ten lost tribes of Israel. He made a collection of 
many of their traditions, manners and customs, and, from 
testimony which he deemed sufficient, came to that con- 
clusion. Be this theory true or not they were not aborigines. 
They came into this valley from some distant country of the 
East, with their peculiarity of living and mode of thought. 


The Indians seemed not to have any idea of the Mound-Build- 
ers, or when the mounds were built. That these mounds were 
built over chieftains and near battle-fields, as well as cities, is 
attested by the tact that warlike instruments, flint arrow- 
heads, are sometimes found quite numerous near these 

The annual reports of the State Cxeologist, Prof. E. T. 
Cox, threw much light upon , the mystery which surrounds 
the prehistoric races who once inhabited the Mississippi 

In the surveys which have been made of considerable 
portions of the State, particular attention has been directed 
to the collection of stone implements and other relics, and to 
the inappinor of ancient tumuli and fortifications which mark 
the arts and civilization of the Mound -Builders. 

" It is not at all improbable," says Prof. Cox, " that the 
existence of man dates back to the time when dry land occu- 
pied most of the area now covered by the Pacific Ocean and 
connected China with A.merica. Nor is it difficult to trace a 
close resemblance, both in national and physiological organi- 
zation, between the inhabitants of India, China and Japan, 
and the Toltec and Aztec races of America. Each have the 
same general features, color of skin, and long, coarse, straight 
black hair, with the same habits of seclusion from outside in- 
terference with their domestic arrangements. The walled en- 
closures of the Aztecs, Toltecs and prehistoric men of this 
country have their counterpart in the great Chinese wall, 
which was made to enclose an entire nation and shut out all 
intercourse with strangers." 

This may seem probable to some, yet the Chinese wall was 
neither in its dimensions nor in its material, nor even in the 
manner of its workmanship, anything in comparison with the 
works in this country of the Mound-Builders. Tiie extent of 
the works found here is not so astonishing as the skill em- 
ployed in their construction, and that only in exceptional 
cases. The material or materials ot which these mounds are 
composed vary according to the geological formation of the 
country or districts where they were erected. On the plains 
they are found principally of the drift-sand and gravel. 


The materials were carried great distances in many cases, and 
by many persons, showing a popnlous country; and well 
packed, for they have stood the storms of centuries without 
being washed to a level plain, which would have been the 
case if science and art had not existed in directing their 

The valle}' of the Ohio River, with its tributaries in OJiio, 
Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky, are full of the wonders of a 
prehistoric race. Their weapons of war, their arrows and 
battle-axes, were made mostly of flint, which they might have 
secured from the river terraces or from distant points where 
flint is found. It is hard to discern the uses of some of these 
stone instruments. The race of Mound-Builders was an indus- 
trious one, for it is said that there are 10,000 mounds and 
1,500 circiiravallations in Ohio alone. Again the mind re- 
verts to the question, Of what race were these Mound-Build- 
ers? and it has not as yet been satisfactorily ascertained. It 
has, however, been pretty well decided that they were orig- 
inally of Asiatic origin. They evidently came to America 
over Behring's Straits, which could have been crossed on the 
ice or in small crafts. It would have required centuries to 
have gone as far south as Central or Soutli America. As 
they moved toward the south they advanced in their arts. It 
will appear from this that from Northeastern Asia the 
American continent between the great mountain ranges — ^con- 
sisting of the Rocky Mountains, in North America, and the 
Andes Mountains, in South America — and the Paciflc Ocean 
was first peopled and grew into powerful empires. Then 
passing this mountain barrier, they found themselves in the 
great valley of the Mississippi. While all is simple con- 
jecture, yet the fact that Asia was their original home and 
that the Scythian race of men was the original Mound-Build- 
ers of the eastern continent of Asia gives a plausible theory 
that this race was the Mound-Builders of this continent. 
This is placed here as a probable solution, but facts are 
needed for corroboration, less, however, in this view, than 
any of the others that have been put forth. 


This is a remarkable locality on the Wabash River, about 


ten tnile5 from its mouth, iu Posey County. ''It is," says 
Prof. Cox, "called the 'Bone Bank' on account of the many 
skulls and human bones which have been washed out on 
the bank of the river, and elicited the attention of persons 
from the earliest settlement of the county to the present time. 
Dr. G. M. Levette visited this locality in 1S72, and made a 
map of the locality which was published in the geological 
report. The ' Bark' is in a bend of the river, on its left bank, 
and the ground is about ten feet above high-water mark, be- 
ing the only land for many miles along this part of the river 
that is not submerged in seasons of high water. The 'Bank' 
slopes gradually back from the river to a slough. This slough 
now seldom contains water, but no doubt at one time it was 
an arm of the Wabash River, which flowed around the ' Bone 
Bank,' and aflorded protection to the island home of the 
Mound-Builders. The Wabash has been changing its bed, 
graduall}' making inroads on the left shore by cutting away 
the 'Bone Bank'. Within the memory of the early settlers the 
'Bank' was two or three times its present width; but the cur- 
rent during each freshet infringes violently on the exposed 
front, and will, in time, carry the last vestige of it into the 
river, carrying with it the bones of the Mound-Builders and 
the cherished articles buried with them. 

"No locality in the country furnishes a greater number 
and variety of relics than this. It has proved especially rich 
in pottery of quaint design and skillful workmanship. I 
have a number of jugs and pots, and a cup found at the 
'Bone Bank.' This character of ware has been very abun- 
dant, and is still found in such quantities that we are led to 
conclude that its manufacture formed a leading industry of 
the inhabitants of the 'Bone Bank.' 

"It is not in Europe alone that we find a well-founded 
claim of high antiquity for the art of making hard and dur- 
able stone by a mixture of clay, lime, sand and a mixture of 
stone; for I am satisfied that this art was possessed by a race 
of people who inhabited this continent at a period so remote 
that neither tradition nor history can furnish an}- account of 
them. They belonged to the Neolithic or polished stone age. 
They lived in towns, and built mounds for sepulture and 


worslii]), and protected their homes by surrounding them 
with walls of earth and stone. In some of these mounds, 
specimens of various kinds of pottery, in a perfect state of 
preservation, have from time to time been found, and frag- 
ments are so common that every student of archajology can 
have a bountiful supply. Some of these fragments indicate 
vessels of very great size. At the Saline Springs, of Gallatin 
County, 111., I picked up fragments that indicated, by their 
curvature, vessels five to six feet in diameter, and it is prob- 
able that they are fragments of artificial stone pans used to 
hold brine that was manufactured into salt by solar evap- 

" Now, all the pottery belonging to the Mound-Builders' 
age, which I have seen, is composed of alluvial clay and 
sand, or a mixture of the former with pulverized fresh water 
shells. A paste made of such a mixture possesses, in a high 
degree, the properties of hydraulic Puzzuolana and Portland 
cement, so that vessels formed of it hardened without being 
burnt, as is customary with modern pottery. The fragments 
of shells served the purpose of gravel or fragments of stone, 
as at present used in connection with hydraulic lime in the 
manufacture of artificial stone." Prot. Cox, in support of 
this theory, gives an analysis of a piece of pottery found at 
the "Bone Bank," and compares it with the composition of 
other artificial stone, with which it is found substantially to 
coincide. "It is simply an artificial stone made from a mixt- 
ure of river mud and pulverized fresh-water shells. Instead 
of softening in water, as these specimens of pottery would do 
if made of clay alone, the vessels made of the mixture harden 
on exposure to air and moisture. When filled with water 
and meat, pots made of this material could be placed over 
the fire and heated without fear of breaking them. These 
ancient artisans must have been aware of the advantage 
derived from a thin body to resist breakage from expansion 
and contraction from the heat of the fire. I have a beautiful 
specimen from the ' Bone Bank,' made of artificial stone, 
which has ears, and is otherwise formed like an old-fashioned 
cast iron dinner pot. It is five inches across the mouth, and 
seven inches in diameter at the bulge, five inches deep, and 


only one-eighth of an inch thick. Tlie bottom is smoked 
black, whieli goes to show that it was suspended over the fire 
for cooking purposes." 

The following memoranda were made by Dr. Levette at the 
time of his visit to tlie locality above described: 

" The 'Bone Bank ' forms at the east bank of the Wabash 
River for 1,500 feet; is 180 feet wide at the widest point, 
near the south end, and thirty -five feet above the water at 
the highest point; It is situated on sections 7 and IS, town 
8, range 14 west, in Posey County, Ind., two and a half miles 
due north of the confluence of the Wabash with the Ohio 
River, and ten miles by the tortuous current of the first- 
named stream. 

" Though no mounds are now visible on the top of the 
' Bant,' the old settlers distinctly remember some small 
hillocks, or tumuli, on the southern and higher end. Whether 
these were mounds of sepulture, sacrifice or observations, can- 
not now be determined. The whole surface is strewn with 
countless fragments of pottery, broken during the process of 
manufacture or by suijsequent use. There is a dwelling 
house on the south end, the residence of Joseph Reeves, Esq., 
the owner of a tract of land of which the 'Bank' is a part. 
He informed me that almost ever3' post hole, or other slight 
excavation made, exposed human bone and pottery. 

'• Formerly, the ' Bank ' was sparsely covered with gigantic 
forest trees, larger than those in the adjoining forest, but 
never in tlie memory of white men so densely covered with 
trees as the adjacent lower lands. 

"The opinion held by some archaeologists, that the 'Bone 
Bank ' is a true mound, constructed of earth taken from the 
slougli on the east side of it, cannot be sustained in the face 
of the fact that tiie strata of coarse and fine sand and gravel 
of various shades and colors may be distinctly traced from 
the water's edge to within two feet of the tow of the ' Bank ' 
at its highest paint, and for the whole length of it up and 
down the river." 


In regard to the work of the Mound-Builders, they are found 
all along the Ohio on both sides, and seem from their great 


elevation to have been signal points. The largest series of 
these mounds or works were found on Paint Creek, Ross 
County, and of such an extent as to fully gain the impression 
that a large city once covered its area. In and around Chilli- 
cotheand at CircleviUe these mounds and evidences of a former 
civilization were found. At the mouth of the Scioto were 
found, also, very extensive ones. Right opposite Portsmouth, 
or, more properly speaking, the old site of Alexandria, on the 
Kentuckj' shore, a fort once stood, and every evidence goes to 
show that a once populous and flourishing settlement rested 
on both sides of the Ohio River at this point. The following 
description of this fort was published by the American Anti- 
quarian Society in 1S20: 

' ' On the Kentucky side of the river, opposite the mouth of 
the Scioto River, is a large fort, with an elevated large mound 
of earth near its southwestern outside angle, and parallel 
walls of earth. The eastern parallel walls have a gatewa}' 
leading down a high, steep bank to the river. They are about 
ten rods asunder, from four to six feet in height at this time, 
and connected with the fort by a gateway. Two small rivu- 
lets have worn themselves channels quite through tiiese walls, 
from ten to twenty feet in depth, since they were deserted, 
from which their antiquity may be inferred. The fort is nearlj' 
a square, with five gateways, whose walls of earth are now 
from fourteen to twenty feet in lieight. From tlie gateway at 
the northwest corner of this fort commenced two parallel 
walls of earth, extending nearly to the Ohio, in abend of that 
river, where, in some low ground near the bank, they disap- 
pear. The river seems to have moved its bed a little since 
these walls were thrown up. A large elevated mound was at 
the southwest corner of the fort, but outside of the fortilica- 
tion. It had some twenty feet or more elevation, and was 
undoubtedly a signal station, and covered some half acre of 
ground. Buried in the walls of this fort have been found and 
taken out large quantities of iron manufactured into pickaxes, 
shovels and guns, supposed to have been secreted by the 
French when they were driven from the country by the Eng- 
lish and American forces." 

On the north, or Ohio, side still more extensive works have 


been found. Commencing near the banks of the Scioto are 
two parallel walls of earth, a counterpart of those built on the 
Kentucky side. They leave the Scioto Kiver bank eastwardly 
tor about 150 feet and then widen, and at about the same ele- 
vation, keeping .some twenty rods apart, climb a hill some 
forty to fifty feet in height. On the top of this is a level plain 
and a well found some twenty-five feet in depth, but is supposed 
to haf e been filled up fully as much, if not more, or in other 
words, from the surroundings, the well must have been from 
sixty to seventy-five feet deep. On this plain are all the evi- 
dences of a large city. Here are three circular tumuli elevated 
about six feet above the plain, while not far distant is another 
some twenty feet in height, and yet another of conical shape 
twenty-five feet or more of elevation. Two other wells 
were found and parallel walls running for two miles in length 
to the Ohio, averaging from six to ten feet in height, but were 
probably of uniform elevation when built. The earth between 
these walls was smooth, and made so probably at the time 
the walls were made, being like a wide level avenue. 

At Circlcville, at Newark and on the Little Miami dupli- 
cates of these works are found; near Piketon two such paral- 
lel walls of earth were found fully twenty feet in height; the 
land on each side seems to have been leveled, or, in fact, a uni- 
form surface was made on each side and between them when 
the walls were made. These walls lead directly to a high 
mound, which seemed to have been a place of sepulture. 
From the number and size of these mounds on both sides of 
this stream, near Piketon, it is believed that a great popula- 
tion once existed there. Sometimes these walls encircle the 
mounds found near them, being a sort of protecting work for 
their preservation as the sacred receptacle of their dead. 

That these people lived here for a long time is very evident 
from the numerous cemeteries, and the vast number of persons 
of all ages buried. It would seem as ifmore people were buried 
in these mounds than were living in the State of Ohio at the 
time the researches were made, between 1815 and 1825, or in 
other words,over three-fourths of a million of people occupied 


the Ohio Valley and the vallej'S of its tributaries. Their largest 
settlements in Ohio were on Paint Creek,a few miles from Chil- 
licothe; at Circleville, along the banks of the Ohio River, espe- 
cially near Gravel Creek, and at the mouths of the Muskingum 
and Scioto rivers. They seemed from increased numbers to have 
moved down the Ohio, and it is believed they came there in 
the ninth, tenth and eleventh centuries, if not earlier, and 
were of Asiatic origin. Of course absolute certainty as to 
number is not possible, but the examination of these mounds, 
their city graveyards, tell of a wonderful people and of a pop- 
ulous country. The antiquarian, Brackenridge, estimated 
that there were 5,000 villages of these people in the valley 
of the Mississippi, and it is believed that the valley of the 
Ohio was fully as populous. Many of the mounds at the 
mouth of the Scioto and others mentioned above contain an 
immense number of skeletons. Those of Big Grave Creek 
were believed to have been filled with human bones, and mill- 
ions of people have been buried in these tumuli. It would 
seem from this that the arts and agriculture must have been 
e-xtensive to have supported such a number of people. The 
questieu then arises, What became of them? Was it a scourge 
or a deluge that swept them from the face of the earths The 
curtain of the past cannot be lifted, and the mind is left in a 
chaos of doubt and bewilderment. The arts flourished among 
these people. Gold and silver ornaments have been found in 
these tumuli, and in some good brick have been found, be- 
sides copper bowls and kettles, arrow-heads of the same metal, 
and medals; urns made of clay (fireclay) seem to have held 
human bones. These and many other things besides being 
found in the tumuli, have been found in other places from six 
to fifteen feet below the surface, showing that centuries must 
have elapsed to have covered them so deep. Idols have also 
been found, and conjecture even is at fault as to their uses, the 
only evidence being in Europe, Asia and in Africa similar 
works have been found, and that this people belong to the dif- 
ferent races of those who worship idols. But still that these 
inhabitants of the valley were an idolatrous people must also be 
left somewhat to conjecture. Again, these people covered near- 
ly the whole of this Western country. On theCanada side of the 


river, above Maiden, and nearly opposite the city of Detroit, 
Mich., are a group of tumuli, three large and of uniform size, 
and the smaller ones standing in prominent places, which are 
a counterpart of three such found near Athens, in the State of 
Ohio, and in many places along the Ohio River. The same 
gods they worsliipped, in the shfvpe of idols, are found in Mex- 
ico and in Pern. Were these people then driven from this coun- 
try by the Indians of the Atlantic Coast, and in thus being 
dispossessed of tlieir country did they follow the course of 
the river, and at last find a home and a refuge in Mexico? 

Artificial mounds, darts and other implements have been 
numerously found in Ohio and Switzerland counties, near the 
Ohio River and Laughing Creek. They are generally found 
with burial places. Dr. J. W. Baxter, of Vevay, gives an 
account of a series of mounds or signal stations, occupying 
prominent points along the Ohio River, within signal distances 
from each other. These points command the whole bottom 
within their range. From the station below Patriot the ob- 
server may look over Gallatin County, Ky., and the valley of 
Eagle Creek to the height of land in Owen County. Both 
this mound and the one near Rising Sun exhibits traces of 
fires that were doubtless used as signals by the Mound-Build- 
ers. There are mounds at Rising Sun; near Gunpowder 
Creek, Ky. ; the Dibble farm, two miles south of Patriot; the 
ISTorthHill, below Warsaw, Ky.; the Taylor farm, below Long 
Lick Creek; opposite Carrollton, Ky., and below Carrollton, 
which form a complete series of signal stations. 

In Jasper County spear and arrow-heads of an unusual 
form, and of a glossy chert are found, together with polished 
stone axes and scrapers. The mound on the east side of the 
Iroquois River, about four miles northeast of the county seat, 
is the only relic of the Mound-Builders yet found in that sec- 
tion of the State. It was nearly ten feet high, forty feet in 
diameter, and contained ashes, bones and shells. 

Numerous earthworks are found in Vigo and Sullivan coun- 
ties of such an extent as to require the time and labor of many 
people. Situated on the river bluffs, their location combines 
picturesque scenery, susceptibility for defense, and conven- 
ient to transportation, water and productive lands. These are 


not requisite advantages necessary in tlie nomadic life of the 
Indian, but identifies the Mound-Builders as a partially civil- 
ized and an agricultural people. 

Over 100 small mounds from two to four feet high 
may be seen about one mile northwest of Middletown, in Yigo 
County. The ancient works near Merom inclose about three 
acres; excavations here disclosed twelve human skeletons, 
besides relics of stone, flints and river shells. But opening a 
section across the mound the following anomalous condi- 
tion, of great interest to the archieologist, was developed. 
At the base ashes and mineralized bones of the Mound-Build- 
ers; near the surface, remains of Indians, and between these 
two. graves of an intermediate race — fislieruien, who i>ropared 
vaults for their dead. The degree of civilization, if it may 
be called such, as it is also the habit of the Indian, attained 
by the latter may be inferred from the faith in the immortal- 
ity exhibited by the deposit of food for the departed, 
from the careful jjreparation of their sepulchers, and more 
especially, perhaps, from the respectful burial of children — 
not the habit of the Mound-Builders. In illustration ot the 
last fact, a small stone vault near the brow of the hill was 
opened and found to contain the bmes of two babss who had 
been tenderly laid to rest, ornamented with a child's treasure 
of shell beads. 

"All the mounds," says Dr. Collett, "which have come 
under ray notice, are located so as to secure an outlook toward 
sunrise, confirming, in many, the belief that the fires of the 
Sun-worshipers have blazed upon every mound-capped emi- 
nence in the great valley of the continent." 

At the mouth of Fourteen-mile Creek, says the Geological 
Report of Indiana for 1873, and about three miles from 
Charlestown, the county seat ot Clark County, there is one of 
the most remarkable stone fortifications. 

The locality selected for this fort presents many natural ad- 
vantages for making it impregnable to the opposing forces of 
prehistoric times. It occupies the point of an elevated nar- 
row ridge, which faces the Ohio River on the east, and is 


bordered by Fourteen-mile Creek on the west side, which emp- 
ties into the Ohio a short distance below the ibrt. The top of 
the ridge is pear-shaped, with the part answering to the neck 
at the north end. This part is not over twenty feet wide, and 
is protected by precipitous natural walls of stone. It is 280 
feet above the level of the Ohio, and the slope is very gradual 
to the south. At the upper field it is 240 feet high and nearly 
300 feet wide. At the lower timber it is 120 feet high. Along 
the greater part of the Ohio Eiver front there is an abrupt 
escarpment, or rock, entirely too steep to be scaled, and a sim- 
ilar natural barrier exists along a portion of the northwest side 
of the ridge, facing the creek. This natural wall is joined to 
the neck of an artificial wall, made by piling up, mason- 
fashion, but without mortar, loose stones. This made wall 
at this point is about 150 feet long, is built along the slope 
of the hill, and had an elevation of about seventy-five feet, 
the upper ten feet being vertical. The inside of the wall is 
protected by a ditcii. The remainder of the hill is protected 
by an artificial stone wall, built in the same manner, but not 
more than ten feet high. The elevation of the side- wall above 
the creek bottom is eighty feet. Within the artificial walls is 
a string of mounds which rise to the height of the wall, and 
are protected from the washings of the hillsides by a ditcli 
twenty feet wide and four feet deep. The top of the enclosed 
ridge embraces ten or twelve acres, and there are five mounds 
that can be recognized, while no doubt others have been ob- 
literated by time and the efforts of man to cultivate a portion 
of the ground. The largest of these mounds is located at the 
narrowest part of the ridge, and is so situated as to command 
an extensive view of the Ohio Valley in all directions. Tiiis 
is designated as " Lookout Monnd," and at its base is a slight 
break in the cliff which furnishes a narrow passage-way to the 
Ohio Eiver. 

On a second bottom of Fourteen-mile Creek, about eight 
miles from the ''Stone Fort," and two miles west of the vil- 
lage of New Washington, on the farm of James D. Robinson, 
is a large circular earthwork well deserving the attention of 
the archc^ologists. The elevation is twenty or thirty feet 
above the bed of the creek, and 400 yards distant. The circle 


is 600 3'ards in circumference, ten or twelve feet wide, and at 
present fifteen to twenty inches above the general surface. 
On the northeast part there is a gap or passage-way six to 
eight feet wide. At the west side of the entrance there is an 
oak-tree three to four feet in diameter. Within the enclosure 
are two pit-holes. Prof. Putnam dug into the circular bank 
in several places, and found it to be made up of aboriginal 
kitchen refuse, fragments of bones of several animals, fresh- 
water shells, and bits of broken pottery. The fragments of 
pottery are marked with a variety of rude devices. The 
action of the plow in cultivating over this enclosure during a 
great many years, for it lies in a cultivated field, has had 
much to do in reducing the elevation of the wall and mixing 
the earth, of which it was constructed, with the kitchen stuff', 
which had probably been thrown on the outer side. The 
fertilizing effect of the kitchen midden is such as to define its 
position by a corresponding circle of luxuriant corn. A 
number of relics have been plowed up in cultivating the cir- 
cle, but they have been carried off" by collectors. On the 
outer part of the circle Mr. Roberts discovered the skeleton 
of a man lying under a flat stone, covered by a few inches of 
dirt. A skull, thigh bone, part of the bones of the arm and 
several ribs were taken out. 

On Big Creek, on section 5, township 4, range 8, in the 
edge of Jefferson County, is found another interesting stone 
enclosure or fort. It is on the spur of a ridge skirting Big 
Creek, and terminating in a broad extent of low, level land. 
It is one mile north of the village of Deputy, on the Louis- 
ville branch of the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad. The fort, 
or enclosure, is protected on the north and south sides by a 
natural wall of the Niagara and Carboniferous limestone, from 
sixty-five to eighty feet high. Across the narrow neck of the 
spur, on the east end, there was an artificial stone wall 
seventy feet long and twelve feet wide. The west side was 
closed by another artificial wall of stone 425 feet long. The 
latter was curved so as to protect all points not naturally 
guarded by the mural walls with which it is connected. The 
foundation stones are all that now remain to mark the place 
of these made defenses. The superstructure has, at various 


times, been removed and used in the construction of chimneys 
and foundations to houses. The chimneys to Mr. Wiggins's 
dwelling-house were built of stone taken from these walls. On 
the north side of the enclosure, in a short, shallow ravine, 
which pitches oif abruptly, there is a cave spring from which 
the dwellers within the enclosure could secure an abundant 
supply of water at all times, and would prove invaluable in 
times of siege. 

In a letter to the Geological Department, Dr. Jordan thus 
writes: ''The land on whicli these antiquities are situated 
was settled by Middleton Roberts, in 1811. The stone 
mounds were at that time about five feet high, and the oldest 
Indian then living in the neighborhood knew nothing of their 
origin. His son, David, fell heir to the land, and it is now 
owned by David's son. Philander Roberts. The antiquities 
consist of three stone mounds built upon level ground, a 
short distance northeast of the depot at Deputy, and 300 feet 
east of the railroad. The largest of the mounds is egg-sha]ied ; 
greater diameter, 135 feet; lesser diameter, sixty feet. Fifty 
feet to the northeast of' Egg Mound ' is a smaller one fifteen 
feet in diameter, and fifteen feet north of this is another 
twenty feet in diameter. They are ail made of stone, and, as 
Prof. PutnaTn said of the Ohio bluff antiquities, they seem to 
be mere piles rudely thrown up. Stone was hauled from 
these mounds to bnild tlie stone house three-quarters of a 
mile to the south, and for building foundations, fire-places 
and chimneys to nearly all the houses for miles around, so 
that they have been nearly leveled to the ground. Some 
years ago parties opened the small mounds, and found stone 
axes, flint arrow points and one pipe; flints in abundance 
have been found in and around the large mound. On Lewis 
Creek, a few hundred feet to the east, tliere is a stone quarry, 
and the blufl" along the stream is eighty feet high." 

The geological report for lS7i contains a number of figures 
of curious prehistoric pipes, taken from mounds and plowed 
up in cultivated fields in diflerent parts of the State. Though 
differing in form and design, the principle of a bowl in which 
tobacco is burned, with a communicating hole at the base 
through which smoke may be drawn into the mouth, is essen- 


tially the same as in pipes of modern construction. Some of 
these pipes are of cnrions and artistic workmanship, evincing 
a high degree of care and skill on tlie ])art of the aboriginal 
makers. There is one carved out ot hard, coarse-grained, 
gray-colored trap-rock, and is a fair representation of a bull- 
frog, with the exception of one or two physiological omissions. 
The figure is full size, five and a half inches long and four 
inches high. The bowl, which is situated on the back, is one 
and one-eighth inches in diameter; the greatest diameter of 
the stem-hole is one and one-quarter inches, and tapers rapidly 
to its connection with the bowl. In order, to smoke such a 
pipe with ease, it should either be held above the level of the 
mouth or the stem should be crooked to suit the lower 
position. The e.Kcellent finish and high degree of art displayed 
in carving so perfect an image of a frog from hard stone might 
at first lead one to question its authenticity as a relic of pre- 
historic times, but when it is compared with other pipes which 
belong undoubtedly to the Mound-Builders' or stone age, there 
is little room to dispute its claim to antiquity. In all the 
Mound-Builders' steniless pipes, the bowl and stem-holes are 
nearly equal in size at their openings; the latter opening ta- 
pers rapidly and is small where it connects with the base of 
the bowl, and forms with it a slightly obtuse angle. 

This specimen was fo\;nd by Mrs. Margaret Rogers, on her 
farm in Fountain County, Ind., one mile from Covington, 
and loaned to the State to be figured and described. The frog 
is sitting on its hind legs, which are admirably folded, but the 
artist exhibits carelessness in minor details,by only giving four 
instead of five toes to the hind feet, and three instead of four 
toes to the four feet. The attitude is quite natural, and the 
head and body are in good proportion. 

Another pipe, represented by figure 1, plate 9, in the report, 
is carved out of greenish gray compact steatite. It is perfect 
in itself, and does not require an additional mouthpiece. The 
figure is a very good imitation of a wolf's head. The bowl is 
one and one-half inches in diameter and three and one-quarter 
inches deep. From the center of the bowl to the end of the 
stem is six inches, and the whole length of the pipe from the 
end of the stem to the tip of the wolfs nose is eleven and 


a half inches. The stem-hole is a full half inch in diameter, 
of uniform size throughout, and made as straight as it drilled 
with machinery. 

In the collection at Indianapolis is a pipe of sandstone, 
handsomely finished in the shape of an urn. It was found b}' 
LycurgQS Chaffin. associated with a copper ax of peculiar 
construction, plummets made of magnetite, and a number of 
stone arrows and flint arrow heads. They were plowed up in 
a short ridge just above high-water mark on the Cat-Off 
Island, one mile from New Harmony, in Posey County, and 
presented to the State Cabinet by Mr. Ciiaffin. 

Prof. Cox adds the following remarks: "The topography 
of Clark, Jefferson and Scott counties, consisting of high 
ridges, separated by broad, arable plains and deep streams 
bordered by bold bluff's, seems to have been eminently fitted 
to the habits and wants of the Mound-Building race. Here 
we find some of the most interesting works which are left as 
monuments of their skill and industry. Fi*om the great forti- 
fied town at the mouth of Fourteen-mile Creek to the fortifica- 
tion of Wiggins's Point on Big Creek, a distance of about 
thirty miles, there appears to be a line of antiquities that mark 
the dwelling places of intermediate colonies, and these, when 
pushed to extremes by an invading foe, may have sought 
protection in the strongholds at either end of the line." The 
memory of the Mound-Builders has perished from the earth, 
and the rude monuments give us a far more imperfect sketch 
of their being and character than that of the fossils whose 
tombs are in the earth's strata. Just when they came, how 
long they remained, and what caused their being eft'aced from 
T,he face of the earth, has been in the thoughts of men over a 
century past, and much time and research have been given to 
solving the problem as to who the mysterious people were 
who inhabited this valley and State. 

Conjecture after conjecture has been put forth as to the ori- 
gin and disappearance of this prehistoric race. Many plausible 
theories have been given by the ethnologists, but the problem 
has long baffled them and the future is not one of promise. 
All that may be found in the future will prove likely to be 
merely a duplicate of tlie past, but if changed in form, will 


not be ill material facts. Opinion among some have prevailed 
that the Mound-Builders were of the Aztec origin as found in 
Mexico but this has not been sufficiently traced to make it 
probable. Some believe that the race came from China or sep- 
arated from China-Japanese people and spread themselves over 
the Continent, and were finally driven out by the savages. The 
latter is likely for the Indians had possession ot the country, 
but there is nothing pf the Chinese found around the relics 
of the Mound-Builders. That they, while not a warlike 
people, defended their homes in this great valley against their 
oppressors or conquerors is shown plainly enough ; their skele- 
tons, their earthworks, their domestic utensils and their 
weapons of defense are everywliere found mingled in one 
common ruin. It is a noticeable fact that tlie Mound-Build- 
ers were never an aggressive people, their fortifications and 
their weapons being all for defense, and not for attack. Their 
extensive defensive arrangements being found all over the 
country proves that they were attacked by some powerful in- 
vading foe — probably the Indians who succeeded them — and 
that they were not disposed to give up their homes and burial 
places without a struggle. In these defensive works thej' dis- 
played a good deal of engineering skill. Yet history has not 
and can not give us any positive information of this people, of 
their chiefs, their statesmen, orators or poets; the veil cannot 
be lifted, and the past will remain an impenetrable blank. 

It is thought best to describe the country in its three de- 
partments or kingdoms: Mineral, animal and vegetable. Hav- 
. ing described its mineral or geological formations, and 
dropped a few thoughts relative to its aboriginal inhabitants 
in their monuments, it now remains to consider its original 
animal and vegetable kingdoms. What beasts, birds, fislies 
and reptiles originally occupied the Territory? 

When the first white man entered within the limits of the 
Indiana Territory, it was a dark unbroken wilderness. The 
silence of its continuous forest was broken by the piercing 


cry of the eagle, tlie howling of wild beasts and the whooj) 
of the savage. The co-mingling of such wild, unusual and 
discordant voices produced a sense of loneliness to wliich the 
present occupants are utter strangers. Far from the cheering 
smiles of quiet civilization he is resolved to take up his abode 
with these untamed denizens of the district. 

What wore they that made his nights so dangerous and 

A few of its most dangerous occupants deserve special no- 
tice. Others will be simply named. 

{a.) Puma, or Cougar, is one of the largest of the Ameri- 
can feliiE, rivaled only by the jaguar. It is called panther. 
It is sometimes called the American lion. It does not often 
attack man, but has an unusual thirst for blood. One puma has 
been known to kill fifty slieep in one night, drinking a little 
blood of each. These monarchs of the forests were not nu- 
merous in this section, but their name always carries terror 
with it. When it was reported that a panther had been heard 
or seen in any district the whole country turned out for a 
hunt, each man hoping to be the fortunate one to give it the 
death shot. This animal was the prince of beasts, though 
sometimes mastered and killed by a single dog. 

{b.) Bear. — American black bears were found in abun- 
dance all over the country. The bear was timid, but had 
great muscular power. It usually fed on berries; seldom 
made an attack on man, but when attacked was very 
dangerous. It was hunted for the value of its fur and 
oil. Bear-hunting was a chief pursuit in the earl 3' settlement 
of the Valley of the White Water, and a successful "bear 
hunter" was enrolled among the honorable. Bear meat was . 
a great relish. Long since has the American black bid 
adieu to his favorite haunts, and retired to Western lands, 
from the face of his human foe, there to pursue in secret his 
own natural calling. 

(c.) T/ie Wolf. — Tlie gray wolf was the wolf usually found, 
though now and then a black wolf was caught. The wolves 
roved in packs, and when hungry disputed with the early 
settlers the right of possession of the flocks, and at times 
challenged man to mortal combat. Their barking howl. 


breaking upon the ear at noon of night, reminds one of those 
fabled monsters that are said to guard the entrance to the 
realms of Pluto. 

Wolf hunts were very common and quite necessary. They^ 
too, have been driven from tlie country', and in a few more 
years even their name will scarcely be known. 

{(i.) Deer. — Deer were in early times very numerous. 
They were hunted for their skins and flesh. Many families 
lived, principally, on venison, and made deer-hunting their 
chief occupation. The deer have also retired. Here and 
there one may be seen, but they are so scarce as to render 
the hunting quite unsuccessful. The four kinds of animals 
formed those classes which were, perhaps, the most noted. 
"While these haunted tliis section, hunting formed one of the 
chief occupations. When they disappeared hunting became 
more of a sporting business. Other wild animals were nu- 
merous, some of which were valued for their furs, such as the 
beaver, foxes, otters, rauskrats, minks; others may be enu- 
merated, as the liares, squirrels, mice, rats, weasles, porcu- 
pines, badgers. These animals occupied the country at the 
time when the white man first entered it. The smaller ani- 
mals still continue. Foxes have been very numerous and 
often destructive on the poultry. The opossums were nu- 

TJie Eagle Family deserves the first notice as it is the 
royal family among birds. The eagles were, in the early set- 
tlement of the valley, quite numerous, there being many 
species. The eagle has always been a noted bird. Its ex- 
traordinary powers of vision, the height to whicli it is able to 
rise, its love for wild sceiiery, and its longevity constitute it 
as a bird of poetic associations. '• It was associated with 
Jupiter in the Eoman mythology; its figure on the standards 
uf the Homan legions expressed and animated their confi- 
dence in victory." It is the emblem of our standard. The 
American eagle inspires the American soldier in the day of 
battle. The species of eagles formerly* numerous here were: 
'in The white, or bald-head, eagle of America, the chosen em- 

bleraatic eagle of American States, is also one of the eagle 
group; {h) The forked-tailed eagle was another species quite 
common in the earl)' settlement. On almost any clear day 
of summer its piercing cry would call your attention. Look- 
ing toward the sun you Would discover the eagle, with ex- 
panded wings immovable, and forked tail, circling in a spiral 
path upward till it disappeared in the boundless expanse 
above. That bird has also forsaken the country. The bald 
eagle did much damage in the way of carrying off pigs, lambs 
and other small animals. Sometimes infants have been 

The Hawk is an "ignoble " bird of prey. This family has 
always had a full representation. The two most noted species 
are the (1) " hen hawk," so called from its larger size; and (2) 
the "chicken hawk," one much smaller. A third species may 
be added, the " blue hawk." They are far-seeing, and have al- 
ways been disputants of a large share of the domestic products 
of the poultry. Our good and wise law-makers placed the 
family for a time under legal restrictions, but for some reason, 
wise, perhaps, have signed for them a reprieve. This large 
family is pleased with its treatment and fare, and has con- 
cluded to continue its residence in this section. 

The Owl. — This family is the nocturnal section of birds of 
prey. It was once a very large family, and made the nights 
hideous with its hootings. The owl family has always been 
one of poor repute, being a family of "evil omen." It has 
this bad reputation from gloominess of its haunts, sncli as old, 
dilapidated buildings, caverns, and the dark solitudes of the 
woods; and, especially, from its cry, "hollow and lugu- 
brious," but loud and startling, "lieard during the hours of 
darkness, and often by the lonely wanderer. It is evidently 
from this cry that the name owl is derived, as well as many 
of its synonyms in other languages, and of the names appro- 
priated in different countries to particular species, in most of 
which the sound of oo or oiv is predominant, with great vari- 
ety of accompanying consonants. Many of the ow4s have 
another and very different cry, which has gained for one of them 
the appellation screech owl, and to which, probably, the Latin 


name Strix and some other names are to be referred." Be- 
tween the settlers and the owl family there has been a contin- 
ued struggle as to the right of certain kinds of property, the 
owl being a noted tliief and robber, sleeping in the light of 
day. but wide awake in the hours of darkness — having such a 
big eye and so peculiarly constructed that it can see without 
light. The owl family still remains, following its old occupa- 
tion. The eagle, the hawk and the owl were the principal 
families of jirey ; what the eagle and the hawk failed to accom- 
plish in the light, the owl finished in the darkness. 

Birds of other families abounded in the Territory. Enter 
the dark valley of the primeval forest in the hot and sliady 
months, and the notes of a great variety of "feathered song- 
sters" always salute the listening ear of the lonely traveler. 
These families prefer the retired wilderness abode to the culti- 
vated lands of civilization. Other families soon formed an 
intimacy with the new comers. As the forests removed and 
the lands were made productive they came in i'nv their share 
in payment for their "gabble "and musical entertainments. 
Of these there was a great variety, such as the buzzard, the 
raven, the crow, the dove, the lark, the quail, the partridge, 
the black-bird, blue-bird, the humming-bird, the wild turkey, 
water-fowls, and a great variety of swallows, martins, Amer- 
ican mocking-birds (cat-birds), robins, whip-poor-wills, wood- 
cocks, wood-peckers, and many other families; these continue 
here and prefer the haunts of civilization. One other familv 
of birds should not be overlooked, since it outnumbered the 
sum of all others, viz., the wild pigeons. Flocks of pigeons 
often in their flight darkened the whole heavens. Their roosts 
were so crowded and large that they broke down forests. 
This family has deserted us for homes more retired. 


The White Water River and other streams liad an abundance 
of e.xcellent fish. They were of many varieties, and of nearly 
all sizes. Those prized most for food were the pike, weigh- 
ing from one pound to ten pounds; the black perch, some- 
times called bass; white bass; the sucker and salmon. Dur- 
ing early spring fishing is made pleasing and profitable. 


To fisli with a hook and line, standing in the water up to the 
middle, was one of the early pioneer springand summer oecu])a- 
tions. Should our waters be supplied with foreign varieties of 
choice fish, the time may come when White Water River and its 
affluents will yield the citizens a satisfactory income. Fish 
culture, in point of commercial value, will, perhaps, compare 
favorably with grain products, provided, however, thatthecult- 
ure is properly guarded. 


When first discovered, the country was full of reptiles: (1) 
Ophidia, or serpents; (2) Sauria, or lizards; (3) Chelonia, or 
tortoises. The serpents were of many species: (1) The rattle- 
snake; (2) The copperhead; (3) The black-snake; (i) The 
striped snake; (5) The " racer." These were the most com- 
mon of the serpent family. The rattlesnake and the copper- 
head were very poisonous. The rattlesnake always gave 
warning, and was not, therefore, so dangerous as the copper- 
head, which accomplished its deadly work from an ambush. 
The racer was not poisonous; still it was dangerous in its 
mode of attack, coiling about its victim, and, suddenly, and 
with great power, crushing the object. There were combats 
between the rattlesnake and the racer which resulted in the 
total destruction of the former. The serpents of the poison- 
ous species have become scarce, except in a few localities. 
Lizards are small, and without any special interest. About 
the same may be said of the tortoises; some few species are 
used as food. 

The insects were also numerous, some of which are useful. 
The wild honey-bee belongs to that class. Many species may 
be placed in the rank of pests.' Space will not allow further 

But aside from the ancient denizens of tlie countr}- let us 
view the inhabitants when first seen by the Caucasian. Not a 
tree had yet fallen before the ax of the white man. Among 
the waving branches of the heavy timbered bottoms, and on 
the stately oaks of the hills, were heard the notes and cries of 
birds of various plumage, new and strange. The Indian 
whoop, the panther's cry, the lioarse growl of the bear, the 


howl of the wolf, mingled with thousands of notes of living 
organism, fall upon his ear, as froir^ the animated beings of a 
new world. Is he dreaming? or, does he behold the animated 
beings of a literal country, like the one left behind him? 

Are these numberless organisms indigenous to the soil, 
like the trees that grow out of it, or are they the offspring of 
eastern ancestry, that, in ages long passed, found their way 
over a pathless ocean? Has the human family one center, or 
many? Do animals follow the same law of unity? These 
points are unsettled in the minds of many learned men. The 
animals of the new world had their laws of natural combina- 
tion corresponding with a new human development, each to 
move in unison as another great whole in the divine govern- 


The flora concerns those trees and plants which are indige- 
nous to the district, and will, under this term, include the 
botany of the valley, as it was when first settled by Europe- 
ans. A few general remarks will be of use to a proper un- 
derstanding of what shall follow. The Arctic flora of Europe, 
Asia and America resemble more closely than that of the 
equatorial regions. The same holds true of their fauna. This 
affords an argument in favor of one floral center. Species in 
the three grand divisions are not alike. Trees of the same 
name differ in America from those in Europe and Asia. 
These variations are mostly the result of climate and soil, and 
not because of different original centers; the families are more 
alike than their species. The family name is not changed, 
but the species differ. The American forests, as in Eui'ope 
and Asia, consist of pines, oaks, birches and willows; but they 
are not like those that cover the plains and mountains eas: of 
the Atlantic. The same is true of other trees, such as pop- 
lars, elms, maples, hazels, and other families of trees, and, 
also, it holds good with roses, brambles, strawberries, bilber- 
ries, etc.; it is true, also, of grasses, common flowers and 
weeds. Each zone, therefore, has its peculiar flora. The 
change in the species is evidently the result of a change in 
the soil and climate. The oaks and pines on the mountains 


of Mexico difler from the Arctic oaks and {jines of America. 
Geological formations vary the features. Look at the white 
oaks, growing on thin hill land, rich north side hills, south- 
ern and western exposures, on rich bottom lands, on lands 
containing much iron, lime or sand, those that are on wet, 
cold and soar soils. To conclude, therefore, the flora of a 
country varies with its geological formation, temperature, 
light and heat. We speak of a white-oak soil, a walnut soil, 
buckeye soil, and beech soil. Each soil is adapted to its pe- 
culiar flora. The seeds being in the soils will not germinate 
unless the laws of germination are met. This is true of all 
floral seeds. Put a heavy coating of lime on a field and, 
without sowing, clover springs up from seed already in the 
earth. These laws of germination understood, we proceed 
to investigate the flora of the State. 


No one passing for the first time (188i) through the various 
sections of the State, noting carefully its cultivated fields; its 
railways, villages, towns and cities; its coal and iron estab- 
lishments, can form any fair picture of the territory one cent- 
iiry since. All its bottom lands were then shaded by a very 
■dense, high, and heavy growth of green, health}' trees, com- 
posed of immense sycamore, poplar, black and white walnut, 
black and white ash, buckeye, beech, soft and rock maple, 
white, black, red and yellow oak, standing so dense when 
clothed with foliage as not to allow the sun's rays to penetrate 
to the earth, turning bright noonday into twilight. What 
immense labor to consume these primeval forests. The hills 
were covered with a dense growth of oak, hickory, ash; here 
and there pine, poplar, maple and some few other species 
of forest trees. The ravines, slopes and plains were covered 
with a mixture of the bottom and upland growth. These 
dense forests have given way to the march of civilization. 
Over a large portion of the State there is nothing left to teach 
the rising generation the majestic beauty of nature's original 
clothing. What is a cornstalk beside a venerable oak, or 
poplar, or ash, or sycamore ? What are our steepled houses 
beside the beauty and the glory of " God's first temple." 



Tliese forests, so wantonly mutilated and destroyed, have 
been the necessary servants of the citizens, by supplying them 
with fuel, bridge, fencing and building materials, and by sat- 
isfying various other wants. There has been, however, a 
great waste of timber; thousands of acres of choice timber 
were burned. The "log rollings"' of early times are sufficient 
testimony of the trutli of the assertion. Could that choice 
timber have been sawed into lumber, and have been pro- 
tected, it would have supplied the wants of many generations; 
but where then were their portable saw-mills and the men to 
work them ? Steam itself was yet slumbering. 

Eelative to the flora of this State, something should be said 
relative to its tree families, their location, growth, and par- 
ticular habits. Many families, each consisting of several 
members or species of trees, formed the vast wilderness. 
Sometimes miles were occupied by the members of a single 
family, such as the oak family; in other localities the family 
of hickories held almost exclusive possession; in another, 
poplar; beech another, and so on through the catalogue of 
families, each family occupying the land that best suited it, 
forming all over the valley " little squatter" sovereignties. 
Other localities were covered with family mixtures. Not that 
they amalgamated, but tJiat they were not exclusive in their 
habits; they grew up quietly in the same beautiful grove. 
Sucii habits do not come by chance; they must spring from 
philosophical causes. Why such liabits among the more no- 
ble families of the floral kingdom '. Be it true or false, we 
venture an explanation. Seeds, the parentage of vegetation, 
were the result of an original creation. Whether they were 
created in one place and distributed, or were formed where 
they were afterward germinated, we do not say. The seeds, 
through some agency, by the waters of the flood, by birds, or 
by some other means, entered the soils in everj^ quarter of the 
globe, waiting there for favorable conditions of germination, 
each variety or family varying in its conditions. They may 
have been placed there in the original creation. The ground 
is full of seed not sown by the hand of man; how long sown 
is not known. Seeds retain their vitality many centuries; 
instances are given wiiich would show that some varieties 


(grains of wlieat about Egyptian mummies) liave held their 
vitality forty centuries. Corn in the tombs of the Incas has 
vegetated. "After the great fire of London, in 1666, plants 
not previously common sprang up abundantly on the waste 
ground; certain plants previously unknown there are sure to 
appear after a fire in the American forests, in deep trenching 
of land, or turning up of tlie soil, by railway or other opera- 
tions, producing a crop 'of some kind of phmts unknown or 
rare in the locality." The seeds then that have produced 
these families may have been in their localities ages before 
exposed to their various conditions of germination. The seed 
of tlie oak might germinate in one place; those of the beech 
in another; of the poplar in another, each variety of seed 
germinating in that locality best adapted to its growth. 
Thus we call one soil a beech soil, another oak, another wal- 
nut, because best adapted to that peculiar growtli. These 
tree preferences and habits are well understood, and followed 
in the purchase of lands. 

Each geological formation has its distinct flora. It is not 
our purpose to discuss fossil botany, but simply to give some 
account of what might be the origin of the forests. These 
forests sprang up among the debris of tlie lower coal meas- 
ures, yet they^ are infants in age compared with the duration 
of those measures. To the cretaceous formation many of the 
genera now living are said to belong. " They formed the for- 
ests of that period, and the fossil remains show that their ap- 
pearance was much the same as now. Among the living 
genera represented were the oak, poplar, plane, willow, 
beech, sassafras, magnolia, fig, maple, walnut, tulip tree, etc." 
That the seeds were long in their various localities, and were 
not therefore brought from the Old World, will appear when 
we learn that many are natives of America, such as maize 
(Indian corn) and the potato. 

The wild flowers of Indiana Territory were exceedingly 
numerous and of many varieties. We have no data by which 
any botanical description can be given, neither will the 
limited space permit such a scientific notice. We simply 
desci-ibe it as the first settlers saw it. Wherever the sun 
was permitted to warm the earth, seeds of unknown plants 


germinating sprang up in profusion. The deep soils of the 
river and creek bottoms soon brought them into bloom. One 
of nature's flower gardens would extend many miles_ showing 
every size, shape and shade of color. 

Such a profusion and co-mingling of odors and tints can 
exist only in the gardens of Nature's planting. You might 
walk 100 miles and still be surrounded with this wild Eden 
bloom. The rose, the pink, the violet, the tulip and the 
lilies! "Who could count the numbers or tell their varieties? 
We have Horal exhibitions of our times, but they would not 
favorably compare with one of Nature's exhibitions, even in 
the White Water Valley, of those early days. Over hills, 
up ravines, along the slopes, on the plains, in the valleys, 
over a space of- 2,000 square miles, from April till September, 
was this beautiful flower garden on exhibition. How true to 
nature are these lines: 

The fauna and flora have changed, and we now behold a 
State fast filling up with a population capable of appreciating 
and utilizing the resources treasured for their use by Nature's 


Meteorology discusses atmospheric phenomena, and we 
will confine our remarks to those phenomena that relate to 
weather and climate. This department of nature has, so 
far, refused to submit to any regular system of well-defined 
laws. At least it has been very reticent before the most dis- 
tinguished savants. 

The element that we breathe, and in which we live and 
move and have our being, is too intimately associated with 
our health and happiness to allow us not to be familiar with 
its nature and habits. Pure atmosphere is the element ot 
life. Impure air is a death angel. Whatever, then, affects 
its purity or condition as a breathing element, or as a faith- 
ful servant and companion, should be made familiar. The 
atmosphere is the home of those meteors that so much aflect 
the human family, viz. : Dew, clouds, fog, rain, hail, frost, 


lightning, and storms of wind, rain, hail and snow. lu tem- 
perature and weight are constantly varying. Whatever 
changes its weight, its temperature, its moisture or its motion 
or direction has a direct bearing on our health and our enjoy- 
ment. We speak, also, of its electricity. In every light, 
therefore, atmospheric changes affect our happiness more 
sensibly than any other natural department. All nations are 
watching its changes, that, if possible, they may discover the 
laws which govern its greatest meteor storms, how to forecast 
storms, and, consequently, to avoid their terrible effects. If 
its tornadoes, or cyclones, could be seen twenty-four hours in 
advance, much of their damages could be avoided. To pre- 
vent rains when too abundant, or to cause showers in times 
of drought, would be a great achievement. The atmosphere 
is like water, under the control of specific laws; these laws 
will finally ba known, and meteorology will be brought under 
the theorems and problems of all true sciences. This, how- 
ever, will not be accomplished until the influence of disturb- 
ing causes is distinctly ascertained. Then storms will be 
accurately predicted and their forces ascertained. The 2,000 
daily observations taken in all parts of the world are bring- 
ing about an important era in the history of meteorology. 
All that aid in that work are public benefactors. 

Every river system has its own meteorological peculiarities. 
The course of the river and its branches, and the nature of 
its soils, determine the character of its atmosphere. These, 
united with temperature and the rapid or tardy flow of 
streams — all these combined — make its peculiar atmospheric 
features. The atmosphere of the Mississippi is sul)jected to 
two currents of air, between which there exists a continuous 
struggle; a cool dry wind from the north and northwest, and 
a sultry wind, charged with vapor, from the soutli and south- 
west. Were it not for the struggle for the ascendency be- 
tween these opposing winds, the Mississippi Valley would 
long since have been a desert waste. The reason of this will 
appear when a third atmospheric current is traced. 

A west wind, saturated with vapor, starts from the Pacific, 
eastward, direct for the Mississippi Valley, in the same 
latitude. Passing over the Coast Kange, with the fall of tern- 


perature its capacity to hold moisture decreases. There it 
parts with a portion of its vapor. It does not recover its full 
capacity when it meets with its second mountain range (the 
JMevada), where it makes its second deposit, this range being 
higher than the Coast Range. Having passed the third 
range (the Rocky Mountains) it descends the eastern slope a 
dry wind. Crossing a vast extent of country with a higher 
temperature it has no moisture to precipitate; it reaches us a 
dry west wind. Should there be no north and south winds we 
should have no rain. Two currents, one cool, the other warm 
and saturated with vapor, make a general rainfall — what we 
call "steady rains." Summer showers are produced by the 
law of condensation, but in another way; a warm saturated 
current moving upward meets a cold stratum of air; part of 
its vapor being condensed is precipitated in the form of rain 
or hail. The law is the same in each, but they differ in mode 
and direction; the one is horizontal, the other vertical. Our 
various winds have the following characteristics in this sec- 
tion: A south wind, east wind or southeast wind in the 
spring, fall and winter brings a storm, because they, being 
warmer and saturated with vapor, meet a cold wind which 
precipitates a portion of its moisture, and will continue to 
storm until they are driven southward, and the wind, in com- 
mon language, shifts to the north-northwest. The true ex- 
pression is, the colder or opposite wind prevails and has 
driven the warmer wind and, consequently, the storm belt to 
the south. The rains in the valley are local, often covering 
less than a mile square. Severe and protracted droughts are 
seldom known here. The reasons are obvious. The valleys 
have so many hills and ridges that they serve to introduce 
heated rising currents of moist air; these rising currents car- 
rying their vapor with them it is condensed and falls in rain. 
Hence it is said that turning up so as to show the under sur- 
faces of the growing leaves is a sign of rain. It shows the 
existence of upward currents of air, which indicate rain. A west 
wind is usually a dry wind for reasons already given. East 
winds, those due east, bring rain only when they are heavily 
charged with vapor — for meeting a cool, dry west wind, much 
of its vapor will be absorbed. 


Obganization and Bounds.— First State Election. — Mem- 
bees OF FiHST Legislature. — Date of Organization. — 
General Progress. — An Indian Legend. — Water Supply. 
— Internal Improvements. — Letter of Instruction. — Com- 
mencing Work. — The Work Progressing. — Financial Em- 
barrassment. — Failure of the State to meet Obligations. 
— The Amount of Work Done and Money E.\pe;jded. — 
A Revival of Business. — Progress of the Work. — The 
Credit of the State Redeemed. 

organization and bounds. 

The Constitutional Convention had been held, the first 
State election and the machinery of government organized, 
and the first session of the State Legislature was convened, 
at the time the State was forinallj admitted into the Union, 
Dec. 11, 1816. 

The State of Indiana is bounded on the east by the me- 
ridian line which forms also the western boundary of Ohio, 
extending due north from the moutli of the Great Miami 
River; on the south by the Ohio River from the mouth of 
the Great Miami to the mouth of the Wabash; on the west 
by a line drawn along the middle of the Wabash River, 
from its mouth to a point where a due north line from tlie 
town of Vincennes would last touch the shore of said river, 
and thence directly north to Lake Michigan; and on the 
north by said lake and an east and west line ten miles north 
of the extreme south end of the lake, and extending to its 
intersection with the aforesaid meridian, the west boundary 
of Ohio. These boundaries include an area of 33,809 square 


lMik•l^, lying between 37' 47' and 41" 50' north latitude, and 
between 7' 45' and 11" 1' west longitude from Washington. 
The inhabitants ot the new State first turned their atten- 
tion to farming, which is still the leading industry of In- 
diana. New farms were opened, new settlements were 
founded, orchards were planted, log and frame school-houses 
were erected, churches were built, towns and cities began 
to flourish and battle for the leading position. 


This took place on the first Monday in August, 1S16. 
Jonathan Jennings was elected Governor; Christopher Har- 
rison. Lieutenant-Governor, and William Hendricks was 
elected the Congressional Representative of the new State 
in the House of Representatives at AVashington. 

The election for members of the first General Assembly 
of the State resulted as follows: 

S.enate — William Polke, Knox County; William Prince, 
Gibson County; Daniel Grass, Posey, Perry and Warrick 
counties; Patrick Baird, Wayne County; John Connor, 
Franklin County; John DePauw, Washington, Orange and 
Jackson counties; John Paul, Jefferson and Switzerland coun- 
ties; Ezra Ferris, Dearborn County; Dennis Pennington, 
Harrison County; and James Beggs, Clark County. 

House of Representatives — Joseph Holiuan, Ephraim Over- 
man and John Scott, of Wayne County; James Noble,David 
Mounts and James Browulee, Franklin County; Amos Lane 
and Erasmus Powell, Dearborn County; John Dumont, 
Switzerland County; William Dunn and Samuel Alexander, 
Jeiferson County; Benjamin Ferguson, Thomas Carr and John 
K. Graham, Clark County; David Floyd, Jacob Zener and 
John Boone, Harrison County; Samuel Mil roy and Alexander 
Little,Washington County; William Gralmm, Jackson County; 
Jonathan Lindley, Orange County; Isaac Blackford, Walter 
Wilson and Henry L. Mills, Knox Countj^; Edmund Hogan 
and John Johnson, Gibson County; Dan Lynn, Posey County; 
RatliiF Boone, Warrick County; and Samuel Conner, Perry 

The first General Assembly elected under the authority of 


the State Constitution commenced its session at Corvdon on 
the 4:th of November, 1816. John Paul was called to the 
chair of the Senate fro tern., and Isaac Blackford was elected 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. On the 7th of 
November the oath of office was administered to Governor 
Jennings and Lieutenant-Governor Harrison, in the presence 
of botli Houses. On this occasion Governor Jennings deliv- 
ered his first message to the General Assemby, in which, 
among other things, he remarked: " The result of your delib- 
eration will be considered as indicative of its future character, 
as well as of the future happiness and prosperity of its citizens. 
The reputation of the State as well as its highest interest, will 
require that a just and generous policy toward the General 
Government and a due regard to the rights of its members 
respectively, should invariably have their proper influence. In 
the commencement of tlie State government the shackles of the 
colonial should be forgotten in our united exertions to prove, 
by happy experience, that a uniform adherence to the lirst 
principles of our Government, and a virtuous exercise of its 
powers, will best secure efficiency to its measures and stability 
to its character. Without a frequent recurrence to those 
principles the administration of the Government will imper- 
ceptibly become more and more arduous, until the simplicity 
of our republican institutions may eventually be lost in dan- 
gerous expedients and political design. Under every free 
government the happiness of the citizens must be identified 
with their morals; and while a constitutional exercise of their 
rights shall continue to have its due weight in the discharge 
of the cluties required of the constituted authorities of the 
State, too much attention can not be bestowed to tlie encour- 
agement and promotion of every moral virtue, and to the 
enactment of laws calculated to restrain the vicious, and 
prescribe punishment for every crime commensurate to its 
enormity. In measuring, however, to each crime its adequate 
punishment, it will be well to recollect that the certainty of 
punishment has generally the surest effect to prevent crime; 
while punishment unnecessarily severe too often produces 
the acquittal of the guilty, and disappoints one of the greatest 
objects of legislation and good government. * * * The 


dissemination of useful knowledge will be indispensably neces- 
sary as a support to morals, and as a restraint to vice; and, 
on this subject it will be only necessary to direct your attention 
to the plan of education as prescribed by the Constitution. 

* * * I recommend to your consideration the propriety 
of providing by law, to prevent more effectually any unlawful 
attempts to seize and carry into bondage persons of color 
legally entitled to their freedom; and, at the same time, as far 
as practicable, to prevent those who rightfully own service to 
the citizens of any other State or Territory from seeliing within 
the limits of this State a refuge from the possession of their 
lawful owners. Such a measure will tend to secure those who 
are free from any unlawful attempts (to enslave them) and 
secures the rights of the citizens of the other States and Terri- 
tories as far as ought reasonably to be expected." 

Thus was the Territorial Government of Indiana exchanged 
for a State Government on the 7th of November, 1816. Dur- 
ing the session of the Legislature, James Noble and Walter 
Taylor were elected to represent the State of Indiana in the 
Senate of the United States; Robert A. New was elected 
Secretary of State; W. II. Lilley, Auditor of State; and Dan- 
iel C. Lane, Treasurer of State. The session was adjourned, 
sine die, on the 3d of January, 1817. 

The Congress of the United States, during the session, by 
joint resolution approved Dec 11, 1816, formally admitted the 
State of Indiana into the Union. 


The State moved along quite rapidly, and the increase was 
as marked during the decade between 1820 and 1830 as it was 
between the years 1815 and 1820. In 1825 the counties had 
increased from sixteen, at the date of the organization of the 
State, to fifty-two, and were divided into five judicial districts. 
The counties of Delaware and Wabash had their limits defined 
at that time, but were attached to other counties. Fountain 
and Tippecanoe counties were organized by the Legislature in 

The Legislature in the latter year had twenty-one members 
in the Senate and fifty-seven in the House, under the appor- 


tionment made in January, 1826, and which continued for 
five years. The State at this date was entitled to three mem- 
bers of Congress, and had three districts. Without giving 
the names of the fifty-three counties then organized, the dis- 
tricts may be said to have been the Eastern district, compris- 
ing twelve counties, the Central district, having sixteen coun- 
ties, and the Western district, twenty-five. Tiiese also included 
the counties attached to others and not organized, but counted 

The State at that time was also divided into five medical 
districts, and there was a State Medical Society, which was 
composed of delegates from each of the district societies, 
which were entitled to from one to five delegates, to hold for 
three years; but one-third were elected each year. It had all 
the rights generally exercised by such societies. 

The principal towns in the State at this time (1826) were: 
Indianapolis, then the capital, having been removed from 
Corydon the year before; Vincennes, New Albany, Salem, 
Madison, Lawrenceburg and Richmond. There were also 
numerous other towns springing up all over the State, among 
which in this part of the State wei'e: Fort Wayne, Centerville 
(then the county-seat of Wayne County), Jefiersonville, Brook- 
ville, Charleston, Bloomington and Connersville. Three of 
the above were on the Ohio River. 

Education was not neglected at that early day, and that 
which has given Indiana the proud eminence she now occu- 
pies as the leading State in the Union in the amount of her 
school fund, and the high and perfect excellence of her public 
schools, is that she commenced her work fur the education of 
her children as soon as she became an organized existence. 
Charters had been granted for several seminaries, and there 
were in existence in 1825 and 1826 one in Clark County, one 
in Union, Knox, Monroe, Gibson and Orange, and the Cam- 
bridge Academy, in Dearborn County. The common schools 
flourished in every county in the State. Manufactures had 
made considerable headway, but the greatest progress had 
been made by the tillers of the soil. They had advanced rap- 
idly, and the fruitful soil gave them a bountiful harvest in 
return for their labor. 



In the early days of Indiana history was an Indian legend, 
or tradition, to the effect that the Indians on the Mississippi 
River and west of the "Father of Waters," claimed all the 
land east of that river to the Wabash, and that those on the 
latter stream also claimed it, or claimed all the land from Lake 
Erie to the Mississippi. It was at last decided, or mutually 
agreed, that the possession should be given to the survivors 
of a battle, or to the victors, and that 1,000 warriors on each 
side were to take part in the deadly strife for possession. The 
ground on which Fort Harrison stood, in Sullivan County, 
was chosen as the theater of the conilict. They fought from 
the rising to the setting of the sun, and the warriors of the 
Wabash became the victors, having seven surviving warriors, 
while the warriors of the Mississippi were reduced to five. 
The bodies of the slain warriors were gathered together and 
interred in the neighboring mounds. Such is the Indian le- 
gend in regard to the possession of the country by the tribes 
in possession when the white man discovered it. 

In the year 1826 the State of Indiana had already a history 
of State progress. The foundation for the magnificent public 
school system wliich the State now enjoys was being carefully 
laid. The State government had reached a better policy, and 
confidence in business circles was in a great measure restored. 
I n short the State seems here to have reached a point when its in- 
habitants could look back over the events in its history, observe 
their results, and shape a policy consistent with the probable 
future demands of prosperity. The increase of population 
was made noticeable. At this date, l825-'6, the population ex- 
ceeded 250,000 souls; in 1820 it was 147,178; in 1815 it was 
68,897; in 1810 it was 24,520; in 1805 it was 11,000; and in 
1800, the date of the organization of the Territory, it was only 
4,794. Thus the people could perceive the increase during 
the twenty-five years of their history. 

Indiana's progress may in a measure be attributed to her 
central location in the sisterhood of States, as between the 


Alleglienies and the Mississippi, but not all. Her soil, cli- 
mate and timber were iinmeasurably to her advantage, and 
last, but not least, is she blessed with many living streams, 
giving to all sections a plentiful supply of water. The prin- 
cipal rivers which are found in the State are the Maumee, St. 
Joseph, St. Mai7's, Eel, Tippecanoe, Plein, Calumet, 
Theakiki, Kankakee, Wabash, Salamanie, and Mississin- 
ewa,of the North; White Water, Driftwood, Patoka, Ver- 
million, Ohio, Blue, and White rivers of the South. These 
wind their way through every section of the State and in 
every known part of the compass, and, with their tributaries, 
give to the Commonwealth of Indiana one of her greatest 
and best resources, from which health and wealth both flow. 
Of these rivers the White Water is the one which Wayne 
County finds within her borders. There are very few rivers 
in the State as beautiful as the White Water, and that beauty 
lias become historic. It empties into the Great Miami about 
ten miles from its moYith; it is about 100 yards wide, and in 
early days was navigable for flat-boats for a distance of sixty 
miles, but now the stream is little used. It has two princi 
pal branches — the east and the west forks; the east takes its 
rise in Preble County, Ohio, and runs in a southerly direction 
through Wayne, Union and Franklin counties; its tribu- 
taries being. Templeton's, Hanna's, Silver, Elk, Middle, West, 
Clear, Eli's, and Wolf's creeks; the west branch rises in 
Randolph County, and passes in a southerly direction through 
Wayne, Fayette and Franklin counties, and Joins the east 
branch at Brookville. Its tributaries are Noland's, Green's, 
Martindale's, Simon's, Village, William's, Salt, Pipe, and 
Duck creeks, all affording excellent mill-sites. 


Indiana was not behind her Western sisters in her eflbrts 
for internal improvements. The movement tor canals in 
Ohio gave the Indianians the canal fever, which eventually 
culminated into active operation. 

The agitation commenced as far back as 1818, but it took 
no practical shape until the session of the Legislature in the 
winter of 1825-''26, which passed an act of incorporation of 


the White Water Canal Company, with a capital stock of 
40,000 shares of $25 each. There was an expectation on the 
part of the incorporators to enlist Government aid to assist in 
the work. As this canal has reference to this section, an ac- 
count of the inception of the several schemes may be some- 
what interesting to the reader. The railways have done 
away in a large measnre the nse of the canals, but they were 
important in their day, and have not yet been entirely driven 
out by competition. The Erie Canal, in the State of New 
York, is still a breakwater of no mean importance fully 
seven months in the year in regulating freight traiiic. The 
United States Senate having in view a system of canal build- 
ing in this State, the following letter covers to a large extent 
the intended improvement. The entire canal system of the 
State is embodied in this communication, and is of historic 
value. The letter was from General Bernard, Chief of the 
United States Engineer Department, to a Mr. Shriver: 

"Washington, D. C, May 24, 1S26. 

•' Sir: We are ordered by the Engineer Department to for- 
ward to you the following instructions relative to the surveys 
of canals to be performed under your direction in the State 
of Indiana. 

" A resolution of the Senate, under date of Jan. 10, 1826, 
and two communications to the Honorable the Secretary of 
War, specify the surveys which are to be executed; copies of 
those documents are herewith annexed. 

"You will not only have to perform the survey, but also 
to make plans and estimates of the canals; two copies must 
be made — one for the President of the United States, and one 
for the Governor of Indiana. Both must be forwarded to 
the Engineer's Department. The objects contemplated by the 
resolution of the Senate are comprehended in the following 

" 1st. To ascertain the practicability of uniting, by a canal, 
the waters of Lake Michigan with the Wabasii River. Tvvi; 
routes must be examined and reported. The first would 
ascend the valley of the St. Joseph River (of the lake), to 
leave it at a point near the Kankakee River; then it would 
cross to this stream, and then the Wabash to the head of 
steamboat navigation. 


The other route would ascend the valley of St. Joseph (ot' 
the lake) up to one of its head branches, tiience to the fork 
formed by St. Joseph's and St. Mary's rivers, then from that 
point through the valley of Little River to the Wabash, as far 
down as tiie head of steam navigation. When in the vicinity 
of Kankakee Pond, inquiries ought to be made as to the prac- 
ticability of connecting in that direction the waters of Lake 
Michigan with the Tippecanoe and Wabash. 

"2d. To ascertain the practicability of uniting, by a canal, 
the Wabash with White River. Two routes must be examined 
to that eflect; one through the valley of Mississinewa River, 
the other through the valley of Pouceanpichcax, both trib- 
utaries of the Wabash. The canal by either route, hav- 
ing entered White River, should then descend its val- 
ley down to the head of steamboat navigation. When on 
the summit ground between the Mississinewa and the head 
branches of White River, it is desirable that inquiries should 
be made, with a view to ascertain whether a route of a canal 
might be practicable in a northeast direction from the sources 
of White River, intersecting successively the upper branches 
of the Mississinewa, Salamanie and Wabash rivers. 

'" 3d. To ascertain the practicability of uniting, by canal, the 
waters of the rivers St. Joseph's, St. Mary's and the Wabash, 
with the Ohio River, througii the valley of the White Water. 

"To fulfill these several objects, a route of a canal must be 
surveyed from the Mississinewa to the sources erf the White 
Water; a second from St. Mary's River, crossing in succession 
the Wabash, Salamanie and Mississinewa rivers. Both routes 
should descend afterward the valley of White Water as far 
down as the head of steamboat navigation. 

"4th. To ascertain the practicability of a canal, having tor 
its object to turn the falls of the Ohio, near Jeffersonville, the 
canal running on the Indiana side of the Ohio River. A care- 
ful and minute survey of this canal route must be performed 
next fall; the instructions of the Engineer Department are 
positive on this point." 

This was the letter of instruction in full, and the engineers 
commenced the examination of the White Water route on the 
8th day of July, 1826. A full history of the internal im- 


proveinent fever which raged in the State; the financial dis- 
tress which occurred to the State in its attempt to carry 
tlirougli all the work laid out; the losses, and the urgent plea 
of the Governors in their messages, all would fill a volume bj- 
itself, and it is therefore condensed here. Outside of tlie sur- 
vej's made little progress was made for several j-ears. Gov- 
ernor Ray, in his message in the above year, considered the 
construction of roads and canals as a necessity to place the 
State on an equal financial footing with the older States East, 
and in 1829 he added: " This subject can never grow irksome, 
since it must be the source of tlie blessings of civilized life. 
To secure its benefits is a duty enjoined upon the Legislature 
by the obligations of the social compact." 

In 1830 the people became much excited over the project 
of connecting the streams of the country by " the National 
New York & Mississippi Railroad." The National road 
and the Michigan & Ohio Turnpike were enterprises in 
which the people and Legislature of Indiana were interested. 
The latter had alreadj' been the cause of much bitter contro- 
versy, and its location was then the subject of contention. 

In 1832 the work of internal imjirovements fairly com- 
menced, despite the partial failure of the crops, the Black 
Hawk war and the Asiatic cholera. Several war parties in- 
vaded the Western settlements, exciting great alarm and 
some suffering. This year the canal commissioners com- 
pleted the task assigned them and Jiad negotiated the canal 
bonds in New York City, to the amount of $100,000, at a pre- 
mium of 13|^ per cent., on terms honorable to the State and 
advantageous to the work. Before the close of this year $54,- 
000 were spent for the improvement of the Michigan road, 
and $52,000 were realized from tiie sale of lands appropriated 
for its construction. In 1832 thirty-two miles of the Wabash 
& Erie Canal was placed under contract and work com- 
naenced. A communication was addressed to the Governor 
of Ohio, requesting him to call the attention of the Legisla- 
ture of that State to the subject of the extension of the canal 
from the Indiana line through Ohio to the lake. In compliance 
with this request, Governor Lucas promptly laid the subject 
before the Legislature of the State, and, in a spirit of cour- 


tesy, resolutions were adopted by that body, stipulating that 
if Ohio should ultimately decline to undertake the completion 
of that portion of the work within her limits before the time 
fixed by the act of Congress for the completion of the canal, 
she would, on just and equitable terms, enable Indiana to 
avail herself of the benefit of the lands granted, by authoriz- 
ing her to sell them and invest the proceeds in the stock of a 
company to be incorporated by Ohio; and that she would 
give Indiana notice of her final determination on or before 
Jan. 1, 183S. The Legislature of Ohio also authorized and 
invited the agent of the State ot Indiana to select, survey and 
set apart the lands lying within that State. In keeping with 
this policy Governor Noble, in 1834, said: "With a view of 
engaging in works of internal improvement, the propriety of 
adopting a general plan or system, having reference to the 
several portions of the State, and the connection of one with 
the other, naturally suggests itself. No work should be com- 
menced but such as would be of acknowledged public utility, 
and when completed would form a branch of some general 
system. In view of this object, the policy of organizing a 
Board of Public Works is again respectfully suggested." The 
Governor also called favorable attention to the Lawrenceburg 
& Indianapolis Railway, for which a charter had been 

In 1835 the Wabash & Erie Canal was pushed rapidly for- 
ward. The middle division, extending from the St. Joseph 
dam to the forks of the Wabash, about thirty-two miles, 
was completed, for about $232,000, including all repairs. 
Upon this portion of the line navigation was opened on July 
4, which day the citizens assembled " to witness the mingling 
of the waters of the St. Joseph with those of the Wabasb, 
uniting the waters of the northern chain of lakes with those 
of the Gulf of Mexico in the South." On other parts of 
the line the work progressed with speed, and the sale of 
canal lauds was unusually active. 

In 1836 the first meeting of the State Board of Internal Im- 
provement was convened and entered upon the discharge of 
its numerous and responsible duties. Having assigned to 
each member the direction and superintendence of a portion 


of tlie work, the next duty to be performed preparatory to the 
various splieres of active service was that of procuring the 
requisite number of engineers. A delegation was sent to the 
Eastern cities, but returned without engaging an engiueer- 
in-chief for the roads and railways, and without the desired 
number for the subordinate station; but after considerable 
delay the board was fully organized and put in operation. 
Under their management work on public improvements was 
successful; the canal progressed steadily; the navigation of 
the middle division, from Fort "Wayne to Huntington, was in- 
terrupted; sixteen miles ot the line, between Huntington and 
La Fontaine Creek, were filled with water this year and made 
ready for navigation; and the remaining twenty miles were 
completed, except a portion of the locks; from La Fontaine 
Creek to Logansport progress was made; the line from 
Georgetown to La Fayette was placed under contract; about 
thirty miles of the White "Water Canal, extending from Law- 
rence burg through the beautiful valley of the White Water to 
Brookville, were also placed under contract, as also twenty- 
three miles of the Central Canal, passing through Indianapolis, 
on which work was commenced; also about twenty miles of 
the southern division ot this work, extending from Evansville 
into the interior, were also contracted for; and on the line of 
the Cross-Cut Canal, from Terre Haute to the intersection ot 
the Central Canal, near the mouth of the Eel Kiver, a com- 
mencement was also made on all the heavy sections. All 
this in 1836. 

Early in this year a party of engineers was organized, and 
directed to examine into the practicability of the Michigan 
& Erie Canal line, then proposed. The report of their oper- 
ations favored its expediency. A party of engineers was also 
fitted out, who entered upon the field of service of the 
Madison & LaFayette Railroad, and contracts were let/or its 
construction from Madison to Vernon, on which work was 
vigorously commenced. Also, contracts were let for grading 
and bridging the New Albany & Vincennes Road from the 
former point to Paoli, about forty miles. Other roads wei-e 
also undertaken and surveyed, so that indeed a stupendous 
system of internal improvement was undertaken, and as 


Governor Noble truly remarked, upon the issue of that vast 
enterprise the State of Indiana staked her fortune. She had 
gone too far to retreat. 

In 1837, when Governor Wallace took the executive cliair, 
the reaction consequent upon " over-work " by the State in 
the internal improvement scheme began to be felt by the 
people. They feared a State debt was being incurred from 
which they could never be extricated; but the Governor did 
all he could throughout the term of his administration to 
keep up the courage of the citizens. He told them that the 
astonishing success so far surpassed even the hopes of the 
most sanguine, and that the flattering auspices of the future 
were sufficient to dispel every doubt and quiet every fear. 
Notwithstanding all his efforts, however, the construction of 
public works continued to decline, and in his last message he 
exclaimed: "Never before — I speak advisedly — never before 
have you witnessed a period in our local history that more 
urgently called for the exercise of all the soundest and best 
attributes of grave and patriotic legislators than the present. 
* * * The truth is — and it would be iblly to conceal it — 
we have our hands full — full to overflowing; and, therefore, to 
sustain ourselves, to preserve the credit and character of the 
State unimpaired, and to continue her hitherto unexampled 
march to wealth and distinction, we have not an hour of time, 
nor a dollar of money, nor a hand employed in labor, to 
squander and dissipate upon mere objects of idleness, or 
taste, or amusement." 

The State had borrowed $3,827,000 for internal improve- 
ment purposes, of which $1,327,000 was for the Wabash & 
Erie Canal and the remainder for other works. The five per 
cent, interest on debts— about $200,000— which the State had 
to pay, had become burdensome, as her resources for this 
purpose were only two, besides direct taxation, and they were 
small, namely, the interest on the balances due for canal lands, 
and the proceeds of the third installment of the surplus 
revenue, both amounting, in 1838, to about $-1:5,000. 

In August, 1839, all work ceased on these improvements, 
with one or two exceptions, and most of the contracts were 
suriendered to the State. This was done according to an act 


of tlie Legislature providing for the compensation of con- 
tractors by the issue of treasury notes. In addition to this 
state of aifairs, the Legislature of 1S39 had made no provis- 
ion for the payment of interest on the State debt incurred for 
internal improvements. Concerning this situation Governor 
Bigger, in 1840, said that either to go ahead with the works 
or to abandon them altogether would be equally ruinous to 
the State, the implication being that the people should wait a 
little while for a breathing spell and then take hold again. 

Of course much individual indebtedness was created dur- 
ing the progress of the work on internal improvement. 
When operations ceased in 1839, and prices fell at the same 
time, the people were left in a great measure without the 
means of commanding money to pay their debts. This con- 
dition of private enterprise more than ever rendered direct 
taxation inexpedient. Hence it became the policy of Gov- 
ernor Bigger to provide the means of paying the interest on 
the State debt without increasing the rate of taxation, and to 
continue that portion of the public works that could be 
immediately completed, and from which the earliest returns 
could be expected. 

In 1840 the system embraced ten different works, the most 
important of which was the Wabash & Erie Canal. The 
aggregate length of the lines embraced in the system was 
1,160 miles, and of this only 140 miles had been completed. 
The amount expended had reached the sum of $5,600,000, 
and it required at least $14,000,000 to complete them. Al- 
though the crops of 1841 were very remunerative, this per- 
quisite alone was not sufficient to raise the State again up to 
the level of going ahead with her gigantic works. 


Let us here state in detail the amount of work completed 
and of money expended on the various works up to this date, 
1841, which were as follows: 

1. The Wabash & Erie Canal, from the State line to Tij)- 
pecanoe, 129 miles in length; completed and navigable for 
the whole length, at a cost of $2,041,012. This sum includes 
the cost of the steamboat lock afterward completed at Delphi. 


2. The extension of the Wabash & Erie Canal from the 
mouth of the Tippecanoe to Terre Haute, over lOi miles. 
The estimated cost of this work was $1,500,000, and the 
amount expended for the same $408,855. Tlie navigation 
was at this period opened as far down as La Fayette, and a 
part of the work done in the neighborhood of Covington. 

3. The Cross-Cut Canal, from Terre Haute to Central 
Canal, forty-nine miles in length; estimated cost, $718,672; 
amount expended, $420,679; and at this time no part of the 
course was navigable. 

4. The White Water Canal, from Lawrenceburg to the 
mouth of Nettle Creek, seventy-six and one half miles; esti- 
mated cost, $1,675,738; amount expended to that date, 
$1,099,867; and thirty-one miles of the work was navigable, 
extending from the Ohio River to Brookville. 

5. The Central Canal, from the Wabash & Erie Canal to 
Indianapolis, including the feeder bend at Muncietown, 124 
miles in length; total estimated cost, $2,299,853; amount 
expended, $568,046; eight miles completed at that date, and 
other portions nearly done. 

6. Central Canal, from Indianapolis to Evansville, on the 
(Ijiio Kiver, 194 miles in length; total estimated cost, 
$3,532,394; amount expended, $831,302, nineteen miles of 
which was completed at that date, at the southern end, and 
sixteen miles, extending south from Indianapolis, were nearly 

7. Erie & Michigan Canal, 182 miles in length; estimated 
cost, $2,624,823; amount expended, $156,394. No part of 
this work finished. 

8. The Madison & Indianapolis Railroad, over eighty-five 
miles in length; total estimated cost, $2,046,600; amount 
expended, $1,493,013. Road finished and in operation for 
about twenty-eight miles; grading nearly finished for twenty- 
seven miles in addition, extending to Edenburg. 

9. Indianapolis & La Fayette Turnpike Road, seventy-three 
miles in length; total estimated cost, $593,737; amount ex- 
pended, $72,118. The bridging and most of the grading 
was done on twenty-seven miles, from Crawfordsville to 
La Fayette. 

10. New Albany & Yiricennes Turnpike Road, 105 miles in 
length; estimated cost, $1,127,295; araonnt expended, $654.- 
411. Forty-one miles graded and macadamized, extending 
from New Albany to Paoli, and twenty-seven miles in addi- 
tion partly graded. 

11. JefFersonville & Crawfordsville Road, over 164 miles 
long; total estimated cost, §1,651,800; amount expended, 
$372,737. Forty-five miles were partly graded and bridged, 
extending from Jeffersonville to Salem, and from Greencastle 

12. Improvement of the Wabash Rapids, undertaken jointly 
by Indiana and Illinois; estimated cost to Indiana, $102,500; 
amount expended by Indiana, $9,539. 

There have also been paid to the Board of Internal Improve- 
ments, for instruments, etc, to date, $36,564. 

By summing up the foregoing, it will be seen that the 
whole length of these roads and canals was 1,289 miles, only 
281 of which had been finished in 1841. The estimated 
aggregate cost of all the works was $19,914,424. The amount 
expended for all purposes, to that date, was $8,164,528. 

The State debt, at this time, amounted to $18,469,146. In 
reference to this condition of the public debt, as well as the 
means to be employed for reducing it, Governor Bigger, in 
his message to the Legislature, in 1841, remarked: "It is 
due to ourselves in this state of our afiairs to examine into 
some of the prominent causes which have produced the pres- 
ent embarrassments. The first of these is doubtless to be 
found in the number of large and expensive works embraced 
in the system of internal improvements and their simulta- 
neous prosecution. Also the nnexpected increase in the 
price of provisions, labor and materials, was such that a sum 
much greater than the original estimate was required for the 
construction of the public works. Two great errors were com- 
mitted in the progress of the system: The first was, paying the 
most of the interest out of the money borrowed. This sub- 
jected the State to the payment of compound interest, and 
the people, not feeling the pressure of taxes to discharge the 
interest, naturally became inattentive to the policy which 
was pursued. Had the Legislature commenced by levying 


taxes to defray tlie interest as it accrued, its amount would 
have been a certain index to the sums expended on the works. 
This of itself would have done much to check extravagant 
expenditures. The second error was selling bonds on credit, 
which led to most disastrous consequences. 

The administration of Governor Bigger closes in the most 
dissatisfactory' manner, though probably from no fault of 
the Governor, unless it niay have been through too sanguine 
co-operation in the internal improvement system. Both at 
home and abroad the State was held up in an unpleasant 
manner before the gaze of the world. Indiana, until that 
year, had succeeded in paying tiie interest on her public debt, 
and at the previous session of the Legislature, ample provis- 
ion was supposed to have been made for its payment, but 
circumstances beyond the control of the agents of the State 
rendered it impossible to obtain the necessary funds, and at 
this period the people were compelled to acknowledge the 
unwelcome truth that the credit of the State had not been 
sustained. But Indiana was not wanting in courage in tliis 
trying hour, as we shall see, nor was tlie energy of her people 
inadequate to the difficulties before them. 

Governor Whitcomb succeeded Governor Bigger to the 
office of Governor, and it is due to his memory to state that 
through the judicious operations of his government, the 
public credit of the State was redeemed. Measures of compro- 
mise between the State and its creditors were adopted by 
which, ultimately, the public works, although incomplete, 
were given in payment for claims against the Government. 
In this and other ways the State was again placed upon 
respectable footing in the nation. 

Governor Whitcomb was succeeded by Hon. Joseph A. 
Wright, in December, 1849, having faithfully discharged the 
important duties devolving upon the office, until called, in 
December, 1848, to represent the State of Indiana in the 
Senate of the United States. 

In 1843 the State was still experiencing the disasters and 
embarrassment consequent upon its enormous outlay for 
internal improvements, and upon a system of over-banking, 
and its natural progeny, over-trading and deceptive specula- 


tion. Sucli a state ot things tends to relax the hand of indus- 
try by creating false notions of wealth, and tempt to sudden 
acquisitions by means as delusive in their results as they are 
contrary to a primary law of nature. The people began more 
than ever to see the necessity of falling back upon that 
branch of industry for which Indiana, especially at that time, 
was particularly fitted, namely, agriculture, as the true and 
lasting source of substantial wealth. 

Governor Whitcomb, 1843-'4-9, succeeded well in maintain- 
ing the credit of the State. Measures of compromise between 
tiie State and its creditors were adopted by which, ultimately, 
the public works, although incomplete, were given in paj'- 
ment for the claims against the Government. 

At the close of his term, Governor Whitcomb was elected 
to the Senate of the United States, and from December, 1848, 
to December, 1849, Lieutenant-Governor Paris 0. Dunning 
was acting Governor. 

In 1851 a general banking law was adopted which gave a 
new impetus to the commerce of the State, and opened the 
way for a broader volume of general trade; but this law was 
the source of many abuses; currency was expanded, a delusive 
idea of wealth again prevailed, and as a consequence, a great 
deal of damaging speculation was indulged in. 

The dark days of 1840 to 1845 had passed, and the dawn of 
a brighter, more prosperous future was plainly seen, and the 
people rallied under its inspiring beam. 


The Decade Between 1830 and 1840. — The New Capitol. 
— Toledo Wak and Michigan Boundary. — The Last of 
THE Eed Man. — Mexican WAit. — General Taylor Ordered 
TO THE Front. — Fort Brown. — Battle of Palo Alto . — Re- 

General Scott. — Yera Cruz to the City of Mexico. — 
Indiana in the War. — Battles in Which they were En- 
gaged. — The Close. — Cost of the War.— State's Progress. 
— Miles of Plank Roads. — Miles of Railroads.— Bank 

the decade between 1830 and 181:0. 
Such is a condensed but succinct history of the internal im- 
provement era of the State. Goin^ back to the decade be- 
tween 1830 and 1840, the proceedings ot the Legislature and 
other matters which transpired are important, as thej' liave a 
bearing upon the progress and well being of the State. 

In 1831 a joint resolution of the Legislature of Indiana, 
requesting an appropriation by Congress for the extinguish- 
ment of the Indian title to lands within the State, was for- 
warded to that body, and, in compliance with the request, the 
necessary provision was made. Three citizens were desig- 
nated by the Secretar}' of War to constitute a commission to 
carry into effect the object of the appropriation. It was con- 
sidered an object of great importance to extinguish the title of 
theMiamis to their lands, at that time surrounded on all sides 
by American settlers, situated almost in the heart of the State, 
and immediately on the line of the canal, then under construc- 
tion. The prompt and cheerful manner in which the chiefs of 
the tribe obeyed the summons to the treaty, induced the be- 


lief that the negotiation would prove successful ; but in their re- 
sponse to the propositions of the commissioners they positively 
refused to go Westward, or sell the remainder of their lands. 
The negotiation with the Pottawatomies and some other tribes 
was more successful ; the former tribes sold some 6,000,000 
acres in Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, including all their 
lands in this State. 


The new capitol building project was put under way in the 
session of the winter of 1831-'32. The donation from Indian- 
apolis toward the erection of the capitol building in the shape 
of land or city lots, was in May, 1S32, offered for sale after 
lieing duly valued by a commission for the purpose. It was 
sold by the agent of the State and the sale amounted to up- 
ward of $13,000, leaving unsold lots, at valuation, to the 
amount of about $4,000. We learn from Grovernor Noble's 
message of 1S32, that " at the suggestion of the architect 
who is to build the State-house, with the concurrence of the 
commissioners, the block north of the State-house square was 
reserved from sale, to await the determination of the Legisla- 
ture as to the propriety of adding it to the public ground, 
making it an oblong square, corresponding to the form of the 
edifice to be erected. The commissioners appointed to contract 
for the building of the State-house and superintend its erec. 
tion have made an agreement with Mr. Town, the artist, 
whose plan was adopted by the Legislature, by which he is to 
complete the building for $58,000. The work in all its parts 
is to be strictly conformable to the plans and specifications 
presented to the Legislature, and in its construction, as regards 
ornament, neatness, strength and durability, nothing is to be 
omitted. The whole is to be completed by November, 1837. 
The building was so far completed by December, 1835, that 
the session of the Legislature that winter was held in the 
new Capitol. 


In 1834 the Michigan boundary question, in which that State 
acted a very headstrong and reckless part, was first brought to 
light. Michigan, notwithstanding the approval by Congress 


of the Constitutions of Indiana, Ohio and Illinois, in each of 
which their respective boundaries were clearly pointed out, 
claimed, as her southern boundary, an cast and west line 
drawn through the southern extreme of Lake Michigan, di- 
rectly east to Lake Erie, thus including Toledo. Ohio and 
Indiana, especially the former, stoutly opposed this claim. 
The contest grew so warm that military organization had act- 
ually commenced, and a war was expected. This was called 
the ''Toledo war," and for a time there was as much excite- 
ment as on the eve of a great revolution. 

In recognition of this claim Indiana would have lost a dis- 
trict ten miles wide, extending entirely across the northern 
part of the State, including one of the fairest and most desir- 
able portions of her territory, and have been entirely excluded 
from any access to the lake, except through a foreign juris- 
diction. In addition to these considerations, there were other 
reasons why Indiana should have opposed the Michigan 
boundary claim. In the first place, the mouth of the Maumee 
River and the termination of the Wabash and Erie Canal, laid 
within the limits claimed by Michigan, and it was more than 
probable that Ohio would abandon co-operation in the work 
if the territory was transferred. Beyond this, Indiana would 
to a great extent lose the benefit of one of her greatest public 
improvements. Tiiis controversy continued until 1836, when 
Congress refused to accede to the demands of Michigan, but 
settled the question by extending her territory in the Lake 
Superior region. Tiie people of Michigan at first thought 
that their reward for yielding the golden strip on her southern 
boundary was a very meager one; that they had naught but a 
barren waste and a large body of cold water; but how vast 
are now her mineral resources in that bleak country, the " Up- 
per Peninsula!" 


In 1838 the tribe of Pottawatomie Indians, according to a 
treaty in which they had previously entered, were removed 
from Indiana to the western reservation. Some difiicnlty 
was experienced in their removal. Becoming hostile and re- 
fusing to emigrate, the militia was called out, and, under 


General Tipton, a force was marched to their villages. This 
induced them to leave without further opposition. 

In the same year a treaty was concluded witli the Miami 
Indians throusjh the good ofBces of Colonel A. C. Pepper, the 
Indian Agent, by which a considerable, and the most de- 
sirable, portion of their reserve was ceded to the United 

With this removal the last Indian was banished from the 
State, and the soil of Indiana was the exclusive property of 
the white man. Agriculturally speaking, the State grew and 
prospered, and especially were the crops of lSi2 abundant. 
This went a long way to remove from the shoulders of the 
people the burden which had caused them so much financial 
trouble, and which they gave the name of the "dark days." 
The decade between 1840 and 1850, or from 1845, had been 
extremely prosperous. 


The Texans had fought for their independence, and had 
forced Santa Anna to sign the declaration of 1835. This 
action, though forced, was conclusive, as hostilities ceased 
for a number of years, although the Mexican Government re- 
fused to acknowledge or ratify the action of Santa Anna. 
Texas, having been recognized by the powers, was to all in- 
tents and purposes an independent State. She afterward de- 
sired to be annexed to the United States, and, upon her 
action in this matter, aroused the Mexicans to fury, and they 
promptly attempted to repossess themselves of the country, 
and proposed to compel, also, the United States to give up 
the idea of annexation. Congress passed the act admitting 
Texas into the Union, which was to take place, and did, 
July 4, 1846. In the meantime Mexico declared war, and 
Congress, on the passing of the act admitting Texas, being 
still in session, promptly accepted the gauge of battle, and 
action was at once taken. 

President Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor, then in 
command of the troops in the Southwest, to proceed to 
Texas, and place his forces as near the Mexican border as he 
deemed prudent. At the same time, the Atlantic Squadron 


was dispatched to the Gulf of Mexico, in the vicinity ot Vera 
Cruz. With 4,000 men, General Taylor marched to the Rio 
Grande Eiver, and in March, 1S46, had posted his forces on 
the north bank of that river and within cannon-shot of the 
Mexican town of Matamoras. Here he erected a fortress, 
and called it Fort Brown. The territory lying between the 
river Nueces and the Rio Grande River, about 120 miles in 
width, was claimed both by Texas and Mexico; according to 
the latter, therefore, General Taylor had actually invaded her 
teiTitory, and had thus committed an open act of war. On the 
2<5th of April, the Mexican General, Ampudia, gave notice to 
this effect to General Taylor, and on the same day a party of 
American dragoons, sixty-three in number, being on the north 
side of the Rio Grande, were attacked, and, after the loss of 
sixteen men killed and wounded, were forced to surrender. 
Their commander. Captain Thornton, only escaped. The 
Mexican forces had now crossed the river above Matamoras 
and were supposed to meditate an attack on Point Isabel, 
where Taylor had established a depot of supplies tor his army. 
On the Jst of May this officer left a small number of troops 
at Fort Brown, and marched with his chief forces, 2,300 men, 
to the defense of Point Isabel. Having garrisoned this place, 
he set out on his return. Oh the Sth of May, about noon, he 
met the Mexican army, 6,000 strong, drawn up in battle ar- 
ray, on the prairie near Palo Alto. The Americans at once 
advanced to the attack, and, after an action of five hours, in 
which their artillery was very effective, drove the enemy be- 
fore them, and encamped upon the field. The Mexican loss 
was about 100 killed; that of the Americans, four killed 
and forty wounded. Major Ringgold, of the artillery, an offi- 
cer of great merit was mortally wounded. The next day, as 
the Americans advanced, they again met the enemy in a 
strong position near Resaca de la Palma, three miles from 
Fort Brown. 

An action commenced, and was fiercely contested, the artil- 
lery on both sides being served with great vigor. At last the 
Mexicans gave way, and fled in confusion, General de la Vega 
iiaving fallen into the hands of the Americans. They also 
abandoned their guns and a large quantity of ammunition to 


tlie victors. The remaining Mexican soldiers speedily crossed 
the Rio Grande, and the next day the Americans took up their 
position at Fort Brown. This little fort, in the absence of 
General Taylor.had gallantly sustained an almost uninterrupted 
attack of several days from the Mexican batteries of Mata- 

"When the news of the capture of Captain Thornton's party 
was spread over the United States, it produced great excite- 
ment. The President addressed a message to Congress, then 
in session, declaring " that war with Mexico existed by her 
own act;" and that body, May, 1846, placed $10,000,000 
at the President's disposal, and authorized him to ac- 
cept the services of 50,000 volunteers. A great part of 
the summer of 1846 was spent in preparation for the war, it 
being resolved to invade Mexico at several points. In pursu- 
ance of this plan, General Taylor, who had taken possession 
of Matamoras, abandoned by the enemy in May, marched 
northward in the enemy's country in August, and on the 19th 
of September he appeared before Monterey, capital of the 
Mexican State of New Leon. His army, after having gar- 
risoned several places along his route, amounted to 6,000 men. 
The attack began on the 21st, and after a succession of assaults 
during the period of four days, the Mexicans capitulated, 
leaving the town in possession of the Americans. In Octo- 
ber General Taylor terminated an armistice into which he 
had entered with the Mexican General, and again commenced 
offensive operations. Various towns and fortresses of the en- 
emy now rapidly fell into our possession. In November, 
Saltillo, the capital of the State of Coahuila was occupied by 
the division of General Worth; in December, General Patter- 
son took possession ot Victoria, the capital of Tamaulipas, 
and nearly at the same period Commodore Perry captured 
the fort of Tampico. Santa Fe, the capital of New Mexico, 
with the whole territory of the State had been subjugated by 
General Harney, after a inarch of 1,000 miles through 
the wilderness. Events of a startling character had taken 
place at still earlier dates along the Pacific Coast. On the 
4th of July, Captain Fremont, having repeatedly defeated 
superior Mexican forces with the small band under his com- 


mand, declared California independent of Mexico. Other 
important places in this reo^ion had yielded to the American 
naval force, and in August, 1846, the whole of California was 
in the undisputed occupation of the Americans. 

The year 1847 opened with still more brilliant victories on 
the part of our armies. By the drawing oif of a large part 
of General Taylor's troops for a meditated attack on Vera 
Cruz, he was left with a comparatively small torce to meet 
the great body of Mexican troops now marching upon him, 
under the command of the celebrated Santa Anna, who had 
again become President of Mexico. 

Ascertaining the advance of this powerful arm^^ 20,000 
strong, and consisting of the best of the Mexican soldiers. 
General Taylor took up his position at Buena Yista, a valley 
a few miles from Saltillo. His whole troops numbered only 
4,759, and here, on the 23d of February, he was vigorously 
attacked by the Mexicans. The battle was very severe, and 
continued nearly the whole day, when the Mexicans fled from 
the field in disorder, with a loss of nearly 2,000 men. 
Santa Anna speedily withdrew, and thus abandoned the region 
of the Bio Grande to the complete occupation of our troops. 
This left our forces at liberty to prosecute the grand enterprise 
of the campaign, the capture of the strong town of Vera Cruz, 
with its renowned castle of San Juan d'tTlloa. On the 9th 
of March, 1847, General Scott landed near the city with an 
army of 12,000 men, and on the ISth commenced an attack- 
For four days and nights an almost incessant shower of shot and 
shells was poured upon the devoted town, while the batteries 
of the castle and city replied with terrible energy. At last, 
as the Americans were preparing for an assault, the Governor 
of the city offered to surrender, and on the 26th the Ameri- 
can flag floated triumphantly from the walls of the castle and 
the city. General Scott now prepared to march upon the city 
of Mexico, the capital of the country, situated 200 miles in 
the interior, and approached only through a series of rugged 
passes and mountain fastnesses, rendered still more formida- 
ble by several strong fortresses. On the 8th of April the 
army commenced its march. At Cerro Gordo Santa Anna 
had posted himself with 15,000 men. On the 18th the Amer- 


icans began the daring attack, and by midday every intrencli- 
ment of the enemy had been carried. The loss of the Mexicans 
in this remarkable battle, besiiles 1,000 killed and wounded, 
was 3,000 prisoners, forty-three pieces of cannon, 5,000 
stand of arms, and all their ammunition and materials of war. 
Tlie loss of the Americans was 431 in killed and wounded. 
The next day onr forces advanced, and, capturing fortress 
after fortress, came on the 18th of August, within ten miles 
of Mexico, a city of 200,000 inhabitants, and situated in one 
of the most beautiful valleys in the world. On the 20th they 
attacked and carried the strong batteries of Contreras, garri- 
soned by 7,000 men, in an impetuous assault, which lasted but 
seventeen minutes. On the same day an attack was made by 
the Americans on the fortiiied post of Churnbusco, four miles 
northeast of Contreras. Here nearly the entire Mexican army — 
more than 20,000 in number — were posted; but they were de- 
feated at every point, and obliged to seek a retreat in the city, 
or the still remaining fortress of Chapultepec. "While prepara- 
tions were being made on the 21st by General Scott to level his 
batteries against the city, prior to summoning it to surrender, 
he received propositions from the enemy, which terminated 
in an armiscice. This ceased on the 7th of September. On 
the 8th, the outer defense of Chapultepec was successfully 
stormed by General Worth, though he lost one-fourth of his 
men in the desperate struggle . 

The castle of Chapultepec, situated on an abrupt and rocky 
eminence, 150 feet above the surrounding country, presented 
a most formidable object of attack. On the 12th, however, 
the batteries were opened against it, and on the next day the 
citadel was carried by storm. The Mexicans still struggled 
along the great causeway leading to the city, as the Ameri- 
cans advanced, but before nightfall a part ot our army was 
within the gates of the city. Santa Anna and the officers of 
the Government fled, and the next morning, at seven o'clock, 
the flag of the Americans floated from the national palace ot 
Mexico. This conquest of the capital was the great and final 
achievement ot the war. The Mexican republic was in fact 
prostrate, her sea-coast and chief cities being in tlie occupation 
of our troops. On the 2d of February, 1818, terms of peace 


were agreed upon by the Airierican commissioner and the 
Mexican Government, this treaty being ratiiied by the Mexi- 
can Congress on the 30th of May following, and by the United 
States soon after. President Polk proclaimed peace on the 
4th of July, 1848. In the preceding sketch we have given 
only a mere outline ot the war with Mexico. We have neces- 
sarily passed over many interesting events, and have not even 
named many of our soldiers who performed gallant and impor- 
tant services. General Taylor's successful operations in the 
region of the Rio Grande were duly honored by the people of 
the United States, by bestowing upon him the Presidency. 
General Scott's campaign , from the attack on Vera Cruz to 
the surrender of the city of Mexico, was far more remarkable, 
and, in a military point of view, must be considered as one of 
the most brilliant of modern times. It is true the Mexicans 
are not to be ranked with the great nations of the earth; with 
a population of seven or eigiit millions they have little more 
than a million of the white race, the rest being half-civilized 
Indians and mestizos; that is, those of mixed blood. Their 
government is inefficient, and tlie people divided among them- 
selves. Tlieir soldiers often fought bravely, but they were 
badly officered. While, therefore, we may consider the con- 
quest of so extensive and populous a country, in so short a 
time, and attended with such cjnstant superiority even to the 
greater numbers of the enemy, as highh' gratifying evidence 
of the courage and capacity of our army, still we must not, 
in judging of our achievements, fail to consider the real weak 
ness of the nation whom we vanquished. One thing we may 
certainly dwell upon with satisfaction — the admirable exam- 
ple, not only as a soldier, but as a man, set bj'our commander. 
General Scott, who seems in the midst of war and the ordi- 
nary license of the camp always to have preserved the virtue, 
kindness, and humanity belonging to the state of peace. 
These qualities secured to him the respect, confidence and 
good-will even of the enemy he had conquered. Among the 
Generals who effectually aided General Scott in this remark- 
able campaign, we must not omit to mention the names of Gen- 
erals Wool, Twiggs, Shields, Worth, Smith and Quitman, who 
generally added to the high qualities of soldiers the still more 


estimable characteristics of good men. The treaty of Guada- 
lupe-Hidalgo stipulated that the disputed territory between 
the Nueces and the Rio Grande sliould belong to tlie United 
States, and it now forms a part of Texas, as has been already 
stated; that the United States should assume and pay the 
debts due from Mexico to American citizens, to the amount 
of $3,500,000; and that, in consideration of the sum of $15,- 
000,000 to be paid by the United States to Mexico, the latter 
should relinquish to the former the whole of New Mexico 
and Upper California. 

The soldiers of Indiana who served in this war were formed 
into five regiments of volunteers, numbered respectively, First, 
Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth. The fact that companies of 
the three first-named regiments served at times with the men of 
Illinois, the New York volunteers, the Palmettos of South 
Carolina, and United States marines, under General James 
Shields, makes for them a history; because the campaigns of 
the Rio Grande and Chihuahua, the siege of Vera Cruz, the 
desperate encounter at Cerro Gordo, the tragic contests in the 
valley, at Contreras and Churubusco, the storming of Cha- 
pultepec, and the planting of the stars and stripes upon every 
turret and spire within the conquered city of Mexico, were all 
carried out bj' tiie gallant troops under the favorite old Gen- 
eral, and consequently each of them shared with him in the 
glories attached to such exploits. The other regiments under 
Colonels Gorman and Lane participated in the contests of 
the period under otlier commanders. The Fourth Regiment 
of Indiana Volunteers, comprising ten companies, was for- 
mally organized at Jeffersonville, Ind., by Captain R. C. Gat- 
lin, June 15, 1817, and on the 16th elected Major Willis A. 
Gorman, of the Third Regiment, to the Colonelcy; Ebenezer 
Dumont, Lieutenant-Colonel, and W. McCoy, Major. On 
the 27th of June the regiment lefc Jeflersonville for the front, 
and subsequently was assigned to Brigadier-General Lane's 
command, which then comprised a battery of five pieces from 
(the Third Regiment United States Artillery; a battery of two 
pieces from the Second Regiment United States Artillery, 
the Fourth Regiment ot Indiana Volunteers and the Fourth 
Regiment of Ohio, with a stjuadron of mounted Louisianians 


and detachments ot reci'uits for the United States army. The 
troops of this brisrade won signal honors at Passo de O^-egas- 
Aug. 10, 1847; National Bridge, on the 12th; Cerro Gordo, 
on the 15th; Las Animas, on the 19th, under Major F. T. 
Lallv, of General Lane's staif, and afterward under Lane, di- 
rectly, took a very prominent part in the siege of Piiebla, 
which began on the 15th of September and terminated on 
the 12th of October. At Atlixco, Oct. 19; Tlascala, Nov. 
10; Matamoras and Pass Galajara, Nov. 23 and 24; 
Guerrilla Ranche, Dec. 5; Napalonean, Dec. 10, the Indiana 
volunteers of the Fourth Regiment performed gallant ser- 
vice, and carried the campaign into the following year, rep- 
resenting their State at St. Mar.tin's, Feb. 27, 1848; Cho- 
lula, March 26; Matacordera, Feb. 19; Sequalteplan, Feb. 
25; and on the cessation of hostilities reported at Madison, 
Ind.,for discharge. July 11, 1848, while the Fifth Indiana 
Regiment, under Colonel J. H. Lane, underwent a similar 
round of duty during its service with other brigades, and gained 
some celebrity at Vera Cruz, Churubusco, and with the troops 
of Illinois under General Shields at Chapultepec. 

This war cost the people of the United States $66,000,000. 
This very large amount was not paid away for the attainment 
of mere glory; there was something else at stake, and this 
something proved to be a country larger and more fertile 
than the France of the Napoleons, and more steady and sen- 
sible than tlie France of the Republic. It was the defense of 
tlie great Lone Star State, the humiliation and chastisement 
of a quarrelsome neighbor. 

And when tlie year 1850 came in the burden had been 
lifted and the light of a promising future burned clearly and 


Governor Wright, in his inaugural address, in December, 
1850, said of the public works: '• We are progressing rap- 
idly with works of public iiiiproveinent. In the past season* 
we have completed 400 miles of plank road, which have cost 
from $1,200 to $1,500 per mile. There are some 1,200 miles 
additional|surveyed and in progress. We have 212 miles ot 

railroad in successful operation, of which 12-4 were completed 
the past year. Tliere are more than 1,000 miles surveyed 
and in state of progress." 

In 1850 the block of marble, which was ordered to be 
procured by a joint resohition of the Legislature, was for- 
warded to Washington to be placed in the monument then in 
course of erection at the National capital, in memory of the 
immortal George Washington. Although the assembly of 
Indiana did not authorize any sentiment to be placed on the 
block, Governor Wright had the following words inscribed 
upon it: •' Indiana knows no North, no South, nothing but 
THE Union!" This motto was placed upon the Washington 
monument in 1850, and a little more than ten years after, the 
people of Indiana showed to the world how completely they 
entered into this sentiment by the sacrifice of blood and 
treasure in the cause of the Union. 

Governor Wright endorsed the compromise measures en- 
acted by Congress on the slavery question in 1850; and in 
closing his message of this year he remarked: "Indiana 
takes her stand in the ranks, not of Southern destiny, nor yet 
of NoKTHEEN DESTINY. She plants herself on the basis of the 
Constitution, and takes her stand in the ranks of American 


It was also during Governor Wright's fruitful administra- 
tion that the State of Indiana started out fully upon the great 
mission of education. It was in 1852 that the township sys- 
tem was adopted, which has become a truly wonderful success 
— the boast of the State. The reader is referred to another 
part of this volume for a complete history of the superior 
educational advantages of Indiana. 

It was also during Governor Wright's administration that 
the second constitutional convention was held, and a 
new Constitution adopted. A general banking law was 
adopted in 1851. This gave a new impetus to the commerce 
of the State, and opened the way for a broader volume of 
general trade. This banking law, however, gave rise to many 
abuses. The currency was expanded, a delusive idea of wealth 
prevailed, and, as a consequence, much injurious speculation 
was indulged. In 1857 the charter of the State bank expired, 

aud the large gains of the State in that institution were 
directed to the promotion of common-school education. 

The successful closing of the Mexican war and the return 
of her soldiers caused the State to take up other duties that 
would advance her material prosperity. The gold fever 
struck in a measure at her vitals, for a large emigration from 
this State started for the golden Eldorado of the West. Then 
a new Constitution was formed, better suited to the en- 
lightened progress of the age, and thus, step by step, the 
State kept in the van of progress. In 1857 the charter of 
the State bank expired by limitation, and her affairs were set- 
tled up during the administration of Governor Willard. In 
1859, in his message to the Legislature, the Governor gave 
the following condensed history of the bank aud the amount 
of interest held in the same by the State: 

"On the 28th of January, 183i, an act was approved estab- 
lishing a State bank. Said act, by its terms, ceased to be a 
law on the 1st of January, 1857. Under this law the bank 
commenced and continued its operations as a corporation 
authorized to issue and circulate notes, discount paper, and 
transact all other ordinary banking business until the 1st of 
January, 1857. At that time its outstanding circulation was 
$4,208,725, with a debt due to the institution principally from 
citizens of this State of $6,095,368. Between the Ist of Jan- 
uary, 1857, and 1859, the bank redeemed nearly its entire 
circulation, and provided amply for the redemption of that 
which has not been returned. She has collected from most 
of her debtors the money which they owed. * * * 
The State was interested in the bank. She invested in its 
stock $1,390,000. The money to make the investment was 
procured by the issuing of five per cent, bonds, the last of 
which will be payable July 1. 1866. * * * The re- 
port of the commissioners show that its nominal profits are 
$2,780,604.36. By the law creating the sinking fund, that 
fund was appropriated, first, to pay the principal and interest 
upon the bonds; second, the expenses of the commissioners; 
and lastly, the cause of common-school education." 

On the 3d day of October, 1860, before his term of office 
had expired. Governor Willard died at St. Paul, Minn. His 


remains were brought back to the State by his widow, ae 
companied by the Governor of Minnesota, Hon. Henry M. 
Rice, one of the United States Senators, and several dis- 
tinguished citizens of that State. From this date the duties 
of the executive devolved upon the Lieutenant-Governor^ 
Hon. A. A. Hammond. 

In the same year the State suffered a severe loss to science 
in the death of David Dale Owen, the State Geologist. Act- 
ing Governor Hammond, in closing his message to the Legis- 
lature in January, 1861, referred to the approaching civil 
war in a spirit of patriotism, manifesting a strong belief that 
it would not be averted. 



10,000 Men in Arms. — Theee Months' Men. — On Their 
Return. — Address of Welcome. — From the First Six 
Regiments to the 156th. — Their Welcome Home. — The 
Colored Troops. — The Light Artillery. — Twenty-six 
Batteries. — The Battles of the War. — 267,000 Men in 
Arms from Indiana. — Their Record and What They 
Accomplished. — Indiana's Expenses. — War Statistics of 
the United States. — Men in the Union Army. — Sixteen 
American Wars. 

10,000 MEN in AJ4MS. 

Indiana was among the first to respond to the summons of 
patriotism, and register itself on the national roll of honor, 
as she was among the first to join that song of joy which 
greeted a Republic made doubly glorious within a century 
by the dual victory which won liberty for itself and next 
bestowed the precious boon upon the colored slave. 

The fall of Fort Sumter was the signal for the uprising of 
the State. The news of the calamity was flashed to Indian- 
apolis on the 14rth of April, 1861, and early the next morning 
the electric wire brought the welcome message to Wash- 
ington: — 

"Executive Department of Indiana, ) 
Indianapolis, April 15, 1S61. j 
"To Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States: — 
On behalf of the State of Indiana, I tender to you for the 
defense of the Nation, and to uphold the authority of the 
Government, 10,000 men. 

"Oovernor of Indiana." 


This may be considered the Jirst official act of Governor 
Morton. The first call to arms issued by the President, call- 
ing for 75,000 men, was nobly responded to by the people of 
Indiana. Her quota under that call was 4,683 men to serve 
for three months, from April 15, 1861. On the next day 
Governor Morton issued a proclamation, calling on all citi- 
zens who had the welfare of the Republic at heart to organize, 
as six regiments were needed in the field in defense of their 
country. Hon. Lewis Wallace was appointed Adjutant-Gen- 
eral, Colonel Thomas A. Morris, Quartermaster-General, and 
Isaiah Mansur, Commissary-General. These officers con- 
verted the buildings and grounds of the State Board of Agri- 
culture into military headquarters, and designated the place 
Camp Morton, in honor of the acting Governor. The people 
were imbued with confidence in their government, and rose 
to the grandeur of American freemen, and, with enthusiasm 
never before equaled, joined the standard of liberty, so that 
within a few days (April 19, 1861) 2,400 men were in rank 
ready and anxious to march in defense of their country and 
prove their devotion to the cause of liberty. Nor were the 
women of the State unmindful of their duties. Everywhere 
they partook of the enthusiasm expressed, and made it prac- 
ticable by presenting standards, the work of their own hands, 
and regimental colors, and in various other ways showing 
their devotion and patriotism. Relief organizations and aid 
societies were formed by them, showing the true spirit of 
humanity and kindness of their nature. 

During the days set apart by the military authorities for 
the organization of the regiments, the financiers of the State 
were engaged in the reception of munificent grants of money 
from private citizens, while capitalists within and without 
the State offered loans equal to the demand of the occasion, 
thus placing the State with means to carry out its patriotic 

On the 20th of April, Messrs. I. S. Dobbs and Alvis D. 
Gall received their appointments as Medical Inspectors of the 
Division, while Major T. J. Wood arrived at headquarters 
from Washington to receive the newly organized regiments 
into the service of the Union. At the moment this formal 


proceeding took place, Morton, unable to restrain the patri- 
otic ardor of the ]>eople, telegraphed to the capital tliat he 
could place six regiments of infantry at the disposal of the 
Gi-eneral Government within six days, if such a proceeding 
■were acceptable; but in consequence of the wires being cut 
between the State and Federal capitals, no answer came. 
Taking advantage of the little doubt which may have had 
existence in regard to future action in the matter, and in the 
absence of general orders, he gave expression to an intention 
of placing the volunteers in camp, and in his message to the 
Legislature, who assembled three days later, he clearly laid 
down the principle of immediate action and strong measures, 
recommending a vote of $1,000,000 for the reorganization of 
the volunteers, for the purchase of arms and supplies, and for 
the punishment of treason. The message was received most 
enthusiastically. The assembly recognized the great points 
made by the Governor, and not only yielded to them /?/ toto. 
but also made the following grand appropriations: 

General militarj' purposes iJl.OOO.OOU 

Purchase of arms 500,000 

Contingent military expenses 100,000 

Organization and support of militia for two years 140,000 

Tliese appropriations, together with the laws enacted during 
the session of the Assembly speak volumes in praise of the 
people of Indiana. Within three days after the opening of 
tiie extra session of the Legislature (27th April) six new regi- 
ments were organized, and commissioned for three months' 
service. These regiments were mustered into the service and 
manned as follows: Sixth Regiment, commanded by Colonel 
T. T. Crittenden; Seventh Eegiment, commanded by Colonel 
Ebenezer Dumont; Eighth Regiment, commanded by Colo- 
nel W.P.Benton; Ninth Regiment, commanded by Colonel 
R. H. Milroy; Tenth Regiment, commanded by Colonel T. T. 
Reynolds; Eleventh Regiment, commanded by Colonel 
Lewis Wallace. The entire force was placed under Brigadier- 
General T. A. Morris, with staff officers as follows: John 
Love, Major; Cyrus C Ilines, Aid-de-camp, and J. A. Stein, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. They were ordered to the front 
and the following dispatch was afterward received endorsing 
their soldierly address and valor: — 


' ' Governor O. P. Morton, IndiaimpoUs, Ind. 

" Goveenoe: — I have directed the three-months' regiments 
from Indiana to move to Indianapolis, there to be mustered 
out and reorganized for three years' service. I cannot per- 
mit them to return without again expressing my high appre- 
ciation of the distinguished valor and endurance of the 
Indiana troops, and my hope that but a short time will elapse 
before I may have the pleasure of knowing that they are 
again ready for the field. * * * 

•• I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


'■^ Major- General, U. S. A." 

ON their return. 

On the return of the troops to Indianapolis, July 29, 1S61 
Brigadier-General Morris issued a congratulatory address, one 
paragraph of which is taken. After passing a glowing eulo- 
gium on their military qualities and on that unexcelled 
gallantry displayed at Laurel Hill, Phillipi and Carrick's Ford, 
he says: 

"Soldiers! You have now returned to the friends whose 
prayers went with you to the field of strife. They welcome 
you with pride and exultation. Your State and country ac- 
knowledge the value of your labors. May your future career 
be as your past has been — honorable to 3'ourselves and ser- 
viceable to your country." 

The six regiments forming the Morris brigade, together 
with one composed of the surplus volunteers, for whom there 
was no regiment in April, now formed a division of seven 
regiments, all reorganized for three years' service between the 
20th August and 20th September, with the exception of the 
new, or Twelfth, which was accepted for one year's service 
trom May 11, under command of Colonel John M. Wallace, 
and reorganized May 17, 1S62, for three years' service, under 
Colonel W. H. Link, who, with 172 ofiicers and men, received 
their mortal wounds during the Richmond (Kentucky) engage- 
ment, three months after its reorganization. 

The Thirteenth Eeguient, under Colonel Jeremiah Sullivan, 
was mustered into the United States service in ISOl.aud joined 


General McClellan's command at ilich Mountain on the lOth 
of July. The day following it was present under General Rose- 
crans and lost eight men killed; three successive da^'s it was 
engaged under General I. I. Reynolds, and won its laurels at 
Cheat Mountain summit, where it participated in the decisive 
victory over General Lee. 

The Fourteenth Regiment, oi'ganized in 1861 for one year's 
service, and reorganized on the 7th of June, at Terre Haute, 
for three years' service, commanded by Colonel Kimball 
and showing a muster-roll of 1,134 men, was one of the finest 
as it was the first three years' regiment organized in the State, 
with varying fortunes attached to its never-ending round ot 
duty from Ciieat Mountain, Septembsr, 1861, to Morton's 
Ford, in 1864, and during the movements South in May of that 
year to the last of its labors, the battle of Cold Harbor. 

The Fifteenth Regiment, reorganized at La Fayette, 14th 
of June, 1861, under Colonel G. D. Wagner, moved on Rich 
Mountain on the 11th of July, in time to participate in the 
complete route of the enemy. On the promotion of Colonel 
Wagner, Lieutenant-Colonel G. A. Wood became Colonel of 
the regiment, Novemlier, lSt!2, and during tlie first days of 
January, 1863, took a distinguished part in tlie severe action 
of Stone River. From this period down to the battle of Mission 
Ridge it was in a series of destructive engagements, and was, 
after enduring terrible liar(3ships, ordered to Chattanooga, and 
thence to Indianapolis, wliere it was mastered out the 18th 
June, 1864, — four days after tlie expiration of its term of ser- 

Tlie Sixteenth Regiment, organized under Colonel P. A. 
Hackleman at Richmond for one j'ear's service, after partici- 
pating in many minor military events, was mustered out at 
Wasliington, D. C, on the 14th of May, 1862. Colonel 
Hackleman was killed at the battle of luka, and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Thomas L Lucas succeeded to the command. It was 
reorganized at Indianapolis for three years' service. May 27, 
1862, and took a conspicuous part in all the brilliant engage- 
ments of the war down to June, 1865, when it was mustered 
out at New Orleans. The "survivors, numbering 36-5 rank 
and file, returned to Indianapolis the 10th of July amid the 
rejoicing of the populace. 


The Seventeenth Regiment was mustered into service at In- 
dianapolis the 12tli of June,1861, for three years, under Colo- 
nel Hascall, who, on being promoted to Brigadier-General in 
Marcli, 1862, left the Oolonelc}' to devolve on Lieatenant-Colo- 
nelJohn T. Wilder. Thisregiment participated in the many 
exploits of General Reynolds's army from Greenbrier, in 1862, 
to Macon, in 1865, under General Wilson. Returning to In- 
dianapolis the 16th of August, in possessiouof a brilliant rec- 
ord, the regiment was disbanded. 

The Eighteenth Regiment, under Colonel Thomas Pattison, 
was organized at Indianapolis and mustered into service on the 
16th of August, 1861. Under General Pope it gained some 
distinction at Blackwater, and succeeded in retaining a repu- 
tation made there by its gallantry at Pea Ridge, in February, 
1862, down to the moment when it planted the regimental 
flag on the arsenal of Augusta, Ga., where it was disbanded 
Aug. 28, 1865. 

The Nineteenth Regiment, mustered into three years' ser- 
vice at the State capital, July 29, 1861, was ordered to join 
the army of the Potomac, and reported its arrival at Wash- 
ington, Aug. 9. Two days later it took part in the battle 
of Lewinsville, under Colonel Solomon Meredith. Occupying 
Falls Church in September, 1861, it continued to maintain a 
most enviable place of lionor on the military roll until its 
consolidation with the Twentieth Regiment, October, 186-i, 
under Colonel William Orr, formerly its Lieutenant-Colonel. 

The Twentieth Regiment of La Fayette was organized in 
July, 1861, mustered into three years' service at Indianapolis 
on the 22d of the same month, and reached the front at 
Cockeysville, Md., twelve days later. Throughout all its 
brilliant actions, from Hatteras Bank on theitli of October, to 
Clover Hill, 9th of April, 1865, including the saving of the 
United States ship Congress, at Newport News, it added 
daily some new name to its escutcheon. This regiment was 
musteijed out at Louisville in July, 1865, and returning to In- 
dianapolis, was welcomed by the great war Governor of their 

The Twenty-first Regiment was mustered into service under 
Colonel I. W. McMillan, July 24, 1861, and reported at the 


front the 3d day of August. It was the first regiment to enter 
New Orleans. The fortunes of tliis regiment were as varied 
as its services, so that its name and fame, grown from the 
. blood shed by its members, are destined to live and flourish. 
In December, 1863, the regiment was reorganized, and on the 
19th February, 186J-, many of its veterans returned to their 
State, where Governor Morton received them with that spirit 
of proud gratitude which he was capable of showing to those 
who deserved honor for honors won. 

The Twenty- SECOND Regiment, under ColonelJefi'. C. Davis, 
left Indianapolis the 15th of August, and was attached to 
Fremont's corps at St. Louis on the 17th. From the day it 
moved to the support of Colonel Mulligan at Lexington, to 
the last victory, won under General Sherman at Bentonville, 
on the ]9th of March, 1865, it gained a high military reputa- 
tion. After the fall of Johnston's Southern army, this regi- 
ment was mustered out, and arrived at Indianapolis on the 
16th of June. 

The Twenty-third Bati-alion, commatided by Colonel W.L. 
Sanderson, was mustered in at New Albany, the 29th of July, 
1861, and moved to the front early in August. Fiom its 
unfortunate marine experiences before Fort Henrv to Benton- 
ville it won unusual honors, and after its disbandment at 
Louisville, returned to Indianapolis, July 21, 1865, where 
Governor Morton and General Sherman reviewed and compli- 
mented the gallant survivors. 

The Twenty-fourth Battalion, under Colonel Alvin P. Hov- 
ey, was mustered at Vincennes the 31st of July, 1861. Proceed- 
ing immediately to the front it joined Fremont's command, 
and participated under many Generals in important affairs 
during the war. Three hundred and ten men and officers re- 
turned to their State in August, 1865, and were received with 
marked honors by the people and Executive. 

The Twenty-fifth Regiment, of Evansville, mustered into 
service there for three years under Colonel J. C. Yeatch, 
arrived at St. Louis, Aug. 26, 1861. During the war this regi- 
ment was present at eighteen battles and skirmishes, sustaining 
therein a loss of 352 men and officers. Mustered out at Louis- 
ville, July 17, 1865, it returned to Indianapolis on the 21st 
amid universal rejoicing. 


The TwENxr-siXTH Battalion, under W. M. Wheatley, left 
Indianapolis for the front the 7th of September, 1861, and af- 
ter a brilliant campaign under Fremont, Grant, Heron and 
Smith may be said to disband the 18th of September, 1865, 
when the non-veterans and recruits were reviewed by Morton 
at the State capital. 

The TwEXTY-sEVENTH Regiment, under Colonel Silas Col- 
grove, moved from Indianapolis to Washington City, Sept. 15, 
1861, and in October was allied to General Banks's army. 
From Winchester Heights, the 9th of March, 1862, through 
all the affairs of General Sherman's campaign, it acted a gal- 
lant and faithful part, and was disbanded immediately after 
returning to their State. 

The Twenty-eighth, or Fiest Cavalry, was mustered into 
service at Evansvilie on the 20th of August, 1861, under Colo- 
nel Conrad Baker. From tiie skirmish at Ironton, on the 
12th of September, wherein three companies under Colonel 
Gavin captured a position held by a few rebels, to the battle 
of the Wilderness, the First CavaUy performed prodigies of 
valor. In June and July, 1865, the troops were mustered 
out at Indianapolis. 

Tiie Twenty-ninth Battalion, of La Porte, under Colonel 
J. F. Miller, left on the 5th of October, 1861, and reaching 
Camp Nevin, Kentucky, on the 9th, was allied to Rosseau's 
brigade, serving with MeOook's division at Shiloh, with 
Buell's army in Alabama, Tennessee and Kentucky, with 
Rosecrans at Murfreesboro, at Decatur, Ala., and at Dalton, 
Ga. The Twenty-ninth won many laurels, and had its Colo- 
nel promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General. This officer 
was succeeded in the command by Lieutenant-Colonel D. M. 

The Thirtieth Regiment, of Fort Wayne, under Colonel 
Sion S. Bass, proceeded to the front via Indianapolis, and 
joined General Rosseau at Camp Nevin on the 9th of October, 
1861. At Shiloh, Colonel Bass received a mortal wound, and 
died a few days later at Paducah, leaving tlie Colonelcy to de- 
volve upon Lieutenant-Colonel J. B. Dodge. In October, 1865, 
it formed a battalion of General Sheridan's Army of Observa- 
tion in Texas. 


The Thirty-first Regiment, organized at Terre Haute, un- 
der Colonel Charles Cruft, in September, 1861, was muatered in, 
and left in a tew days for Kentucky. Present at the reduc- 
tion of Fort Donelson on the 13th, 14th, and 15th of Febru- 
ary, 1862, its list of killed and wounded proves its desperate 
fighting qualities. The organization was subjected to many 
changes, but in all its phases maintained a fair fame won on 
many battle-fields. Like the former regiment, it passed into 
General Sheridan's Army of Observation, and held the dis- 
trict of Green Lake, Tex. 

The Thibty-second Regiment of German Infantry, under 
Colonel August Willich, organized at Indianapolis, mustered 
on the 21:th of August, 1861, served with distinction through- 
out the campaign. Colonel Willich was promoted to the rank 
of Brigadier-General, and Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Von 
Trebra commissioned to act, under whose command the regi- 
ment passed into General Sheridan's army, holding the post 
of Salado Creek, until the withdrawal of the corps of obser- 
vation in Texas. 

The ThibtytTiiird Regiment, of Indianapolis, possesses a 
military history of no small proportions. The mere facts 
that it was mustered in under Colonel John Coburn, the 16th 
of September, won a series of distinctions througliout the 
war district, and was mustered out at Louisville, July 21, 
1865, taken with its name as one of the most powerful regi- 
ments engaged in the war, are suificient here. 

The Thirty-fourth Battalion, organized at Anderson on 
the 16tli September, 1861, under Colonel Ashbury Steele, ap- 
peared among the investing battalions before JSTew Madrid 
on March 30, 1862. From the distinguished part it took in 
that siege, down to May 13, 1865, when at Palmetto Ranche, 
near Palo Alto, it fought for hours against feartul odds the last 
battle of the war for the Union, it merited the praise received. 
Afterward it marched 250 miles up the Rio Grande, and was 
the first regiment toreoccupy the position, so long in Southern 
hands, of Ringgold barracks. In 1865 it garrisoned Beacons- 
ville as part of the Army of Observation. 

The Thirty-fifth, or First Irish, Regiment was organized 
at Indianapolis, and mustered into service on the 11th of De- 


ceraber, 1861, under Colonel Jolin C. Walker. At Nashville, 
on the 22d of May, 1862, it was joined by the organized 
portion of the, or Second Irish, Regiment, and unas- 
signed recruits. Colonel Mullen now became Lieuteuant-Colo- 
nel of the Thirty-fifth, and shortly after its Colonel. From 
the pursuit of General Bragg through Kentucky and the af- 
fair at Ferryville on the 8th of October, 1862, to the terrible 
hand to hand combat at Kennesaw Mountain, on the night of 
the 20th of June, lS6i, and again from the conclnsion of the 
Atlanta campaign to September, 1865, with General Sheridan's 
array, when it was mustered out, it won for itself a name of 
reckless daring and unsurpassed gallantry. 

Tlie TniETY-SiXTH Eegiment, of Eichmond, Ind., under 
Colonel William Grose, mustered into service for three years 
on the 16th of September, 1861, went immediately to the 
front, and shared the fortunes of the Army of the Ohio until the 
27th of February, 1862, when a forward movement led to its 
presence on the battle-field of Shiloh. Following up the 
honors won at Shiloh, it participated in some of the most im- 
portant actions of the war, and was, in October, 1865, transferred 
to General Sheridan's army. Colonel Grose was promoted in 
186-t to the position of Brigadier-General, and the Colonelcy 
devolved on Oliver H. P. Carey, formerly Lieutenant-Colonel 
of the regiment. 

The Tuirty-Seventh Battalion, of Lawrenceburg, com- 
manded by Colonel George W. Hazzard, organized the 18th 
of September, 1861, left for the seat of war early in October. 
From the eventful battle of Stone River, in December, 1862, 
to its participation in Sherman's march through Georgia, it 
gained for itself a splendid reputation. This regiment re- 
turned to, and was present at, Indianapolis, on the 30th of 
July, 1865, where a public reception was tendered to men 
and officers on the grounds of the capitol. 

The Thirty-Eighth Eegiment, under Colonel Benjamin F. 
Scribner, was mustered in at New Albany, on the ISthof Sep- 
tember, 1861, and in a few days was en route to the front. 
To follow its continual round of duty is without the limits of 
this sketch; therefore, it will suffice to say, that on every well- 
fought field, at least from February, 1862, until its dissolution, 


on the 15tli ot July, 1865, it earned an enviable renown, and 
drew from Governor Morton, on returning to Indianapolis 
the IStli of the same month, a congratulatory address 
couched in the highest terms of praise. 

The Thiety-Ninth Regiment, oe Eighth Cavalry, was 
mustered in as an infantry regiment, under Colonel T. J. 
Harrison, on the 2Sth ot August, 1861, at the State capital. 
Leaving Immediately for the front it took a conspicuous part 
in all the engagements up to April, 1863, when it was reor- 
ganized as a cavalry regiment. The record of this organiza- 
tion sparkles with great 'deeds which men will extol while 
language lives; its services to the Union cannot be overesti- 
mated, or the memory of its daring deeds be forgotten by the 
unhappy people who raised the tumult which culminated in 
their second shame. 

The FoETiETH Regiment, of Lafayette, under Colonel W. 
C. Wilson, subsequently commanded by Colonel J. W. 
Blake, and again by Colonel Henry Learning, was organized 
on the 30tli of December, 1861, and at once proceeded to the 
front, where some time was necessarily spent in the Camp of 
Instruction at Bardstown, Ky. In February, 1862, it joined 
in Buell's forward movement. During the war the regiment 
shared in all its hardships, participated in all its honors, and, 
like many other brave commands, took service under General 
Sheridan in his Army of Occupation, holding the post of Port 
Lavaca, Texas, until peace brooded over the land. 

The Forty-First Regiment, or Second Cavalry, the first 
complete regiment of horse ever raised in the State, was or- 
ganized on the 3d of September, 1861, at Indianapolis, under 
Colonel John A. Bridgland, and Dec. 16 moved to the front. 
Its first war experience was gained en route to Corinth on 
the 9th of April, 1862, and at Pea Ridge on the 15th. Galla- 
tin, Vinegar Hill, and Perry ville, and Talbot Station, fol- 
lowed in succession, each battle bringing to the cavalry 
untold honors. In May, 1861, it entered upon a glorious 
career under General Sherman in his Atlanta campaign, and 
again under General Wilson in the raid through Alabama 
during April, 1865. On the 22d of July, after a brilliant 
career, the regiment was mustered out at Nashville, and re- 
turned at once to Indianapolis ibr discharge. 


The Fortv-Second Eegijient, under Colonel J. G. Joues, 
mustered into service at Evansville, Oct. 9, 1861, and having 
participated in the principal militaiy affairs of the period, 
Wartrace, Mission Ridge, Altoona, Kennesaw, Savannah, 
Charleston and Bentonville, was discharged at Indianapolis 
on the 25 th of July, 1865. 

The Forty-Third Battalion was mustered in on the 27th of 
September, 1861, under Colonel George K. Steele, and left Terre 
Haute en route to the front within a few days. Later it was 
allied to General Pope's corps, and afterward served with 
Commodore Foote's marines in the reduction of Fort Pillow. 
It was the first Union regiment to enter Memphis. From 
that period until the close of the war it was distinguislied for 
its unexcelled qualifications as a military body, and fully de- 
served the encomiums passed upon it on its return to In- 
dianapolis in March, 1865. 

The Forty-Fourth, or the Regiment of the Tenth Con- 
gressional District, was organized at Fort Wayne on the 
24rth of October, 1861, under Colonel Hugh B. Reed. Two 
months later it was ordered to the front, and arriving in Ken- 
tucky, was attached to General Cruft's brigade, then quartered 
at Calhoun. After years of faithful service it was mustered 
out at Chattanooga, the 14th of September, 1S05. 

The Forty-fifth, or Third Cavalry, comprised ten com- 
panies, organized at different periods and for varied services 
in 1861-'62, under Colonel Scott Carter and George H. Chap- 
man. The distinguished name won by the Third Cavalry is 
established in every village within the State. Let it suffice to add 
that after its brilliant participation in General Slieridan's raid 
down the James River Canal, it was mustered out at Indian- 
apolis on the 7th of August, 1865. 

The Forty-sixth Regijient, organized at Logansport, 
under Colonel Graham N. Fitch, arrived in Kentucky the 16th 
of February, 1862, and a little later became attached tu General 
Pope's army, then quartered at Commerce. The capture of 
Fort Pillow and its career under Generals Curtis. Palmer, 
Hovey, Gorman, Grant, Sherman, Banks and Burbridge are 
as truly worthy of applause as ever fell to the lot of a regi- 
ment. The command was mustered out at Louisville on the 
4th of September, 1865. 


The Forty-seven I'H Regiuent was organized at Ander- 
son, under Colonel I. E. Slack, early in October, 1SG2. Arriv- 
ing at Bardstown, Ky. , on the 21st of December, it was 
attached to General Buell's army; but within two months 
was assigned to General Pope, under whom it proved the lirst 
regiment to enter Fort Thompson, near New Madrid. In 1864 
the command visited Indianapolis on veteran furlough and 
was enthusiastically received by Governor Morton and the peo- 
ple. Eeturning to the front it engaged heartily in General 
Banks's company. In December Colonel Slack received his 
commission as Brigadier-General, and was succeeded on the 
regimental command by Colonel J. A. McLaughton; at 
Shreveport, under General Heron, it received tlie submission 
of General Price and his army, and there also was it mustered 
out of service on the 23d of October, 1865. 

The Forty-eighth Regiment, organized at Goshen, the 
6th of December, 1861, under Colonel Norman Eddy, entered 
on its duties during the siege of Corinth in May, and again 
in October, 1862. The record of this battalion may be said to 
be unsurpassed in its every feature, so that the grand ovation 
extended to the returned soldiers in 1865 at Indianapolis is 
not a matter for surprise. 

The Forty-ninth Regiment, organized at JefFersouville, 
under Colonel J. W. Ray, and mustered in on the 21st of No- 
vember, 1861, for service, left en route for the camp at Bards- 
town. A month later it arrived at the unfortunate camp- 
ground of Cumberland Ford, where disease carried off a 
number of gallant soldiers. The regiment, however, survived 
the dreadful scourge and won its laurels on many a well-fought 
field until September, 1865, when it was mustered out at Lou- 

The Fiftieth Regiment, under Colonel Cyrus L. Dnnham, 
organized during the month of September, 1861, at Seymour, 
left en route to Bardstown, for a course of military instruc- 
tion. On the 20th of August, 1862, a detachment of the Fif- 
tieth, under Captain Atkinson, was attacked by Morgan's 
Cavalry near Edgefield Junction; but the gallant few repulsed 
their oft-repeated onsets and finally drove them from the field. 
The regiment underwent many changes in organization, and 


may be said to have mustered out on the 10th of September, 

The FiFTT-FiRsr Regiment, under Colonel Abel D. Streight, 
left Indianapolis on the l^th of December, 1861, for the South. 
After a short course of instruction at Bardstown, the regiment 
joined General Buell's army, and acted with great efltect dur- 
ing the campaign in Kentucky and Tennessee. Ultimately it 
became a participator in the work of the Fourth Corps, or 
Army of Occupation, and held the post of San Antonio until 
peace was doubly assured. 

The FiFTv-SECOND EECTiME>fT was partially raised at Rush- 
ville, and the organization completed at Indianapolis, where 
it was consolidated with the Railway Brigade, or Fifty-sixth 
Regiment, on the 2d of February, 1862. Going to the Iront 
immediately after, it served with marked distinction through- 
out the war, and was mustered out at Montgomery on the 10th 
of September, 1865. Returning to Indianapolis six days later, 
it was welcomed by Governor Morton, and a most enthusias- 
tic reception accorded to it. 

The Fifty-third Battalion was raised at New Albany, 
and with the addition of recruits raised at Rockport, formed 
a standard regiment, under command of Colonel W. Q. 
Gresham. Its first duty was that of guarding the rebels con- 
fined in Camp Morton, but on going to the front it made for 
itself an endurable name. It was mustered out in July, 1865, 
and returned to Indianapolis on the 25th of the same month. 

The Fifty-fourth Regiment was raised at Indianapolis on 
the 10th of June, 1862, for three months' service under Colo- 
nel D. G. Rose. The succeeding two months saw it in charge 
of the prisoners at Camp Morton, and in August it was pushed 
forward to aid in the defense of Kentucky against the Confed- 
erate General, Kirby Smith. The remainder of its short term 
of service was given to the same cause. On the muster out 
of the three months' service regiment it was reorganized for 
one year's service, and gained some distinction, after which 
it was mustered out in 1863 at New Orleans. 

The Fifty-fifth Regiment, organized for three months' ser- 
vice, retains the brief history applicable to the first organization 
of tlie Fifcy-fourtli. It was inu.stered in on the 16th of June, 


1862, under Colonel J. R. Mahon, disbanded on tlie expira- 
tion of its term, and was not reorganized. , 

The Fifty-sixth Kegimknt, referred to in tlie sketch of the 
Fifty-second, was designed to be composed of railroad men, 
marshaled under J. M. Smith as Colonel, but owing to the 
fact that many railroaders had already volunteered in other 
regiments Colonel Smith's volunteers were incorporated with 
the Fifty-second, and this number left blank in the army list. 

The Fifty-seventh Battalion, actually organized by two 
ministers of the gospel, the Eev. I. W. T. McMallen and Rev. 
F. a. Hardin, of Richmond, Ind., mustered into service on 
the 18th of November, 1861, under the former named reverend 
gentleman as Colonel, who was, however succeeded by Colo- 
nel Cyrus C. Haynes, and he in turn by G. W. Leonard, "Wil- 
lis Blanch and John S. McGrath, the latter holding command 
until the conclusion of the war. Tliehistoiy of this battalion 
is extensive, and if participation in a number of battles with 
the display of rare gallantry wins fame, the Fifty-seventh may 
rest assured of its possession of this fragile, yet coveted prize. 
Like many other regiments, it concluded its military labors 
in the service of General Sheridan, and held the post of Port 
Lavaca in conjunction with another regiment, until peace 
dwelt in the land. 

The Fifty-eighth Regiment, of Princeton, was organized 
there early in October, 1S61, and was mustered into ser- 
vice under the Colonelcy of Henry M. Carr. In i)ecembor 
it was ordered to join General EuelPs army, after which it 
took a share in the various actions of the war, and was mus- 
tered out on the 25th of July, 1865, at Louisville, having 
gained a place on the roll of honor. 

The Fifty-ninth Battalion was raised under a commission 
issued by Governor Morton to Jesse I. Alexander, creating 
him Colonel. Colonel Alexander succeeded in having his 
regiment mustered in Feb. 17, 1862, and on the ISth it 
left en route to Commerce, where, on its arrival, it was incor- 
porated under General Pope's command. The list of its cas- 
ualties speaks a history — no less than 793 men were lost dur- 
ing the campaign. The regiment, after a term characterized 
by distinguished service, was mustered out at Louisville on 
the 17th of July, 1865. 


The ■; Sixtieth Regiment was partially organized under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Richard Owen, at Evansville, during No- 
vember, 1861, and perfected at Camp Morton during March, 
1862. Its first experience was its gallant resistance to Bragg's 
army investing Munfordville, which culminated in the uncon- 
ditional surrender of its first seven companies on the 14th of 
September. An exchange of prisoners took place in JSTovem- 
ber, which enabled it to join the remaining companies in 
the field. The subsequent record is excellent, and forms, as 
it were, a monument to their fidelity and heroism. The main 
portion of this battalion was m.ustered out at Indianapolis on 
the 21st of March, 1865. 

The SixTr-FiRST Regiment was partially organized^in Decem- 
ber, 1861. under Colonel B.F.Mullen. The failure of thorough 
organization on the 22d of May, 1862, led the men and officers 
to agree to incorporation with the Thirty-fifth Regiment of 

The Sixty-Second Battalion, raised under a commission 
issued to William Jones, of Rockport, authorizing him to 
organize this regiment in the First Congressional District, 
was so unsuccessful that consolidation with the Fifty-third 
Regiment was resolved upon. 

The Sixty-third Regiment, of Covington, under James 
McManoray, Commandant of Camp, and J. S. Williams, Ad- 
jutant, was partially organized on the 31st of December, 1861, 
and may be considered on duty from its very formation. 
After guarding prisoners at Camp Morton and La Fayette, and 
engaging in battle on Manassas Plains on the 30th of August 
following, the few companies sent out in February, 1862, 
returned to Indianapolis to find six new companies raised 
under the call of July, 1862, ready to embrace the fortunes of 
the Sixty-third. So strengthened, the regiment went forth to 
battle, and continued to lead in the paths of honor and fidel- 
ity until mustered out in May and June, 1865. 

The Sixty-foukth Regiment failed in organization as an 
artillery corps; but orders received from the War Department 
prohibiting the consolidation of independent batteries put a 
stop to any further move in the matter. However, an infantry 
regiment bearing the same number was afterward organized. 


The Sixxr-FiFTH Eegiment was mustered in at Princeton 
and Evansville, in July and August, 1862,- under Colonel J. 
W. Fostei-, and left at once en route for the front. The record 
of this battalion is creditable, not only to its members, but 
also to the State which claimed it. Its last action during 
the war was on the 18th and 20th of February, 1S65, at Fort 
Anderson and Town Creek, after which, on the 22d of June, 
it was disbanded at Greensboro. 

The SixTV-siXTH Hegiment, partially organized at New 
Albany, under Commandant Roger Martin, was ordered to 
leave for Kentucky on the 19th of August, 1862, for the de- 
fense of that State against the incursions of Kirby Smith. 
Afcer abrilliant career it was mustered out at Washington 
on the 3d of June, 1865, after which it returned to In- 
dianapolis to receive the thanks of a grateful people. 

The Sixty-seventh Eegiment was organized within the 
Third Congressional District under Colonel Frank Emerson, 
and was ordered to Louisville on the 20th ot August, 1862, 
whence it marched to MunfordviUe, only to share the same 
fate with the other gallant regiments engaged against Gen. 
eral Bragg's advance. Its h'oll of honor extends down the 
years of civil disturbance — ^always adding garlands, until 
Peace called a truce in the fascinating race after fame and in- 
sured a term of rest, wherein its members could think on 
comrades forever vanished, and temper the sad thought with 
the sublime memories born of that chivalrous fight for the 
maintenance and integrity of a great republic. At Galveston, 
on 'the 19th of July, 1865. the gallant Sixty-seventh Regi- 
ment was mustered out, and returning within a few da\'s to 
its State received the enthusiastic ovations of her citizens. 

The Sixty-eighth Regiment, organized at Greensburg 
under Major Benjamin C. Shaw, was accepted for general 
service the 19th of August, 1862, under Colonel Edward A. 
King, with Major Shaw as Lieutenant-Colonel ; on the 25th 
its arrival at Lebanon was reported, and within a few days it 
appeared at the defense of MunfordviUe; but sharing in the 
fate of all the defenders, it surrendered unconditionally to 
General Bragg and did not participate further in the actions 
of that year, nor until after the exchange of prisoners in 


1863. From this period it may lay claim to an enviable his- 
tory extending to the end of the war, when it was disem- 

The Sixty-ninth Kegiment, of Richmond, Iiid., under 
Colonel A. Bickle, left for the front on the 20th of August, 1862, 
and ten days later made a very l^rilliant stand at Richmond, 
Ky., against the advance of General Kirby Smith, losing in 
the engagement 218 men and officers, together with its lib- 
erty. After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was reor- 
ganized under Colonel T. W. Bennett and took the field in 
December, 1862, under Generals Sheldon, Morgan and Sher- 
man, of Grant's army. Chickasaw, Vicksburg, Blakely and 
many other names testify to the valor of the Sixty-ninth. 
The remnant of the regiment was in January, 1865, formed 
into a battalion under Gran Perry, and was mustered out in 
July following. 

The Seventieth Regiment was organized at Indianapolis 
on the 12th of August, 1862, under Colon-el B. Harrison, and 
leaving for Louisville on the 13th, shared in the honors of 
Bruce's division at Franklin and Russellville. The record of 
the regiment is brimful of honor. It was mustered out at 
Washington, June 8, 1865, and received at Indianapolis with 
public honors. 

The Seventv-fikst, or Sixth Cavalry, was organized as 
an infantry regiment, at Terre Haute, and mustered into gen- 
eral service at Indianapolis on the 18th of August, 1862, 
under Lieutenant-Colonel Melville D. Topping. Twelve days 
later it was engaged outside Richmond, Ky., losing 215 offi- 
cers and men, including Colonel Topping and Major Conk- 
lin, together with 317 prisoners, only 225 escaping death and 
capture. After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was 
re-formed under Colonel I. Bittle, but on the 28th of Decem- 
ber it surrendered to General J. H. Morgan, who attacked 
its position at Muldraugh's Hill with a force of 1,000 Confed- 
erates. During September and October, 1863, it was organ- 
ized as a cavalry regiment, won distinction throughout its 
career, and was mustered out on the 15th of September, 1865, 
at Murfreesboro. 


The Seventy-second Regiment was organized at L-i Fay- 
ette, and left en route to Lebanon, Ky., on the 17th of 
August, 1862. Under Colonel Miller it won a series of hon- 
ors, and mustered out at Nashville on the 26th of June, 1865. 

The Seventt-thied Eegiment, under Colonel Gilbert 
Hathaway, was mustered in. at South Bend on the 16th of 
August, 1862, and proceeded immediately to the front. 
Day's Gap, Crooked Creek, and the higli eulogies of Gen- 
erals Rosecrans and Granger speak its long and brilliant his- 
tory, nor were the welcoming shouts of a great people and 
the congratulations of Governor Morton, tendered to the regi- 
ment on its return home, in July, 1865, necessary to sustain 
its well^won reputation. 

The SEVENTy-FODETH Regiment, partially organized at 
Fort "Wayne and made almost complete at Indianapolis, left 
for the seat of war on the 22d of August, 1862, under Colo- 
nel Charles W. Chapman. The desperate opposition to 
General Bragg, and the magnificent defeat of Morgan, 
together with the battles of Dallas, Chattahoochie River, 
Kennesaw and Atlanta.where Lieutenant-Colonel Myron Baker 
was killed, all bear evidence of its never surpassed gallantry. 
It was mustered out of service on the 9th of June, 1865, at 
Washington. On the return of the regiment to Indianapolis, 
the War Governor and people tendered it special honors, and 
gave expression to the admiration and regard in which it 
was held. 

The Seventy-fifth Regiment was organized within the 
Eleventh Congressional District, and left Wabash on the 21st 
of August, 1862, for the front, under Colonel I. W. Petit. It 
was the first regiment to enter Tullahoma, and one of the 
last engaged in the battles of the Republic. After the sub- 
mission of General Johnston's army, it was mustered out at 
Washington, on the 8th of June, 1865. 

The Seventy-sixth Battalion was solely organized for 
thirty days' service, under Colonel James Gavin, for the pur- 
pose of pursuing the rebel guerrillas, who plundered Newburg 
on the 13th of July, 1862. It was organized and equipped 
within forty-eight hours, and during its term of service gained 
the name, "The Avengers of ISTewburg." 


The Seventy-seyenth, or Fotteth Cavalry, was organized 
at the State capital in August, 1862, under Colonel Isaac P. 
Gray. It carved its way to fame over twenty battle-fields, 
and retired from service at Edgefield, on the 29th of June, 

The Seventy-ninth Kegiment was mustered in at Indian- 
apolis, on the 2d of September, 1862, under Colonel Fred 
Knefler. Its history may be termed a record of battles, as 
the great number of battles, from 1862 to the conclusion of 
hostilities, were participated in by it. The regiment received 
its discharge on the 11th of June, 1865, at Indianapolis. 
During its continued round of field duty it captured eighteen 
guns and over 1,000 prisoners. 

The Eightieth Regiment was organized within the First 
Congressional District, under Colonel C. Denby, and 
equipped at Indianapolis, when, on the 8th of September, 
1862, it left for the front. During its term it lost only two 
prisoners; but its list of casualties sums up 325 men and 
officers killed and wounded. The regiment may be said to 
have mustered out on the 22d of June, 1865, at Salisburj'. 

The Eighty-first Eegevient, of New Albany, under Colo- 
nel W. W. Caldwell, was organized on the 29th of August, 
1862, and proceeded at once to Buell's headquarters, and joined 
in the pursuit of General Bragg. Throughout the terrific 
actions of the war its influence was felt, nor did its labors 
cease until it aided in driving the rebels across the Tennessee. 
It was disembodied at Nashville on the 13th of Juno, 1865, 
and returned to Indianapolis on the 15th, to receive the well- 
merited congratulations of Governor Morton and the people. 

The Eighty-second Kegiment, under Colonel Morton C. 
Hunter, was mustered in at Madison, Ind., on the 30th of 
August, 1862, and, leaving immediately for the seat of war, 
participated in many of the great battles down to the return 
of peace. It was mustered out at Washington on the 9th of 
June, 1865, and soon returned to its State to receive a grand 
recognition of its faithful service. 

The Eighty-third Regiment, of Lawrenceburg, under 
Colonel Ben. J. Spooner, was organized in September, 1862, 
and left en route to the Mississippi. Its subsequent history, 


the fact of its being under lire for a total term of 4,800 hours, 
and its wanderings over 6,285 miles, leave nothing to be said 
in its defense. Master of a thousand honors, it was mustered 
out at Louisville, on the 15th of July, 1865, and returned 
home to enjoy a well-merited repose. 

The EiGHTY-FouKTH Regiment was mustered in at Rich- 
mond, Ind., on the 8th of September, 1862, under Colonel 
Nelson Trusler. Its first military duty was on the defenses 
of Covington, in Kentucky, and Cincinnati; but after a short 
time its labors became more congenial. This regiment won 
many distinctions, and retired from the service on the l-lth 
of June, 1865. at Nashville. 

The Eighty-fifth Regijient was mustered in atTerre Haute, 
under Colonel John P. Bayard, on the 2d of September, 1862. 
On the 4th of March, 1863, it shared in the unfortunate aifair 
at Thompson's Station, when, in common with the other regi- 
ments forming Coburn's brigade, it surrendered to the over- 
powering forces of the rebel General Forrest. In June, 1863, 
after an exchange, it again took the field, and won a large 
portion of that renown accorded to Indiana. It was mustered 
out on the 12th of June, 1865. 

The EiGHTv-siXTH Regiment, of Lafayette, left for Ken- 
tucky on tlie 26th of August, 1862, under Colonel Orville S. 
Hamilton, and shared in the duties assigned to the Eighty- 
fourth. Its record is very creditable, particularly that por- 
tion dealing with the battles of Nashville on the IStli and 
16th of December, 1864. It was mustered out on the 6th of 
June, 1865. 

The Eighty-seventsi Regiment, organized at South Bend, 
under Colonels Kline G. Sherlock and N. Gleason, was 
accepted at Indianapolis on the 31st of August, 1862, and left 
on the same day en route to the front. From Springfield and 
Perry ville, on the 6th and 8th of October, 1862, to Mission 
Ridge, on the 25th of November, 1863, thence through the 
Atlanta campaign to the surrender of the Southern armies, 
it upheld a gallant name, and met with a true and enthu- 
siastic welcome home on the 21st of June, 1865, with a list 
of absent comrades aggregating 451. 


The Eighty-eighth Regiment, organized witliiii tbe Fourth 
Congressional District, under Colonel George Humphrey, en- 
tered the service on the 29th of August, 1862, and presently 
was found among the front ranks in war. It passed through 
the campaign in brilliant form down to the time of General 
Johnston's surrender to General Sherman, after which, on the 
7th of June, 1865, it was mustered out at Washington. 

The Eighty-ninth Regiment, formed from the material of 
the Eleventh Congressional District, was mustered in at In- 
dianapolis on the 28th of August, 1862, under Colonel Charles 
D. Murray, and after an exceedingly brilliant campaign was 
discharged by Governor Morton on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The Ninetieth Regiment, or Fifth CAvalry, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis under the Colonelcy of Felix W. Graham, 
between August and November, 1862. The different compa- 
nies joining headqnarters at Louisville on the 11th of March, 
1863, engaged in observing the movements of the enemy in 
the vicinity of Cumberland River until the 19th of April, 
when a first and successful brush was had with the rebels. 
The regiment had been in twenty-two engagements during 
the term of service, captured 6i0 prisoners, and claimed a list 
of casualties mounting up to tlie number ot 829. It was 
mustered out on the 16th of June, 1865, at Pulaski. 

The Ninety-first Battalion of seven companies, was mus- 
tered into service at Evansville, the 1st ot October, 1862, un- 
der Lieutenant-Colonel John Mehringer, and ten days later 
left for the front. In 1863 the regiment was completed, and 
thenceforth took a very prominent position in the prosecution 
of the war. During its service it lost eighty-one men, and 
retired from the field on the 26th of June, 1865. 

The Ninety-second Regiment failed in organizing. 

The Ninety-third Regiment was mustered in at Madison, 
Ind., on the 20th of October, 1862, under Colonel De WittC. 
Thomas and Lieutenant-Colonel George W. Carr. On the 
9th of November it began a movement south, and ultimately 
allied itself to Buckland's brigade of General Sherman's. On 
the 14th of May it was among the first regiments to enter 
Jackson, the capital of Mississippi; was next present at the 
assault on Yicksburg, and made a stirring campaign down 


to the stonnino; of Fort Blakely on the 9th of April, 1865. 
"Was discharged on the 11th of August, that year, at Indian- 
apolis, alter receiving a public ovation. 

The NiNETY-FouKTii and Ninety-fifth Eegiments, author- 
ized to be formed within the Fourth and Fifth Congressional 
Districts, respectively, were onIy;spartially organized, and 
80 the few companies that could be mustered were incorpo- 
rated with other regiments. 

The Ninety-sixth Regiment could only bring toojether three 
companies, in the Sixth Congressional District, and these be- 
coming incorporated with the Ninety-ninth, then in process 
of formation at South Bend, the number was left blank. 

The Ninety-seventh Regiment, raised in the Seventh Con- 
gressional District, was mustered into service at Terre Haute, 
on the 20th of September, 1861, under Colonel Robert F. 
Catterson. Reaching the front within a few days, it was 
assigned a position near Memphis, and subsequently joined 
in General Grant's movement on Vicksburg by overland 
route. After a succession of great exploits with the several 
armies to which it was attached, it completed its list of 
battles at Bentonville, on the 21st of March, 1865, and was 
disembodied at Washington on the 9th of June following. 
During its term of service the regiment lost 341 men, in- 
cluding the three ensigns killed during the assaults on rebel 
positions along the Augusta Railway, from the 15th to the 
27th of June, 1864. 

The Ninety-eighth Regiment, authorized to be raised within 
the Eighth Congressional District, failed in its organization, 
and the number was left blank in the army list. The two com- 
panies answering to the call of July, 1862, were consolidated 
with the Oa» Hundredth Regiment, then being organized at 
Fort Wayne. 

The Ninety-ninth Battalion, recruited within the Ninth 
Congressional District, completed its muster on the 21st of 
October, 1862, under Colonel Alexander Fawler, and reported 
for service a few days later at Memphis, where it was assigned 
to the Sixteenth Army Corps. The varied vicissitudes 
through which this regiment passed and its remarkable gal- 
lantry upon all occasions have gained for it a fair fame. It 

was disembodied on the 5th of June, 1865, at AVashington, 
and returned to Indianapolis on the lltii of the same month. 

The One Hundredth Regiment, recruited from the Eighth 
and Tenth Congressional Districts, under Colonel Sandford J. 
Stoughton, mustered into the service on the 10th of September, 
left for the front on the 1 1th of November, and became attached 
to the Army of Tennessee on the 26th of that month, 1862. 
The regiment participated in twentj'-five battles, together with 
skirmishing during fully one-third of its term of service, and 
claimed a list of casualties mounting up to 46Jr. It was mus- 
tered out of service at Washington on the 9th of June, and 
reported at Indianapolis for discharge on the 14th of June, 

The One Hundred and First Regiment was mustered into 
service at Wabash on the 7th of September, 1862, under Colo- 
nel. William Garver, and proceeded immediately to Covington, 
Ky. Its early experiences were gained in the pursuit of 
Bragg's army and John Morgan's cavalry, and tliese expe- 
riences tended to render the regiment one of the most val- 
uable in the war for the Republic. From the defeat ot John 
Morgan at Milton, on the 18th ot March, 1S63, to the fall of 
Savannah, on the 23d of September, 1863, the regiment won 
many honors, and retired from the service on the 25th of June, 
1865, at Indianapolis. 


The One Hundred and Second Regiment, organized under 
Oolonel Benjamin M. Gregory from companies of the Indiana 
Legion, and numbering 623 men and officers, left Indianap- 
olis for the front early in July, and reported at North Ver- 
non on the 12th of July, 1863, and having completed a round 
of duty, returned to Indianapolis on the 17th to be discharged. 

The One Hundred and Third Regiment, comprising seven 
companies from Hendricks County, two from Marion and one 
from Wayne counties, numbering 681 men and officers, under 
Colonel Lawrence S. Shuler, was contemporary with the One 
Hundred and Second Regiment, varying only in its service by 
being mustered out one day before, or on the 16th of July, 


The One Honored and Fourth Regiment of Minute Men 
was recruited from members of the Legion of Decatur, La 
Fayette, Madison, Marion and Rnsli counties. It comprised 
714 men and officers under the command of Colonel James 
Gavin, and was organized within forty hours after the issue 
of Governor Morton's call for minute-men to protect Indiana 
against the raids of General John H. Morgan's rebel forces. 
After Morgan's escape into Ohio the command returned and 
was mustered out on the 18th of July, 1863. 

The One Hundred and Fifth Regiment consisted of seven 
companies of the Legion and three of minute-men, furnished 
by Hancock, Union, Randolph, Putnam, Wayne, Clinton and 
Madison counties. The command numbered 713 men and of- 
ficers, under Colonel Slierlock, and took a leading part in the 
pursuit of Morgan. Returning on the 18th of July to n 
dianapolis it was mustered out. 

The One Hundred and Sixth Regiment, under Colonel 
Isaac P. Gray, consisted of one company of the Legion and 
nine companies of minute-men, aggregating 792 men and 
officers. The counties of Wayne, Randolph, Hancock, How- 
ard and Marion were represented in its rank and file. Like 
the other regiments organized to repel Morgan, it was disem- 
bodied in July, 1 863. 

The One Hundred and Seventh Regiment, under Colonel 
De Witt C. Rugg, was organized in the city of Indianapolis 
from the companies' Legion, or Ward Guards. The successes 
of this promptly organized regiment were unquestioned. 

The One Hundred and Eighth Regiment comprised five 
companies of minute-men, from Tippecanoe- Countj'^, two 
from Hancock, and one from each of the counties known as 
Carroll, Montgomery and Wayne, aggregating 710 men and 
officers, and all under the command of Colonel W. C. Wilson. 
After performing the only duties presented, it returned from 
Cincinnati on the 18th of July, and was mustered out. 

The One Hundred and Ninth Regiment, composed of min- 
ute-men from Coles County, 111., La Porte, Hamilton. Miami 
and Randolph counties, Ind., showed a roster of 709 men 
and officers, under Colonel J. R. Mahon. Morgan having es- 
caped from Ohio, its duties were at an end, and returning to 


Indianapolis was mustered out on the 17th of Jul.y, 1S63, 
after seven days' service. 

The One Hundred and Tenth Eegiment of minute-men 
comprised volunteers from Henry, Madison, Delaware, Cass, 
and Monroe counties. The men were ready and willing, if 
not really aii\iiin>, h> i;- i to the front. But happily the swift- 
winged M(u-' 111 wii- ilrixen away, and consequently the regi- 
ment was not called t.i the tield. 

The One IIundked and Ele\'enth Regiment, furnished by 
Montgomery, Lafayette, Rush, Miami, Monroe, Delaware 
and Hamilton counties, numbering 733 men and officers, 
under Colonel Robert Canover, was not requisitioned. 

The One Hundred and Twelfth Regiment was formed 
from nine companies of minute-men, and the Mitchell Light 
Infantry Company of the Legion. Its strength was 703 men 
and officers, under Colonel Hiram F. Braxton. Lawrence, 
Washington, Monroe and Orange counties were represented 
on its roster, and the historic names of North Vernon and 
Sunman's Station on its banner. Returning from the South 
after seven days' service, it was mustered out on the 17th of 
July, 1863. 

The One Hundred and Thirteenth Regiment, furnished 
by Daviess, Martin, "Washington and Monroe counties, com- 
prised 526 rank. and file under Colonel George W. Burge. 
Like the One Hundred and Twelfth, it was assigned to Gen- 
eral Hughes's brigade, and defended North Vernon against 
the repeated attacks of John H. Morgan's forces. 

Tiie One Hundred and Fourteenth Regiment was wholly 
organized in Johnson County, under Colonel Lambertson, 
and participated in the affair of North Vernon. Returning 
on the 21st of July, 1863, with its brief but faithful record, it 
was disembodied at Indianapolis, eleven days after its or- 

All tliese regiments were brought into existence to meet an 
emergency, and it must be confessed, that had not a sense of 
duty, military instinct and love of country animated these 
regiments, the rebel General, John H. Morton, and his 6,000 
cavalry would doubtless have carried destruction as far as 
the very capital of their State. 


SIX months' regiments. 

The One Hundred and Fifteenth Eegiment, organized at 
Indianapolis in answer to the call of the President in June, 
1863, was mustered into service on the 17th of August, under 
Colonel J. R. Mahon. Its service was short but brilliant, 
and received its discharge at Indianapolis the 10th day of 
February, 1864. 

The One Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment, mustered in 
on the 17th of August, 1863, moved to Detroit, Mich., on the 
30th, under Colonel Charles Wise. During October it was 
ordered to Nicholasvilie, Ky., where it was assigned to Colo- 
nel Mahon's brigade, and with General Wilcox's entire com- 
mand joined in the forward movement to Cumberland Gap. 
After a term of severe duty it returned to Lafayette, and 
there was disembodied on the 24th of February,'1864, whither 
Governor Morton hastened to share in the ceremonies of 

The One Hundred and Seventeenth Regiment, of In- 
dianapolis, was mustered into service on the 17th of Septem- 
ber, 1863, under Colonel Thomas J. Brady. After surmounting 
every obstacle opposed to it, it returned on the 6th of Feb- 
ruary, 1864, and was treated to a public reception on 
the 9th. 

The One Hundred and Eighteenth Regiment, whose or- 
ganization was completed on the 3d of September, 1863, 
under Colonel George W. Jackson, joined the One Hundred 
and Sixteenth at Nicholasville, and, sharing in its fortunes, 
returned to the State capital on the 14th of February, 1864. 
Its casualties were comprised in a list of fifteen killed and 

The One Hundred and Nineteenth, or Seventh Cav- 
alry, was recruited under Colonel John P. C. Shanks, and 
its organization completed on the 1st of October, 1863. The 
rank and tile numbered 1,213, divided into twelve companies. 
On the 7th of December its arrival at Louisville was reported, 
and on the 14th it entered on active service. After the well- 
fought battle of Guntown, Miss., on the 10th of June, 1864, 
although it only brought defeat to our arms. General Grier 


son addressed the Seventh Cavah-}', saying: " Yonr General 
congratulates yon upon your noble conduct during tlie late 
expedition. Fighting against overwhehning numbers, under 
adverse circumstances, your prompt obedience to orders and 
unflinching courage conamanding the admiration of all, made 
even defeat almost a victory. For hours on foot you re- 
pulsed the charges of the enemy's infantr}', and again in the 
saddle you met his cavalry and turned his assaults into con- 
fusion. Tour heroic perseverance saved hundreds of your 
fellow-soldiers from capture. You have been faithful to your 
honorable reputation, and have fully justified the confidence 
and merited the high esteem of your commander." 

Early in 1865 a number of these troops, returning from 
imprisonment in Southern bastiles, were lost on the steamer 
Sultana. The survivors of the campaign continued in the 
service for a long period after the restoration of peace, and 
finally mustered out. 

The One Hundred and Twentieth Regiment. — In Sep- 
tember, 1863, Governor Morton received authority from the 
War Department to organize eleven regiments within the 
State for three years' Service. By April, 1864, this organi- 
zation was complete, and being transferred to the command 
of Brigadier-General Alvin P. Hovey, was formed by him 
into a division for service with the Army of the Tennessee. 
Of those regiments, the One Hundred and Twentieth occu- 
pied a very prominent place, both on account of its numbers, 
its perfect discipline and high reputation. It was mustered 
in at Columbus, and was in all the great battles of the latter 
years of the war. It won high praise from friend and foe 
and retired with a bright roll of honor. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-first, or Ninth Cavalry, 
was mustered in March 1, 1864, under Colonel George 
W. Jackson, at Indianapolis, and though not numerically 
strong, was so well equipped and possessed such excellent 
material that on the 3d of May it was ordered to the front. 
The record of the One Hundred and Twenty-first, though 
extending over a brief period, is pregnant with deeds of 
war of a high character. On the 26th of April, 1S05, these 
troops, while returning from their labors in.tlie South, lost 


fifty-five men, owing to the explosion of the boilers of the 
steamer StiUmia. The return of the 386 survivors, on the 
5th of September, 1865,' was hailed with joy. 

The One Hundred and Twenjy-second Reoiment, or- 
dered to be raised in the Third CungressionJil District, owing 
to very few men being tlien at liome, failed in organization, 
and the regimental number became a blank. 

The One Hdndeed and Twenty-third Regiment was fur- 
nished by the Fourth and Seventh Congressional Districts 
during tlie winter of 1863-'64, and mustered March 9, 1864, 
at Greeiisburg, under Colonel John C. McQiiistoii. The com- 
mand left", for the front the same day, and after winning i-are 
distinction during the last years of the campaign, ]iartieularly 
in its gallantry at Atlanta, and its daring movement to escape 
Forrest's 10,000 rebel iiorsemen near Franklin, this regiment 
was discharged on the 30th of August, 1865, at Indianapolis, 
being mustered out on the 25th, at Raleigh, N. C. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-koueth Regiment com- 
pleted its organization by assuming three companies raised for 
the One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Regiment (which was 
intended to be cavalry), and was mustered in at Richmond, 
on the 10th of March. 1864, under ColonelJames Burgess, 
and reported at Louisville within nine days. From Buzzard's 
Roost, on the 8th of May, 1864, under General Schotield, 
Lost Mountain in June, and the capture of Decatur, on the 
loth July, to the 21st March, 1865, in it- maii'i ;i(l\ .ince under 
General Sherman from Atlanta to thecoa-t. the ii-iment won 
many laurel wreaths, and after a brilliant campaign, was mus- 
tered out at Greensboro on the 3l8t of August, 1865. 

The One Hunored and Twenty-fifth Regiment, or Tenth 
Cavalry, was partially organized during November and De- 
cember, 1862, at Vincennes, and in February, 1863, completed 
its numbers and equipment at Columbus, under Colonel T. 
M. Pace. Early in May its arrival in Nashville was reported, 
and presently assigned active service. During September and 
October it engaged rebel contingents under Forrestiuid Hood, 
and later in the battles of Nashville. Reynold's Hill and Sugar 
Creek, and in 1865 Flint River, Courtland^and Mount Hope. 
The explosion of the Stdtana occasioned the loss of thirty-five 


men with Captain GafFney and Lieutenants Twiggs and Reeves, 
and in a collision on the Nashville &]Louisville Railroad, May, 

1864, lost five men in killed and several wounded. After a 
term of service unsurpassed for its utility and character it 
was disembodied at Vicksburg, Miss., on the 31st of August, 

1865, and returning to Indianapolis early in September, was 
welcomed by the Executive and peojile. 

The One Hundred and Twentv-sixth Regiment, or Elev- 
enth Cavalry, was organized at Iii.Jiunapolis. under Colonel 
Robert R. Stewart, on the 1st uf Maich, 1861, and left in May 
for Tennessee. It took a vei-y ctnisiiicu.jus jiart in the defeat 
of Hood, near Nashville, joining in the pinvuit as tar as Grav- 
elly Springs, Ala., where it was (lisin'>iiiite(l and assigned 
infantry duty. In June, 1865, it was reiiiniinted at St. Louis, 
and moved to Fort Reiley, Kansas, and thence to Leaven- 
worth, where it was mustered out on the 19th of September, 

The One Hundred and Twenty-seventh Regiment, or 
Twelfth Cavalry', was partially organized at Kendallville, 
in December, 1863, and perfected at tiie same place, under 
Colonel Edward Anderson, in April, 1861:. Reaching the 
front in May, it went into active service, took a prominent 
part in the march through Alabama and Georgia, and after 
a service brilliant in all its parts, retired from the field, after 
discharge, on the 32d of November, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Regiment was 
raised in the Tenth Congressional District of the period, and 
mustered at Michigan City, under Colonel R. P. De Hart, on 
the 18tli of March, 1861:. On the 25th it was reported at the 
front, and assigned at once to Schofield's Division. The bat- 
tles of Resaea, Dallas, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, 
Kennesaw,At]anta,Jonest)oro, Dalton, Brentwood Hills, Nash- 
ville, and the six days' skirmish of Columbia, were all partic- 
ipated in by the One Hundred and Twenty-eighth, and it 
continued in service long after the termination of hostilities, 
holding the post of Raleigh, N. C. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Regiment was, 
like the former, mustered in at Michigan City about the same 
time, under Colonel Charles Case, and moving to tlie front on 

the 7tli of April, 1864, shared in all the fortunes of the One 
Hundred and Twenty-eighth until Aug. 29, 1865, when it 
was disembodied at Charlotte, N. C. 

f?f The One Hundred and Thirtieth Eegiment mustered at 
Kokomo on the 12th of March, 1864, under Colonel C. S. 
Parrish, left en route to the seat of war on the 16tli, and was 
assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, Twenty-third 
Army Corps, at Nashville, on the 19th. During the war it 
made for itself a brilliant history, and returned to Indianapo- 
lis with its well-won honors on the 13th of December, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-first Regiment, or Thir- 
teenth Cavalry, under Colonel G. M. L. Johnson, was the 
last mounted regiment recruited within the State. It left 
Indianapolis on the 30th of April, 1864, in infantry trim, and 
gained its first honors on the 1st of October in its magnificent 
defense of Huntsville, Ala., against the rebel division of Gen- 
eral Buford, following a line of first-rate military conduct to 
the end. In January, 1865, the regiment was remounted, 
won distinction in its modern form, and was mustered out at 
Vicksburg on the 18th of November, 1865. The morale and 
services of the regiment were such that its Colonel was pro- 
moted Brevet Brigadier-General in consideration of its mer- 
ited honors. 


Governor Morton, in obedience to theoflfer made under his 
auspices to the general Government to raise volunteer regi- 
ments for one hundred daj's' service, issued his call on the 
23d of April. 1864. In answer to the Governor's call eight 
regiments came forward, and formed the Grand Division of 
the Volunteers. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-seoond Eegiment, under 
Colonel S. C. Vance, was furnished by Indianapolis, Shelby- 
ville, Franklin and Danville, and leaving on the 18th of May, 
1864, reached the front, where it joined the forces acting in 

The One Hundred and Thirty-third Regiment, raised at 
Richmond on the 17th of May, 1S64, under Colonel R. N. 
Hudson, comprised nine companies, and followed the One 
Hundred and Thirty-second. 


The One Hundred and Thirty -foueth Regiment, compris- 
ing seven companies, was organized at Indianapolis, on the 
25th of May, 1864, under Colonel James Gavin, and proceeded 
immediately to the front. 

The One Hundred and Thiety-fiftu liEGiMENT was raised 
from the volnnteers of Bedford, Noblesville and Goshen, 
with seven companies from the First Congressional District, 
under Colonel W. C. Wilson, on the 25th of May, 1864, and 
left at once en route to the South. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Regiment comprised 
ten companies, raised in the same districts as those contribut- 
ing to the One Hundred and Thirty-fifth, under Colonel J. 
W. Foster, and left for Tennessee on the 24th ot May, 1864. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-seventh Regiment, under 
Colonel E. J. Robinson, comprising volunteers from Kokomo, 
Zanesville, Medora, Sullivan, Rockville and Owen and Law- 
rence counties, left en route to Tennessee on the 28tli of May, 
1864, having completed organization the day previous. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Regiment was 
formed of seven companies from the Ninth, with three from 
the Eleventh Congressional District (unreformed), and mus- 
tered in at Indianapolis on the 27th of May, 1864, under 
Colonel J. H. Shannon. This fine regiment was reported at 
the front within a few days. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Regiment, under 
Colonel George Humphrey, was raised from volunteers fa: 
nished by Kendallville, Lawrenceburg, Elizaville, Knights- 
town, Connersville, New Castle, Portland, Vevay, New Albany, 
Metamora, Columbia City, New Haven and New Philadel- 
phia. It was constituted a regiment on the 8th of June, 
1864, and appeared among the defenders in Tennessee during 
that month. 

All these regiments gained distinction, and won an envia- 
ble position in the glorious history of the war and the no less 
glorious one of their own State in its relation thereto. 

the president's call of JULY, 1864. 

, The One Hundred and Fortieth Regiment was organized 
with many others in response to the call of the nation. LTn- 


der its Colonel, Thomas J. Brady, it proceeded to the South 
on the loth of November, 1864. Having taken a most promi- 
nent part in all the desperate struggles round Nashville and 
Murfreesboro in 186-1, to Town Creek Bridge on the 20th of 
February, 1865, and eompl,eted a continuous round of severe 
duty to the end, arrived at Indianapolis for discharge on the 
21st of July, where Governor Morton received it with marked 

The One Hundred and Foety-fiest Regiment was only 
partially raised, and its few companies were incorporated with 
Colonel Brady's command. 

The One Hundred and Forty-Second Regiment was re- 
cruited at Fort Wayne, under Colonel I. M. Comparet, and 
was mustered into service at Indianapolis on the 3d of No- 
vember, 1864. After a steady and exceedingly effective ser- 
vice, it returned to Indianapolis on the 16th of July, 1865. 

THE president's CALL OF DECEMBER, 1864, 

was answered by Indiana in the most material terms. No 
less than fourteen serviceable regiments were placed at the 
disposal of the General Government. 

The One Hundred and Fobty-third Regiment was mus- 
tered in, under Colonel J. T. Grill, on the 21st of February, 
1865, reported at Nashville on the 24th, and after a brief but 
brilliant service returned to the State on the 21st of October, 

The One Hundred and Forty-fourth Regoeent, under 
Colonel G. W. Riddle, was mustered in on the 6th of 
March, 1865, left on the 9th for Harper's Ferry, took an 
eflfective part in the close of the campaign and reported at 
Indianapolis for discharge on the 9th of August, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Forty- fifth Regiment, under Colo- 
nel W. A. Adams, left Indianapolis on the 18th of February, 
1865, and joining General Steadman's division at Chatta- 
nooga on the 23d of February, was sent on active service. Its 
duties were discharged with rare fidelity until mustered out 
in January, 1866. 

The One Hundred and Forty-slxth Regiment, under Colo- 
nel M. C. Welsh, left Indianapolis on the 11th of March en 


route to Harper's Ferry, where it was assigned to the army of 
the Shenandoah. The duties of this regiment were severe 
and continuous, to the period of its muster out at Baltimore, 
on the 31st of August, 1865. 

The One Hdndbed and Foety-seventh Kegiment, com- 
prised among other volunteers from Benton, Lafayette and 
Henry counties, organized under Colonel Milton Peden, on 
the 13th of March, 1865, at Itidiana])olis. It shared a fort- 
une similar to that of the One Hundred and Forty-sixth, and 
returned for discharge on the 9th of August, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, under 
Colonel IST. R. Ruckle, left the State capital on the 28th of 
February, 1865, and, reporting at Nashville, wassenton guard 
and garrison duty into the heart of Tennessee. Returning to 
Indianapolis on the Sth of September, it received a final 

The One Hundred and Forty-ninth Regiment was organ- 
ized in Indianapolis by Colonel W. H. Fairbanks, and left on 
the 3d of March, 1865, for Tennessee, where it had the honor 
of receiving the surrender of the rebel forces and military 
stores of Generals Roddy and Polk. The regiment was wel- 
comed home by Governor Morton on the 28th of September. 

The One Hundred and Fiftieth Regiment, under Colonel 
M. B. Taylor, mustered in on the 9th of March, 1865, left for 
the South on the 13th and reported at Harper's Ferry on the 
17th. This regiment did guard duty atCharleston, Winches- 
ter, Stevenson's Station, Gordon's Springs, and after a service 
characterized by utility, returned on the 9th of August to 
Indianapolis for discharge. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-first Regiment, under Colo- 
nel J. Healy, arrived at jSTashville on the 9th of March, 1865. 
On the 14th a movement on Tullahoma was undertaken, and 
three months later returned to Nashville for garrison duty to 
the close of the war. It was mustered out on the 22d of Sep- 
tember, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-second Regiment was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis, under Colonel W. W. Griswold, and left 
for Harper's Ferry on the 18th of March, 1865. It was at- 
tached to the provisional divisions of the Shenandoah Army, 

and engaged until the 1st of September, when it was dis- 
charged at Indianapolis. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-thied Regiment was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis, on the 1st of March, 1865, under Colonel 
O. H. P. Carey. It reported at Louisville, and by order of 
General Palmer was held on service in Xentucky, where it 
was occupied in the exciting but very dangerous pastime of 
fighting Southern guerrillas. Later, it was posted at Louis- 
ville, until mustered out on the 4th of September, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-fourth Kegiment, organized 
under Colonel Frank Wilcox, left Indianapolis under Major 
Simpson, for Parkersburg, W. Va., on the 28th of April, 
1865. It was assigned to guard and garrison duty until its 
discharge on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Kegiment, recruited 
throughout the State, left on the 26tli of April for Washington, 
and was afterward assigned to a provisional brigade of the 
Ninth Army Corps at Alexandria. The companies of this 
regiment were scattered over the country — at Dover, Centre- 
ville, Wilmington and Salisbury, but becoming reunited on 
the 4th of August, 1865, it was mustered out at Dover, Del. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-sixth Battalion, under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Charles M. Smith, left en route to the 
Shenandoah Valley on the 27th of April, 1865, where it con- 
tinued doing guard duty to the period of its muster out the 
4th of August, 1865, at Winchester, 7a. 

On the return of these regiments to Indianapolis, Governor 
Morton and the people received them with all that character- 
istic cordiality and enthusiasm peculiarly their own. 

OUR colored 

The Twenty-eighth Regiment of Colored Troops was 
recruited throughout the State of Indiana, and, under Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Charles S. Russell, left Indianapolis for the 
front on the 24th of April, 1864. The regiment acted well 
in its first engagement with the rebels at White House, Va., 
and again with General Sheridan's cavalry, in the swamps of 
the Chickahominy. In the battle of the " Crater" it lost 
half its roster; but their place was soon filled by other 


colored recruits from the ||State, and Russell proraoted to the 
Colonelcy, and afterward to Brevet Brigadier-General, when 
he was succeeded in the command by Major Thomas H. 
Logan. During the few months of its active service it made 
quite a history, and was ultimately discharged, on the 8th of 
January, 1866, at Indianapolis. 


FiEST Battery, organized at Evansville, under Captain 
Martin Klauss, and mustered in on the 16th of August, 
1861, joined General Fremont's army immediately, and aided 
in the capture of 950 rebels and their position at Blackwater 
Creek. On March the 6th, 1862, at Elkliorn Tavern, and on 
the 8th at Pea Ridge, the battery performed good service. 
Port Gibson, Champion Hill, Jackson, the Teche country, 
Sabine Cross Roads, Grand Encore, all tell of its efficacy. In 
1864 it was subjected to reorganization, when Lawrence 
Jacoby was raised to the Captainc}', vice Klauss resigned. 
After a long term of useful service, it was mustered out at 
Indianapolis on the ISth of August, 1865. 

Second Battery was organized, under Captain D. G. 
Rabb, at Indianapolis on the 9th of August, 1861, and one 
month later proceeded to the front. It participated in the 
campaign against Colonel Coffee's irregular troops and the 
rebellious Indians of the Cherokee nation. From Lone Jack, 
Mo., to Jenkin's Ferry and Fort Smith it won signal honors 
until its reorganization in 1864, and even after, to June, 
1865, it maintained a very fair reputation. 

The Third Battery, under Captain "W. W. Frybarger, was 
organized and mustered in at Connersville on the 24th of 
August, 1861, and proceeded immediately to join Fremont's 
Army of the Missouri. Moon's Mill, Kirksville, Meridian, 
Fort de Russy, Alexandria, Round Lake, Tupelo, Clinton and 
Tallahatchie are names which may be engraven on its guns. 
It participated in the affairs before Nashville on the 15th 
and 16th of December, 1864,|when General Hood's army was 
put to rout, and at Fort Blakely, outside Mobile, after which 
it returned home to report for discharge, Aug. 21, 1865. 

The Fourth Battery, recruited in La Porte, Porter and 


Lake counties, reported at the front early in October, 1861, 
and at once assumed a prominent place in the army of G-en- 
eral Biiell. Again, under R )secrans and McCook and under 
General Sheridan at Stone River, the services of this battery 
were much praised, and it retained its well-earned reputation 
to the very day of its muster out — -the l8t of August, 1865. 
Its first organization was completed under Captain A. K. 
Bush, and reorganized in October, 1864, under Captain B. F. 

Th3 Fifth Battery was furnished by La Porte, Allen, 
Whitley and Noble counties, organized under Captain Peter 
Simonson, and mustered into service on the 22d of Novem- 
ber, 1861. It comprised four six-pounders, two being rifled 
cannon, and two twelve-pounder Howitzers, with a force of 
158 men. Reporting at Camp Gilbert, Louisville, on the 
29th, it was shortly after assigned to the division of General 
Mitchell, at Bacon Creek. During its tei-m, it served in 
twenty battles and numerous petty actions, losing its Captain 
at Pine Mountain. The total loss accruing to the battery was 
eighty-four men and officers and four guns. It was mustered 
out on the 20th of July, 1864. 

The Sixth Battery was recruited at Evansville, under 
Captain Frederick Behr, and left on the 2d of October, 1861, 
for the front, reporting at Henderson, Ky., a I'ew days after. 
Early iu 18(32 it joined General Sherman's army at Paducah, 
and participated in the battle of Shiloh, on the 6th of April. 
Its history grew in brilliancy until the era of peace insured a 
cessation of its great labors. 

The Seventh Battery comprised volunteers from Terra 
Haute, Arcadia, Evansville, Salem, Lawrenceburg, Columbus, 
Vincennes and Indianapolis, under Samuel J. Harris as its 
first Captain, who was succeeded by G. R. Shallow and 0. H. 
Morgan after its reorganization. From the siege of Corinth 
to the capture of Atlanta it performed vast services, and re- 
turned to Indianapolis on the 11th of July, 1865, to be re- 
ceived by the people and hear its history from the lips of the 
veteran patriot and Governor of the State. 

The Eighth Battery, under Captain G. T. Cochran, ar- 
rived at the front on the 26th of February, 1862, and subse- 


quently entered upon its real duties at the siege of Corinth. 
It served with distinction throughout, and concluded a well- 
made campaign under Will Stokes, who was appointed Cap- 
tain of the companies with which it was consolidated in March, 

The Ninth Battery. — The organization of this battery 
was perfected at Indianapolis, on the 1st of January, 1862, 
under Captain N. S. Thompson. Moving to the front it par- 
ticipated in the aifairs of Sliiloh, Corinth, Queen's Hill, Me- 
ridian, Fort Dick Taylor, Fort de Kussy, Henderson's Hill, 
Pleasant Hill, Cotilo Landing, Bayou Rapids, Mansura, Chi- 
cot, and many others, winning a name in each engagement. 
The explosion of the Steamer Eclipse at Johnsonville, above- 
Paducah, on Jan. 27, 1865, resulted in the destruction of fifty- 
eight men, leaving only ten to represent the battery. The 
survivors reached Indianapolis on the 6th of March, and were 
mustered out. 

The Tenth Battery was recruited at Lafayette, and mus- 
tered in under Captain Jerome B. Cox, in January, 1861. 
Having passed through the Kentucky campaign against Gen- 
eral Bragg it participated in many of the great engagements, 
and finally returned to report for discharge on the 6th of July, 
1864, having, in the meantime, won a very fair fame. 

The Eleventh Battery was organized at Lafayette, and mus- 
tered in at Indianapolis under Captain Arnold Sutermeister, 
on the 17ih of December, 1861. On most of the principal bat- 
tle-fields, from Shiloh, in 1862, to the capture of Atlanta, it 
maintained a high reputation for military excellence, and after 
consolidation with the Eighteenth, mustered out on the 7th 
of June, 1865. 

The Twelfth Battery was recruited at JefFersonville, and 
subsequently mustered in at Indianapolis. On the 6th of 
March, 1862, it reached Nashville, having been previously 
assigned to Buell'sarmy. In April its Caj^tain, G. W. Ster- 
ling, resigned, and the position devolved on C.iptain James 
E. White, who, in turn, was succeeded by James A. Dun- 
woody. The record of the battery holds a first place in the 
history of the period, and enabled both men and t>fficers to 
look back witii pride upon the battle-fields of the land. It was 


ordered lioine in Jane, 1865, and on reachinji; Indianapolis, 
on the 1st of July, was mastered out on the 7th of that month. 

The Thirteenth Battery was organized under Captain 
Sewell Coulson, daring the winter of 1861, at Indianapolis, 
and proceeded to the front in February, 1862. During the 
subsequent months it was occupied in the pursuit of John II. 
Morgan's raiders, and aided effectively in driving them from 
Kentucky. This artillery company returned from the South 
on the 4th of July, 1865, and was discharged the day follow- 

The Fourteenth Battery, recruited in "Wabash, Miami, 
Lafayette and Huntington counties, under Captain M. H. 
Kidd and Lieutenant J. W. H. McGuire, left Indianapolis on 
the 11th of April, 1862, and witjiin a few months one portion 
of it was captured at Lexington by General Forrest's great 
cavalry command. The main battery lost two guns and two 
men at Guntown, on the Mississippi, but proved more suc- 
cessful at Nashville and Mobile. It arrived home on the 29th 
of August, 1865, received a public welcome, and its final dis- 

The Fifteenth Battery, under Captain I. C. H. Von 
Sehlin, was retained on duty from thedateof its organization, 
at Indianapolis, until the 5th of July, 1862, when it was 
moved to Harper's Ferry. Two months later the gallant 
defense of Maryland Heights was set at naught by the rebel 
Stonewall Jackson, and the entire garrison surrendered. 
Being paroled, it was reorganized at Indianapolis, and ap- 
peared again in the field in March, 1863, where it won a splen- 
did, renown on every well-fought field to the close of the war. 
It was mustered out on the 24th of June, 1865. 

The Sixteenth Battery was organized at Lafayette, under 
Captain Charles A. Naylor, and on the IstofJune, 1862, left for 
Washington. Moving to the front with General Pope's com- 
mand, it participated in the battle of Slaughter Mountain, on 
the 9th of August, and South Mountain and Antietam, under 
General McClellan. This battery was engaged in a large 
number of general engagements and flying column affairs, 
won a favorable record, and returned on the 5th of July, 

The Seventeenth Battery under Captain Milton L. Miner, 
was mustered in at Indianapolis, on the 20th of May, 1862; 
left for the fronton the 5thof July, and subsequently engaged 
in the Gettysburg expedition; was present at Harper's Ferry, 
July 6, 1863, and at Opequan on the 19th of September. 
Fisher's Hill, New Market and Cedar Creek brought it addi- 
tional honors, and won from General Sheridan a tribute of 
praise for its service on tliese battle grounds. Ordered from 
Winchester to Indianapolis, it was mustered out there on the- 
3d of July, 1865. 

The EiGHTEENTU Batter?, under Captain Eli Lilly left for 
the front in August, 1862, but did not take a leading part in the 
campaign until 1863, when, under General Rosecrans, it 
appeared prominent at Hoover's Gap. From this period to 
the affairs of West Point and Macon it performed first-class 
service, and returned to its State on the 25th of June, 1865. 

The Nineteenth Battery was mustered into service at In- 
dianapolis, on the 5th of August, 1862, under Captain S. J. 
Harris, and proceeded immediately afterward to the front, 
where it participated in the campaign against General Bragg. 
It was present at every post of danger to the end of the war, 
when, after the surrender of Johnston's army, it returned to 
Indianapolis. Reaching that city on the 6th of June, 1865, 
it was treated to a public reception and received the congratu- 
lations of Governor Morton. Four days later it was dis- 

The Twentieth Battery, organized under Captain Frank 
A. Rose, left the State capital on the ]7tli of December, 1862, 
for the front, and reported immediately at Henderson, Ky. 
Subsequently Captain Rose resigned, and in 1863, under Cap- 
tain Osborn, turned over its guns to the Eleventh Indiana 
Battery, and was assigned to the charge of siege guns at 
Nashville. Governor Morton had the battery supplied with 
new field pieces, and by the 5th of October, 1863, it was 
again in the field, where it won fame under General Sherman, 
and continued to exercise a great influence until its return on 
the 23d of June, 1865. 

The Twenty-first Battery, recruited at Indianapolis under 
the direction of Captain W. W. Andrew, left on the 9th of 


September, 1862, for Covington, Kj., to aid in its defense 
against the advancing forces of General Kirby Smith. It was 
engaged in numerous military aifairs and may be said to have 
acquired many honors. The battery was discharged on the 
21st of June, 1865. 

The Twenty-second Battery was mustered in at Indianap- 
olis on the 15th of December, 1862, under Captain B. F. 
Denning, and moved at once to the front. It took a very 
conspicuous part in the pursuit of Morgan's Cavalry, and in 
many otiier affairs. It threw the first shot into Atlanta, and 
lost its Captain, who was killed in the skirmish line, on the 
1st of July. This battery was received with public honors on 
its return, the 25th of June, 1865, and mustered out on the 
7th of the same month. 

The TwENTY-THiKD Bati'ery, recruited in October, 1862, 
and mustered in on the Sth of November, under Captan I. 
H. Myers, proceeded south, after having rendered very effi- 
cient services at home in guarding the camps of rebel prison- 
ers. In July, 1865, the battery took an active part, under 
General Boyle's command, in routing and capturing the raid- 
ers at Brandenburgh, and subsequently to the close of the war 
performed very brilliant exploits, reaching Indianapolis in 
June, 1865. It was discharged on the 27th of that month. 

The Twenty-fourth Battery, under Captain I. A. Simms, 
was enrolled for service on the 29th of November, 1862; re- 
mained at Indianapolis on duty until the 13th of March, 1863, 
when it left for the field. From its participation in the Cum- 
berland River campaign to its last engagement at Columbia, 
Tenn., it aided materialljs in bringing victory to the Union 
ranks, and made for itself a wide-spread fame. Arriving at 
Indianapolis on the 28th of July, it was publicly received, and 
in five days later disembodied. 

The Twenty-fifth Battery was recruited in September and 
October, 1864, and mustered into service for one year, under 
Captain Frederick C. Sturm. Dec. 13, it reported at Nash- 
ville, and took a prominent part in the defeat of General 
Hood's army. Its duties until July, 1865, were continuous 
when it returned to report for final discharge. 


The Twenty-sixth Battery, or " Wildeb's Battery, " was 
recrnited under Captain I. T. Wilder, of Greensburg, in May, 
1861, but was not mustered in as an artillery company. In- 
corporating itself with a regiment then forming at Indianap- 
olis, it was mustered as company "A,"' of the Seventeenth 
Infantry, with Wilder as Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment. 
Subsequently, at Elk Water, Ya., it was converted into the 
"First Independent Battery," and became known as " Rig- 
by 's Battery." The record of this battery is as brilliant as 
any won during the war. On every field it lias won a distinct 
reputation; it was well worthy the enthusiastic reception 
given to it on its return to Indianapolis on the 11th and 12th 
of July, 1865. 

The total number of battles in the " War of the Rebellion " 
in which the patriotic citizens of the great and noble State of 
Indiana were more or less engaged, was as follows: 


No. of Battles 







South Carolina. .. 

No. of Battles. 





Indian Territory . . 








Ohio 1 

Indiana 1 


Nortli Carolina . . 



Official reports give over 200,000 men from Indiana en- 
listed, besides 50,000 militia armed to defend the State, and 
that the commissions numbered no less than 17,114. 

The authorities chosen for the dates, names and figures are 
the records of the State, and the main subject is based upon 
the actions of those 267,000 gallant men of Indiana who 
rushed to arms in defense of all for which their fathers bled, 
leaving their wives and children and homes in the guardian- 
ship of a truly paternal Government. 

The part which Indiana took in the war against the rebell- 
ion is one of which the citizens of the State may well be 
proud. In the number of troops furnished, and in the amount 
of voluntary contributions rendered, Indiana, in proportion 
and wealth, stands equal to any of her sister States. "It is 
also a subject of gratitude and thankfulness," said Governor 
Morton, in his message to the Legislature, " that, while the 


number of troops furnished by Indiana ulone in this great 
contest would have done Credit to a first-class nution, meas- 
ured by the standard of previous wars, not a single battery 
or battalion from this State has brought reproach upon the 
National flag, and no disaster of the war can be traced to any 
want of fidelity, courage or efliciency on the part of any Indi- 
ana officer. The endurance, heroism, intelligence and skill of 
the ofHcers and soldiers sent forth by Indiana to do battle for 
the Union have shed a luster^on our beloved State of which 
any people might justly be proud. Without claiming supe- 
riority over our loyal sister States, it is but justice to the brave 
men who have represented us on almost every battle-field of 
the war, to say that their deeds have placed Indiana in the 
front rank of those heroic States which rushed to the rescue 
of the imperiled Government of the nation." 

During 186S Indiana presented claims to the Government 
for about $3,500,000 for expenses incurred in the war, and 
$1,958,917.94 was allowed. Also, this year, a legislative com- 
mission reported that $413,599.48 were allowed to parties suf- 
fering loss by the Morgan raid. 


There was enlisted for the three months' service, 191,985 
men; six months, 19,0.76 men; nine months, 87,558 men; 
one year's service, 394,959 men; two years', 43,113 men; three 
years', 1,950,792 men, and for the four years' service, 1,040 
men. Total, 2,688,523 men. But as many of these re-en- 
listed, it is safe to say that there were 1,500,000 men enlisted 
and served in the war for the Union from 1861 to 1865. Of this 
number 56,000 were killed in battle, 35,000 died of wounds, 
and 184,000 died in hospitals of disease. 


Since the organization of the Federal Government eleven 
attempts have been made against its authority. Ist, Conspir- 
acy of a few federal army officers, in 1782, to combine the orig- 
inal thirteen States into one, and place Washington in supreme 
command. 2d, Siiay's insurrection in Massachusetts, in 1787. 
3d, Whisky insurrection of Pennsylvania, in 1794. 4th, By the 


Hartford convention in 1814. .5tli, In 1820 on the question ol 
admission of Missouri into the Union. 6th, Collision between 
the Legislature of Georgia and the Government in regard to 
thelands given to the Creeii Indians. 7th, In 1830, with the 
Cherokees in Georgia. Sth, Was tlie nullifying ordinance ot 
South Carolina in 1832. 9th, In 1842, between the suffrage asso- 
ciation of Ehode Island and the State authorities. 10th, On 
the part of the Mormons in Utah, in 1856, who resisted the au- 
thorities of the Government, and the 11th was the late war of 
the Rebellion. 

In the Revolutionary war the original thirteen States fur- 
nished troops for the army as follows: Delaware, 2,386 
Georgia, 2,679; Rhode Island, 5,908; South Carolina, 6,417 
North Carolina, 7,263; New Jersey, 10,726; New Hampshire. 
12,497; Maryland, 13,912; New York, 17,781; Fennsylvi 
25,678; Virginia, 26,728; Connecticut, 31,939; Massachusetts, 
67,907. Total, 231,791. 



. . 1811 

King Philip's 

King William's 

. . . 1675 
. . . 1689 

.. 1812 

Algerine Pirates 

First Seminole 

. . 1815 

Queen Anne's 

... 1744 

.. 1817 
. . 1845 

. . . 1775 
. . . 1790 

... 180.3 

. . 1832 


. . 1846 


War between the States. . . 

.. 1861 



Geologt. — Mineral Resources. — Coal. — Its Analysis. — 
Block and Cannel Coal. — Iron Ore. — Where Found. — 
Building Stone. — Limestone. — Lime and Cement. — 
Glass Sand and Glass. — Cubic Feet of Stone. — Tons of 
Coal. — Other Minerals. — Topography. — Soil. — Its Dif- 
ferent Natures. — Altitudes of the Principal Cities 
OF the State. — Climate.— It Has Modified. — Meteorol- 
ogy. — Annual Means from 1872 to 1882. 

In 1869 the development of mineral resources in the State 
attracted considerable attention. Rich mines of iron and 
coal were discovered, as also fine quarries of building stone. 
The Vincennes Railroad passed tlirough some of the richest 
portions of the mineral region, the engineers of which had 
accurately determined tlie quality of richness of the ores. 
Near Brooklyn, abont twenty miles from Indianapolis, is a 
fine formation of sandstone, yielding good material for build- 
ings in the city; indeed, it is considered the best building 
stone in the State. The limestone formation at Gosport, con- 
tinuing twelve miles from that point, is of great variety, and 
includes the finest and most durable building stone in the 
world. Portions of it are susceptible only to the chisel; 
other portions are soft and can be worked with the ordinary 
tools. At the end of this limestone formation there com- 
mences a sandstone series of strata which extends seven 
miles farther, to a point about sixty miles from Indianapolis. 
Here an extensive coal bed is reached, consisting of seven 
distinct veins. The first is about two feet thick, the next 


three feet, another four feet, and the others of various thick- 
nesses. These beds are all easily worked, having a natural 
drain, and they yield heavy profits. In the whole of the 
southwestern part of the State, and for 300 miles up the 
Wabash, coal exists in good quality and abundance. 

The scholars, statesmen and philanthropists of Indiana 
worked hard and long for the appointment of a State Geolo- 
gist, with sufficient support to enable him to make a thorough 
geological survey of the State. A partial survey was made 
as early as 1837- '8, by David Dale Owen, State Geologist, 
but nothing more was done until 1869, when Prof. Edward 
T. Cox was appointed State Geologist. For twenty years 
previous to this date the Governors urged and insisted in all 
their messages that a thorough survey should be made, but 
almost, if not quite, in vain. In 1852 Dr. Eyland T. Brown 
delivered an able address on this subject before the Legisla- 
ture, showing how much coal, iron, building stone, etc., 
there was probably in the State, but the exact localities and 
qualities not ascertained, and how millions of money could 
be saved to the State by the expenditure of a few thousand 
dollars; but they answered the Doctor in the negative. 

In 1853 the State Board of Agriculture employed Dr. 
Brown to make a partial examination of the geology of the 
State, at a salary of $500 a year, and to this board the credit 
is due for the final success of the philanthropists, who in 
1869 had the pleasure of witnessing the passage of a legis- 
lative act " to provide for a Department of Geology and 
Natural Science, in connection with the State Board of Ag- 
riculture." Under this act Governor Baker immediately ap- 
pointed Prof Edward T. Cox the State Geologist, who has 
made an able and exhaustive report of the agricultural, 
mineral and manufacturing resources of this State, world- 
wide in its celebrity, and a work of which the people of In- 
diana may be very proud. We can scarcely give even the 
substance of his report in a work like this, because it is of ne- 
cessity deeply scientific and made up entirely of , local detail. 

More than 6,000 square miles of the Territory of Indiana ii 
included in the iireat Western coal field. A peculiarity o 


the Indiana coal beds is, that they are everywhere accessible 
to railroad lines, and consequently can all be made available. 

The coals of this field all belong- to the class of bituminous 
coals, but, from natural qualities, jjresent two distinct divis- 
ions — the free-burning and tlie coking coals. The first of 
these are commonly known as "block coals," on account of 
their being brought into market in large blocks. Tiiis va- 
riety is found at the base of the coal measures, sometimes rep- 
resented by a single seam, from three to five feet thick, but 
frequently two or three seams, ranging from two to four feet 
each in thickness, are found, separated by from ten to thirty 
feet of shale, sandstone and fire-clay. 

These beds lie on a fine light-colored clay, witli a slight 
blue tinge, and usually have a roof of compact bituminous 
shale, known to the miners as " black slate." 

The large proportion of this actual unbitumiuized charcoal 
gives to the block coal many of its peculiar properties. It 
burns with a bright cyange-colored flame, and comparatively 
but little smoke, until it is about half consumed, after which 
the combustion resetnbles very closely the burning of an- 
thracite — continuing without smoke or flame, leaving about 
four per cent, of ash and no clinkers or cinders of any kind. 
At no stage of its combustion is there any tendency to soften 
or run together into cakes; nor do the blocks break into frag- 
ments by lieat, but maintain their original form until they 
are entirely consumed. It kindles very easily and requires 
but a small quantity together, eveu in an open grate, to main- 
tain combustion. 

The following analysis will serve to indicate the quality of 
the block coal : 


No. 1. No. 2. 

Ash, white = 2.74 1.68 

Carbon :........ 81.60 83.68 

Hydrogen 4.39 4.10 

Nitrogen 1.67 1.67 

Oxvgen 8.88 8.17 

Sufphur 72 .70 

100.00 100.00 


Calculated calorific power equal to 8,283 heat units. 

These 'examples show a fair average quality of the block 
coal used in the blast furnaces of Indiana for making Besse- 
mer pig. The quality isalike good, both in the northern and 
southern parts of the field. Nine blast furnaces in Indiana, 
and others at Carondolet, near St. Louis, are using the raw 
block coal for smelting iron ores, and it gives universal satis- 

These qualities admirably fit the block coal for the purpose 
of producing steam. The furnace requires but little draft 
and no attention from the fireman, except what is necessary 
to keep the proper supply of coal. Actual experiment has 
proved its high value as a steam-producing fuel, and fully 
warrants the conclusion that the Indiana coal field can furnish 
a manufacturing power as cheap and as convenient as any in 
the world. 

The close resemblance of block coal to charcoal in several 
of its properties suggested its use — without coking or other 
preparation— for the purpose of smelting ores. Successful 
experiments in this direction were made in 1868, since which 
time it has come into general use in blast furnaces throughout 
this section of the country. Being usually quite free from 
sulphur or phosphorus, it produces pig iron closely resem- 
bling the Tennessee charcoal metal. 

Tiie dip of the coal beds in Indiana being westward, 
the block coal, lying at the base of the coal measures, is fjund 
outcropping along the eastern margin of the coal field; but 
the dip being but slight, and the country generally quite level, 
this variety of coal can be reached by shafts of moderate 
depth, over a beltof country twenty miles in breadth, stretch- 
ing from the Ohio River to the Illinois line, at the northwest 
corner of "Warren County — a distance of about 150 miles — 
over which area of 3,000 square miles it will be safe to esti- 
mate an average available thickness of four feet of block coal. 

The upper coals of the Indiana field are highly bituminous, 
burning with a brilliant flame and much smoke, the coal be- 
coming soft and disposed to run together and form a mass, 
or cake, as it is commonly called. It generally leaves more 
ash than the block coal, and frequently quite a mass of clink- 

258 HiSTOEr OF Indiana. 

ers, which require the attention of the fireman to their re- 
moval from the furnace. 

ISTotwithstandiug these objectionable features, the bitumin- 
ous coals of Indiana produce a strong heat, and are regarded 
as a very efficient steam fuel. Several seams of this variety 
of coal are found, with a thickness ranging from four to ten 
feet each. This thickness of the seam renders mining of the 
coal comparatively easy, and the fuel correspondingly cheap. 
This variety of coal has been used in several places, in the 
manufacture of gas. 

There are, continues Prof. Cox — and this gentleman is our 
authority on questions pertaining to minerals — from three to 
four workable seams of coking coal, ranging from three and a 
half to eleven feet in thickness. At most of the localities, 
when these are being worked, the coal is mined by adits driven 
in on the face of the ridges, and the deepest shafts in the State 
are less than 300 feet, the average depth to win coal being 
not over seventy-five feet. The analysis of samples of coking 
coal, from different counties are here inserted, and will serve 
to indicate its value. 

The five-foot seam at Washington, Daviess County, is as 
follows: Specific gravity, l,29i; one cubic foot weighs 80.87 

.. ^n I Moisture @ 212° F 5.50 

Coke 64.50 | pj^^j ^^^.^^^ qqqq 

Volatile matter 35.50 

i Ash, white 4.50 

\ Gas 30.00 

100.00 100.00 

This is a bright black coal, makes a very fair quality of 
coke, and yields four cubic feet of gas per pound, with an illu- 
minating power equal to fifteen standard candles. The five- 
foot seam in Sullivan County is as follows: Specific gravity, 
1,228; one cubic foot weighs 76.75 lbs. 

^ , ro KA i Moisture @ 212° F 2.85 

Coke 52.50 | ^j^g^j ^^^^^^ 51 10 

^ , ,., ,, jAsh.white 80 

Volatile matter 4i.50 ) q-^s . . .45.25 

100.00 100.00 


This is a glossy, jet-black coal, makes a good coke aad con- 
tains a very large percentage of pure illuminating gas. One 
pound of coal yields 4.22 cubic feet of gas, with a candle- 
power equal to fifteen standard sperm candles. The average 
calculated calorific power of the coking coals is 7,745 heat. 
Cannel coal, of a fair quality, is mined in Daviess County 
to a limited extent, and if the market demand for that variety 
of coal were increased the supply could be correspondingly 
augmented. Seams of cannel coal are known to exist in 
Fountain, Parke, Greene and several other counties, but, 
owing to the limited demand, these have not been worked. 
Altogether the coal field of Indiana may be regarded as a vast 
fund of undeveloped wealth. 

In Daviess County there is a seam five feet thick, of which 
the upper three and a half feet is cannel, and the lower one 
and a half feet is a beautiful jet-black coking coal. The two 
qualities are united, and show no intervening clay or shale, 
so that in mining fragments of the coking coal are often 
found adhering to the cannel. Tliere is no gradual cliange 
from one to the other, or blending of the varieties where 
united, but the change is sudden and the character of the 
cannel coal is homogeneous from top to bottom. 

The cannel coal makes a delightful fire in open grates, and 
does not pop and throw off scales into tlie room, as is usually 
the case with this variety of coal. The following is Prof. 
Cox's analysis of this coal: Specific gravity, 1.229; one cubic 
foot weighs 76.87 lbs. 

( Ash, white 6.00 

\ Fixed carbon 42.00 

] Moisture® 212° F...3.50 
(Gas 48.50 

100.00 100.00 

Ultimate analysis of the same coal by the same gentleman: 

Carbon 71.10 

Ash 7.65 

Hydrogen 6.06 

Nitrogen 1.45 

Oxygen 12.74 

Sulphur 1.00 


Coke 48.00 \ 

Volatile matter 


From the above analysis it willjbe seen tliat this coal is 
admirably adapted to the manufacture of illuminating gas, 
both from the quantity it yields and its high illuminating 
power. One ton of 2,000 pounds of this canuel coal yields 
10,400 feet of gas, while the best Youghiogheny coal used at 
the Indianapolis gas-works, yields but 8,680 cubic feet. This 
gas has an illuminating power of 25.2 candles, while the 
Youghiogheny coal gas has an illuminating power of seven- 
teen candles. 

The lower members of the coal measures are, in many 
places, rich in iron ore of several varieties, chiefly, however, 
of the class of hematites. It is generally found associated 
with beds of shale, either in the form of nodules, or kidneys, 
as the miners call them, or in bands, sometimes forming 
beds several feet thick. 

These ores present quite a, wide range in their workable 
value, both in the per cent, of iron contained and in the pres- 
ence or absence of substances objectionable in smelting. 
From thirty to sixty per cent, of iron may be stated as the 
range of these ores in value, the residue being chiefly silica 
and alumina, with a variable proportion of lime. For this 
class of ores they are comparatively free from sulphur and 

The beds of richest ores are usually found lowest in the 
series. In shales, lying between the subcarboniferous lime- 
stone and the millstone grit, are often found bands of very 
rich ore, and the shale under the block coal is frequently rich 
in nodular ore. From this locality upward the ore dimin- 
ishes both in quantity and in richness, as well as in purity. 

These ores have been worked in blast furnaces in Martin, 
Greene, Clay and Vigo counties, and extensive beds are 
known to exist in Fountain, Parke, Lawrence and perhaps 
other counties, not inferior in quality to those being worked. 
The iron furnaces of Indiana are using chiefly the rich spec- 
ular ores of Missouri andjLake Superior, tempering them 
with the more easily smelted native ore. Besides these ores 
of the coal field, several other localities of iron ore are known 

to exist in the State, which will be of great value when the 
manufacture of iron shall be so extended as to create a de- 
mand for ore. In Clark County, near the summit of the 
Devonian formation, an abundant supply of a red hematite 
ore is found, of a value of from thirty to forty per cent, of 
iron. No eflFort has yet been made to utilize this ore. Bog 
ore is found in abundance in many of the northern counties 
of the State, especially in Lake, Porter, Jasper, Starke, 
Fulton, St. Joseph and Elkhart counties. In the early 
settlement of the State, charcoal iron of an excellent quality 
was made in Fulton and Elkhart counties, but the scarcity 
of timber in those prairie counties, and the increased facilities 
for transporting by canal and railroad the cheaper products 
of the Pennsylvania furnaces, destroyed this early iron enter- 
prise. Enough, however, was done to demonstrate the prac- 
ticability of making a superior quality of iron from this bog 
ore. These ores may be mined and transported to the coal 
iield and smelted with block coal, either alone or mixed with 
richer ores, with a fair profit. 

In the manufacture of iron in Indiana, the ores to be 
smelted, wherever they may be found, must be brought to 
the coal, where the limestone for flux, the sandstone for 
furnaces and the flre-clay for lining them can be found in near 
proximity to each other. 


Indiana also contains immense and inexhaustible quantities 
ot building stone, sufHeient for all future purposes, of the 
very best quality of sandstone, and also granite. There is a 
soft sandstone that when first found was not believed to be 
of any value, but examination proved that exposure to the air 
hardened it, and it was capable of resisting to a strong degiee 
the action of the weather. 

Quarries of this stone have been opened and advantageously 
worked at Williamsport and at Cannelton. At the latter 
place the largest cotton-mill in the State is built of this 
stone, and the edifice is a demonstration both of the durabilitj^ 
and beauty of the stone. In Parke County samples of this 
stone occur of a brick red or light brown color from the pres- 


ence of peroxide of iron. The color will prove permanent, 
the iron being in its highest state of oxidation. 

A sandstone occurs above the block coal, finer in texture 
than that above described, and nearly white. In many places 
it is sufficiently compact to furnish a beautiful and durable 
Iniilding material. 

Lime, of excellent quality for masonry or for plastering, 
may be made from any of the limestones of the State; but 
the most extensive manufactories of lime are at ITtica, in 
Clark County; at St. Paul, in Decatur County; at Hunting- 
ton, in Huntington County, and at Delphi, in Carroll County. 
At many other points lime is burned to supply the local de- 
mand, and if this should increase, the manufacture can be 
extended indefinitely. 

Water-lime has long been manufactured from an argilla- 
ceous limestone, outcropping in the vicinity of JetFersonville. 
The good quality of this cement is well established. 

At many points along the Wabash River, between Logans- 
port and Huntington, a similar rock is found, from which 
hydraulic cement may be made in any quantity which the 
market may demand. 

Glass is a material which enters largelj' into modern archi- 
tecture. Sand of an excellent quality tor the manufacture of 
glass is found near New Providence, in Clark County. It is 
now used in the plate-glass works at New Albany. 

The sand-hills along the southern shore of Lake Michigan 
will furnish an inexhaustible supply of sand fitted to the 
manufacture of common window-glass or hollow-ware. 

The amount of stone quarried and coal mined in the State 
for 1882 was: Cubic feet of sandstone for the year, 961,783; 
of limestone, 3,034,758; tons of coal mined, 1,418,520. 


It is not probable that the ores of any other metal but iron 
will be found in workable quantities in the State — ^with the 
possible exception of lead. Indications of galena have been 
observed in several places associated with the silurian liine- 
■fetonos, and it is not improbable that time will develop work- 
able leads of this 'ore. Potter's clay, suitable for the 


manufacture of soda-glazed ware (known in the market as 
stoneware), is found in great abundance in the coal-field, and 
several large establishments for this manufacture have been 
in successful operation for a number of years. Near the line 
dividing Lawrence and Martin counties extensive beds of 
kaolin, or porcelain clay, have lately been discovered. Speci- 
mens of ware manufactured from this material show that it is in 
no respect inferior to the best imported kaolin. This may be 
regarded as a discovery of the first importance, not merely to 
Indiana, but equally to the whole country, as it will open the 
manufacture of the finest table-ware from home-furnished 
materials. The supply being ample to meet any probable 
demand for a century to come, it will certainly open up a 
new industry of great value. 

In the early days of Indiana the pioneer settlers made 
salt for their own use from the waters of saline springs in sev- 
eral parts of the State. The most important of these early 
"salt works" was located near the mouth of Coal Creek, in 
Fountain County. By boring to the depth of 600 feet a good 
supply of brine of a fair quality was obtained, from which 
salt in quantities sufficient to supply the local market was 
made, and the furnace suspended operations only when the 
Wabash & Erie Canal brought into competition the cheaper 
products of solar evaporation from the Onondaga works, in 
New York. In these early salt works wood was the only fuel 
used for evaporation. At the Coal Creek Furnace several 
hundred acres of heavy forest timber were consumed, while 
within a few feet of the mouth of the furnace a seam of excel- 
lent coal, four feet thick, was exposed; but it never occurred 
to the salt-makers that coal could be used as fuel in their 

Within the last few years, borings made for other pur- 
poses, have revealed tlie fact that strong brine can be obtained 
by boring from 500 to 1,000 feet, over a large district in the 
southwestern part of the State. If the manufacture of salt 
were undertaken on a large scale and solar evaporation re- 
sorted to, the enterprise would no doubt prove profitable. 
Artesian wells at Lafayette, at Eugene, at Terre Haute and 
at Reelsville have each obtained a copious flow of mineral 


water highly charged with hydrogen, sulphide and other 
minerals, so that the water is nearly identical with the White 
Sulphnr Springs of Virginia. 


The State of Indiana consists essentially of a continuous 
plain, with the Ohio River on the south, depressed to a depth 
of about -too feet below its general level. Lake Michigan, 
on the north, lies nearly on a level with the central 
portion of this plain, and, therefore, receives the drainage ot 
but a very small part of it. A glance at the map of Indiana 
will show the curious arrangement by which this great plain 
is drained, and will account satisfactorily for the level surface 
of the central and northern portions of the State. The Wa- 
bash River and its tributaries are made the channels of drain- 
age for three-fourths of the State, the remainder being 
divided between direct tributaries of the Ohio River and of the 
Illinois, and lakes Michigan and Erie. The Wabash in its 
upper course runs from east to west nearly across the State, 
when it sweeps around a great curve and runs south, bearing 
a little west to the Ohio River at the extreme southwestern 
corner. Following its general direction, this gives the 
stream a length of about 350 miles within the State. 
In its upper course it receives the Tippecanoe and Eel 
rivers from the north, and the Mississinewa and Salamanie 
from the south; in its lower course White River is its princi- 
pal affluent. This arrangement gives all the streams in the 
interior of the State a long course to accomplish their descent 
to the level of the Ohio River, and permits them to occupy 
a level near the surface of the plain in the central part of the 
State. This is very apparent in passing from the country 
that is drained directly into the Ohio to that where the drain- 
age is effected through the Wabash. In the former, the 
streams, having a short course, make a rapid descent, and. 
cutting tor themselves deep channels, leave the country broken 
up with high and often abrupt hills. In the latter, the streams 
lie near the general surface, run with a gentle current, and, 
consequently, leave the country comparatively level. Tiie 
slight elevation of the general surface, above the level of 
the lakes, on the north, gives the streams running in that di- 


rection but little descent, and, consequently, they are rarely 
bordered with hills of any considerable elevation. 

[Jnder these general modifying conditions, the topography 
of the several sections of the State is largely controlled by 
the character of the underlining rock, where this is not so 
deeply covered by the glacial drift as to entirely obscure its 
characteristic features. The Lower Silurian rocks, which form 
the substratum of the southeastern counties of the State, being 
thinly stratified with interposed beds of clay, are easily cut 
away by torrents of water. The hills in this section have, 
therefore, a rounded aspect, and, though often rising to the 
level of the interior table-laud, are seldom abrupt, and show 
but little tendency to form clittV. The heavy strata of the Ni- 
agara and Carboniferous groups on which the eastern and 
northern portion of the State rests, wherever the streams have 
cut into them, exhibit their peculiar features of bold abrupt 
cliffs and deep gorges. The Upper Wabash and its imme- 
diate tributaries can hardly be said to have any hills other than 
the gradual slope of the glacial drift toward the point where 
it reveals the rock on which it rests. The descent from this 
point to the bed of the river, a distance of from forty to sixty 
feet, is abrupt, often perpendicular, and sometimes overhang- 
ing. The same is true of Flat Rock, Clifty, Sand Creek and 
Muskatatuck, in certain portions of their course. This gives 
a peculiar topography to these sections of the State. The 
country appears to have a level surface, save only the slight 
undulations on the drift surface, the streams lying concealed 
in deep gorges are invisible until the traveler is directly on 
their margins. White River, in the upper course of its prin- 
cipal branches, runs over these cliff limestones, but seldom 
cuts through the deep drift sufficiently to reveal their topo- 
graphical peculiarity. 

The Marshall or Knob sandstone, from a want of uniform- 
ity in its power to resist erosion, gives a singularly irregular, 
broken contour to the country where it forms the underlying 
rock. The hills of Floyd, Jackson, Brown and Morgan coun- 
ties are fair samples of this peculiar topography. Further 
north, the drift deposit is so thick as to conceal, in a great 
measure, the irregularity of surtice, or the erosive force acted 
so as to plane it down. 


The subcarboniferous limestone gives its characteristic 
mountainous features to the region where it is the surface rock. 
This consists, however, more in the broken and irregular 
character of the hills than in their great elevation, as their 
summits are seldom more than 200 feet above the adja- 
cent streams. The hilly condition of the country marks 
this formation as far as the northern line of Owen County. 
North of this the drift agencies have operated to materially 
modify the topography peculiar to this variety of rock else- 

The coal field in its northern portion is comparatively level, 
though the vicinity of the larger streams often show deep 
gorges cut into the heavy sandstone, or sometimes hills, more 
or less abrupt, rising to the height of one hundred and fifty 
or two hundred feet. The southern part of the field border- 
ing on the Ohio River is more hilly, especially in the eastern 
section, embracing the counties of Crawford, Perry, Spencer 
and Warrick. At no point, however, are the hills such as to 
render the mines inaccessible to transportation. 

The central and northern portion of the State, where the 
glacial drift forms the surface, appears to be a uniform level, 
but a closer inspection shows long, gentle slopes, or undula- 
tions, sufficient in most cases, to secure surface drainage when 
obstructions are removed. Sometimes, however, the drift sur- 
face presents long, broken ridges, or gravel moraine, rising 
from ten to fifty feet high. Numerous small lakes form a 
feature in that portion of the State north of the Upper 
Wabash. They are usually small and quite shallow, though 
some of them attain a depth of fifty feet, or even more. They 
are usually excavations in the lower drift clay — the result of 
glacial action. The water is clear and cool, even in summer, 
and most of them abound in fish. 

In the southern counties of the State, the soil is chiefly de- 
rived from the underlying rocks, and consequently varies in 
passing from one formation to another. The Silurian or blue 
limestone of the southeastern counties gives a porous clay 
soil, rich in lime, and much more productive than its appear- 
ance would indicate. The Niagara limestone, with its mass- 


ive strata and heavy beds of shale, ^ives a cold, tenacious 
clay soil, but when properly underdrained it is very retentive 
of manures, and may be made a very productive soil. The 
sandstone of the knobs of Floyd, Jackson and Brown coun- 
ties gives a light, sandy soil, not very desirable for grain or 
grass culture, but well adapted to fruit growing, to which piir- 
pose much of it is now devoted. The subcarboiiiferous lime- 
stone gives a soil usually rich in all the elements of fertility, 
and where the surface is sufficiently level to render cultivation 
practicable, it is well adapted to grain farming. The hilly 
and often rocky character of the surface, however, will always 
be formidable obstacles in the way of the plow; but for graz- 
ing purposes, and especially tor sheep farming, these limestone 
hills are admirably adapted. 

In the coal field south of Greene and Sullivan counties, the 
soil varies from a light sandy loatri to a compact, tenacious 
clay, as the sandstone or shale predominate. Where these 
characteristics are blended, a soil of fair fertility is produced, 
but, like soils derived from carboniferous rocks generally, 
there is a deficiency of lime, which must be supplied, if fertil- 
ity would be maintained. 

That portion of the State which lies north of an east and 
west line, forty miles south ot Indianapolis, is covered by a 
heavy deposit of foreign drift, from which the soil is derived. 
This drift is formed from the decomposition of almost every 
conceivable variety of rocks, and the soil, partaking of this 
variety, has all the mineral elements of fertility necessary 
to a wide range of cultivation. Tiiis ricli supply of mineral 
elements is not confined to the surface loam, but observations 
prove that earth taken from a depth often or fifteen feet, it 
exposed for two or three years to atmospheric infiuences, will 
be nearly as productive as the surface soil. This demonstrates 
the almost inexhaustible character of this drift soil, and con- 
sequently is of great agricultural value. The granite and trap 
rocks of Lake Superior, in their decomposition, supply an 
abundance of potash and soda, while the Silurian limestones 
of Lake Michigan, rich in the remains of ancient life, furnish 
the phosphorus and lime requisite for the highest fertility. 
In this lies the solution of that paradox — the fertility of the 
Indiana coal field. It is a well-established fact that the rocks 


of the carboniferous age are deficient in the mineral elements 
of fertility, and consequently the soils derived from their de- 
composition are unproductive or soon exhausted. The north- 
ern portion of the Indiana coal field is covered, from ten to 
fifty feet deep, with this promiscuous drift, wliich furnishes it a 
soil of almost incalculable productive capacity. While other 
coal fields must supply from abroad the food which their min- 
ers and manufacturers consume, Indiana can feed her op- 
eratives from fields under the smoke of her furnaces and 

This drift soil generally lies on a strong clay subsoil from 
ten to twenty feet deep. This, with the slight descent of sur- 
face, demands underdraining to bring out the full fertility of 
the soil- There are, however, large districts bordering on the 
water courses where the soil is formed of recent deposit? from 
the streams, or is the result of an early deposit on a higher 
bench or terrace, resting, generally, on beds of gravel. These 
alluvial lands are excellent for corn, but for general purposes 
are not superior to the subsoil properlj' drained. 


Name. Pbet. 

Anderson 8Zi 

Bloomfleld 475 

Bloomington 771 

Brookville 598 

Cambridge City 920 

Connersville 823 

Columbus 4 615 

Crawfordsville 744 

Danville 943 

Evansville 361 

Franklin 732 

Fort Wayne 7.53 

Grcensburg 944 

Greencastle 830 

Indianapolis 703 

Lake Michigan 583 

Liiwrenceburg 482 

Name. Feet 

Lafayette 538 

Logansport 575 

Marion 784 

Madison 450 

New Albany 436 

NoblesviUe 750 

Princeton 481 

Richmond 898 

ShelbyviUe 757 

South Bend 674 

Terre Haute 480 


. 400 

The State of Indiana occupies a central position in tlie Mis- 
sissippi Valley, lying nearly equidistant from the water-shed 
between Hudson Bay and Lake Superior on the north and the 
Gulf of Mexico on the south. In the absence of any large 
bodies of water or lofty mountains to exert local influences to 


modify climate, Indiana may be taken as the type of a climate 
of latitude. It is true that Lake Michigan touches one corner 
of the State, and no doubt affects somewhat the climate of a 
few counties in its vicinity. It is also true that an elevation 
of about 800 feet is equal to a slight remove of latitude to 
the north, but these affect the climate in scarcely an appre- 
ciable degree. 

The extreme southern point of Indiana reaches a little be- 
low the thirty -ninth parallel of north latitude, while the north- 
ern line does not quite touch the forty-second parallel. This 
location secures exemption alike from the Arctic severity of 
the New England winter, and the enervating summer of the 
Gulf States. 

Perhaps the most objectionable feature of the winter cli- 
mate of this State is the tendency to oscillate between these 
extremes. In the winter months the thermometer frequently 
marks a temperature above 60 \ while scarcely a winter 
passes without reaching a temperature of zero, and sometimes 
even 20" below that point. These extremely cold waves, 
however, are rare, coming but about once in ten years. From 
the observations of twenty-five years past, the mean winter 
temperature at Indianapolis is 35". The summer climate is 
almost tropical, the mercury frequently ranging from 95" to 
98° in the shade, and seldom falling below 60'. As indicat- 
ing the temperature, we append the following: 

In many respects the climate of Indiana has been modified 
since its early settlement. The greater portion of its terri- 
tory was originally covered with a dense forest, which, aided 
by a thick undergrowth of shrubs and weeds, completely shut 
out the earth from the direct rays of the sun, and greatly ob- 
structed a free circulation of air. The great level plain, 
which embraces the larger portion of the State, receiving the 
water from the melting of winter snows and from the spring 
rains, retained most of it during the summer — the drainage 
being obstructed by driftwood, leaves, growing vegetation, 
etc. This water, slowly evaporating, tempered the summer 
heat and gave a cool, moist atmosphere. In the winter 
months, the sweep of the northwestern winds was broken by 
the forest, and the freezing of so large an amount of surface 


water as was retained from the fall rains gave off heat suffi- 
cient to sensibly modify the winter cold. The earth, covered 
with a heavy coat of autumn leaves and decaying weeds, 
scarcely froze during the winter, and, as soon as the spring- 
sunshine warmed the air, the earth was in a condition to re- 
spond by an early growth of vegetation. So in the fall, the 
earth not having been heated by the summer's sun, soon felt 
the influence of the autumn winds and frosts, and winter came 
early. Now the forests have disappeared to make room for 
cultivated lields, and where they remain the undergrowth is 
destroyed, so that the air circulates freely. Obstructions 
have been removed from the streams, and artificial channels 
of drainage have been added to these in many places. The 
cultivated lands in the more level districts have, to a great 
extent, been underdrained with tile, so that the melting snow 
and spring floods are carried away directly and but little 
moisture remains to temper the summer heat by evaporation. 
The earth, relieved by drainage from its redundant moisture, 
and stripped of its protecting forests, is now exposed to the 
direct rays of the summer sun. Before the fall months come 
it is heated to a great depth, and this heat given oft' to the 
air, carries the summer temperatore far into the autumn and 
postpones the advent of winter several weeks. But when this 
store of summer heat is exhausted and winter comes, the 
wind from the great plains of the West comes unobstructed, 
and the earth, now deprived of its former protection, freezes 
to a great depth. 

In the early settlement of Indiana the inhabitants suftered 
severely from autumnal visitations of remittent and intermit- 
tent fevers. The dense forests shutting out the sun above, 
and the undrained and saturated soil below, produced a 
humid atmosphere, and the summer decomposition of vast 
accumulations of vegetable matter loaded it with malarious 
poisons, which not even the rugged constitution of the back- 
woodsman was able to resist. But this, in a measure, is 
changed by the clearing away of the forests, the drainage 
system above referred to, and cultivation, thus drying up the 
fruitful sources of malaria. Indiana, at present, throughout 
its general surface will compare favorably with other States 
in the healthfulness of her climate. 



Number of days on -which the Tempera- 

j;0.g« = oc,«05;^ 

Number of days on which the Minimum 
Temperature was below freezing 


Number of days- on which the Maxi- 
mum Temperature was below Ireez- 







Number of days on which 0.01 inch or 
more of Precipitation 





Annual Prevailing Direction of Wind. . 


Minimum Temperature during the year 


11 \111111 \1 

Maximum Temperature during the year 


Annual Mean Temperature— Degrees. . . 



Annual Mean Barometer— Inches 





1873 ■ 










MENT FROM 1840 TO 1883. 

Ageicultural. — Legislative Enactment. — State Boaed of 
Ageicultdee. — The Exposition. — Members of the State 
Boaed. — Receepts and Premiums Paid. — Faies Held. — 
State Inddsteial Associations. — Meetings of State 
Boaed. — Proceedings. — Agricultural Districts. — Dr. 
Loring's Address. — Importance of the Woek. — Wonder- 
ful Development. — Statistical. — The Yields of 1841, 
1850, 1860 and 1870.— The Aggregate of 1880.— Indiana 
IN 1880.— Cereals, Stocks, Etc.— The Crop of 1882. 


" In ancient times, the sacred plow employ'd 
Tlie kings, and awful factors of mankind— 
Who held the scale of empire, ruled the storm 
Of mighty war, then, with unwearied hand, 
Disdaining little delicacies, seized 
The plow and gren.tly independent Heed." 

Agricultural and horticultural societies have become quite 
numerous throughout the country, and there is very little in 
the history of the State that has done more to advance her 
progress than these exhibitions of the intelligence and enter- 
prise and progressive spirit of the agricultural population. 
The success of these institutions is due alone to the educa- 
tion and social qualities of the masses, and history furnishes 
no successful farming community that does not have tiie 
spirit of competition buoyant and active, which does not 
have a pride in the friendly strife to carry off the blue ribbon 
at the fair. It is these associations and the rivalry they ■ 
engender which bring prominently before the people of this 
country and of Europe the advancement made in developing 


the rich reeonrces of our fertile fields. That competition is 
the life of business is true, and competition at agricultural 
fairs sharpens the intellect and faculties of our husbandmen, 
gives life to the inventive genius of our artisans and mechan- 
ics, and encourages those who have chosen to work in the 
labyrinthian depths of the still scarcely known fields of 
science and of art. 

Agricultural and horticultural societies should, then, be 
nourished with care, for their siiccess is due to the intelligence, 
enterprise and social qualities of the people. Without this 
they will not flourish. Strong and vigorous competition 
with tenacity of purpose insures success, and the honest 
pride of the people in these tests of skill is worthy of all 
praise. Not only is the skill of the hands of man brought to 
high perfection, but the genius and intuition of the women ot 
tlieland; their handicraft in those departments of labor in 
which they stand pre-eminent is quickened by these social 
agents of American progress, and these notable attributes, 
the grace, culture and modest bearing of the glorious woman- 
hood of our country, stand forth in all their native force and 


In 1852 the Legislature passed an act authorizing the 
organization of county and district agricultural societies, and 
also establishing a State Board, the provisions of which act 
are substantially as follows: 

1. Thirty or more persons in any one or two counties 
organizing into a society for the improvement of agriculture, 
adopting a constitution and by-laws agreeable to the regula- 
tions prescribed by the State Board, and appointing the 
proper officers and raising a sum of $50 for its own treasury, 
shall be entitled to the same amount from the fund arising 
from show licenses in their respective counties. 

2. These societies shall offer annual premiums for improve- 
ment of soils, tillage, crops, manures, productions, stock, 
articles of domestic industry, and such other articles, produc- 
tions and improvements as they may deem proper; they shall 
encourage, by grant of rewards, agricultural and household 


manufacturing interests, and so regulate the premiums that 
small farmers will have equal opportunity with the large; and 
they shall pay special attention to cost and profit of the 
inventions and improvements, requiring an exact, detailed 
statement of the processes competing for rewards. 

3. They shall publish in a newspaper annually their list of 
awards and an abstract of their treasurers' accounts, and they 
shall report in full to the State Board their proceedings. 
Failing to do the latter they shall receive no payment from 
their county funds. 


The act of Feb. 17, 1852, also established a State Board of 
Agriculture, with perpetual succession, its annual meetings 
to be held at Indianapolis on the first Thursday att;er the first 
Monday in January, when the reports of the county societies 
are to be received and agricultural interests discussed and 
determined upon; it shall make an annual report to the 
Legislature of receipts, expenses, proceedings, etc., of its own 
meeting as well as of those of the local societies; it shall hold 
State fairs, at such times and places as they may deem proper; 
may hold two meetings a year, certifying to the State Auditor 
their expenses, who shall draw his warrant upon the treasurer 
for the same. 

In 1861 the State Board adopted certain rules, embracing 
ten sections, for the government of local societies, but in 
1868 they were found inexi)edient and abandoned. It adopted 
a resolution admitting delegates from the local societies. 

The Exposition was opened Sept. 10, 1873, when Hon. 
John Sutherland, President of the Board, the Mayor of In- 
dianapolis, Senator Morton and Governor Hendricks delivered 
addresses. Senator Morton took the high ground that the 
money spent for an exposition is spent as strictly for educa- 
tional purposes as that which goes directly into the common 
school. The exposition is not a mere show, to be idly gazed 
upon, but an industrial school where one should study and 
learn. He thoiiffht that Indiana had less untillable land than 
any other State in the Union; 'twas as rich as any and yielded 
a greater variety of products; and that Indiana was the most 
prosperous agricultural community in the United States. 


The grand liall of the Exposition building is on elevated 
ground at the head of Alabama street, and commands a fine 
view of Indianapolis. The structure is of brick. 30S feet long 
by 150 feet in width, and two stories high. Its galleries ex- 
tend quite around the building, thus affording visitors an 
opportunity to secure the most commanding view to be had 
in the city. The lower floor of the grand hall is occupied by 
the mechanical, geological and miscellaneous departments, 
and the offices of the board. The second floor, which is ap- 
proached by three wide stairways, accommodates the fine arts, 
musical and other departments of light mechanics, and is brill- 
iantly lighted. 


The State Board of Agriculture at its annual meeting, Jan. 
3, 1883, made the redistricting of the State the principal busi- 
ness of the session. The following members were present: 
Messrs. Mitchell, Hargrove, Hancock, Seward, Sunman, Quick, 
Dungan, Gilbert, Hagan, Barns, O'Neal, Kirkpatrick, Custer, 
Banks and Lockhart. 

Mr. Hargrove moved to adopt the report of the committee 
to redistrict the State by amending Article IV. of the Consti- 


The committee's report is here given, the State having'been 
divided, according to population, so that each section or 
district would be fairly represented on the board: 

" Indianapolis, Ind., Jan. 3, 1883. 

" We, your committee appointed at the January meeting, 
1882, to redistrict the State and report at the annual meeting 
in January, 1883, have had the matter under careful consider- 
ation, and beg leave to submit the following recommendation, 

"That Article IV. of the Constitution of the Indiana State 
Board of Agriculture be amended as follows: That after the 
word 'district,' where it occurs in the fourth line, be stricken 
out and the following inserted: 'Chosen for two years, one- 


half of whose terms expire every year, to-wit: Those repre- 
senting First, Second, Third, Fourth, Eighth, Fourteenth, Fif- 
teenth and Sixteenth Districts, "as herein constituted, expire at 
the annual meeting in 1884; and those representing the Fifth, 
Sixth, '^Seventh, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth and Thir- 
teenth districts, to be elected at this meeting, expire at the 
annual meeting to be held in January, 1885, to be chosen by 


" First District— Posey County, 20,857; Vanderburgh Coun- 
ty, 42,192; Gibson County, 22,742; Warrick County, 20,162; 
Spencer County, 22,122. Total. 128,075. 

" Second District— Knox County, 26,323; Davis County, 21.- 
552; Martin County, 13,474; Pike County, 16,384; Dubois 
County, 15,991; Crawford County, 12,356; Perry County. 
16,997. Total, 123,078. 

"Third District— Harrison County, 26,326; Washington 
County, 18,949; Orange County, 14,366; Floyd County, 24,- 
589; Clark County, 28, 638; Scott County, 8,344. Total, 121,- 

" Fourth District — Jackson County, 23,058; Lawrence Coun- 
ty, 18,453; Brown County, 10,264; Monroe County, 15,874; 
Greene County, 22,996; Owen County, 15,901; Sullivan Coun- 
ty, 20,333. Total, 126,871. 

"Fifth District — Jefferson County, 25,977; Switzerland 
County, 13,336; Ohio County, 5,663; Dearborn County, 26,- 
ti56; Franklin County, 20,090; Ripley County, 21,627; Jen- 
nings County, 16,453. Total, 129,702. 

"Sixth District- Bartholomew County, 22,777; Decatur 
County, 19,799; Rush County, 19,233; Fayette County, 11,- 
343; Union County, 7,673; Wayne County, 38,614. Total, 

" Seventh District — ^Madison County, 27,531; Hancock Coun- 
ty, 21,123; Hamilton County, 24,809; Henry County, 24,115; 
Shelby County, 25,256. Total, 122,834. 

" Eighth District — Marion County, 102,780; Johnson Coun- 
ty, 19.532. Total. 122,312. 

"Ninth District— Clay County, 25,833; Vigo County, 45,- 


656; Parke County, 19,450; Veriuillioa County, 12,025; 
Fountain County, 20,228. Total, 123,192. 

"Tenth District — Putnam County, 22,502; Morgan County, 
18,889; Hendricks County, 22,1)75; Montgomery County, 
27, .314; Boone County, 25,921. Total. 117,601. 

" Eleventh District— Delaware County, 22,927; Eandolph 
County, 26,437; Jay County, 19,282; Adams County, 15,385; 
Weils County, 18,442; Huntington County, 21,805; Black- 
ford County, 8,021. Total, 132,299. 

"Twelfth District— Carroll County, 18,347; White County, 
13,793; Benton County, 11,107; iNlewton County, 8,167; Tip- 
pecanoe County, So.lKM; Warren County, 11,497; Jasper 
County, 9,455; Pulaski County, 9,857. Total, 118,183. 

"Thirteenth District— Clinton County, 23,473;Tipton Coun- 
ty, 14,404; Howard County, 24,584; Grant County, 23,618; 
Wabash County, 25,240; Whitley County, 19,941. Total, 

" Fourteenth District— Elkhart County, 33,453; Kosciusko 
County, 26,492; Fulton County, 14,351; Cass County, 27,609; 
Miami County, 21,052. Total, 122,951. 

" Fifteenth District— St. Joseph County, 33,176; Marshall 
County, 23,416; Starke County, 5,155; La Porte County, 30,- 
976; Porter County, 17,229; Lake County, 15,091. Total, 

"Sixteenth District— Allen County, 54,765; DeKalb Coun- 
ty, 20,223; Steuben County, 14,644; Lagrange County; 15,- 
629; Noble County, 23,ur7. Total, 128,278. 
" Very respectfully submitted, 

"Jacob Mdtz, 
' ' Aaron Jones, 
"Egbert Mitchell, 
" Samuel Hargrove, 
" J. Kelly O'Neal." 
Considerable discussion took place in regard to this re. 
port. It was, however, after full examination considered a 
fair report, and the districts thus formed would fairly 
represent all sections of the State. At this meeting (Jan- 
uary, 1883), Dr. Loring, the United States Commissioner of 
Agriculture, was present, and addressed the board. Quite a 

278 HISTORY or Indiana. 

large number of visitors were present, and the Doctor had a 
fair andience. After giving quite an exliaustive statistical 
account of the products of the country and the wonderful 
advancement 'of the State of Indiana, he made the follow- 
ing reference to the Indiana State Board of Agriculture. 
His remarks, so flattering and yet so truthful, are appended 

In referring to the importance of the State Board of Agri- 
culture, he said: 

"The board belongs to that class of institutions which has 
become of the highest importance in Mie education of man- 
kind in the duties of life. Associate eftbrt is in this age, in- 
deed, to be found everywhere. Societies are organized by 
every profession, every industry and every calling, for the 
purpose of bringing about the best results of which mankind 
is capable. The associated efforts of those who are engaged 
in conducting the great intellectual and moral and material 
enterprises of our country are so well known that they need 
but be referred to here. Exhibitions of the fruits of asso- 
ciated industry multiply on every hand, and while those 
engaged in educational enterprises, and in the learned pro- 
fessions, meet together for counsel and encouragement, 
while those who manage the great railroad system of our 
country organize for mutual support and mutual advantage, 
while the great manufacturing interests of the country have 
their organized societies, it is especially the duty of those 
wlio are engaged in the great fundamental industry of agri- 
culture to gather together in every form of association to 
ascertain the best method of conducting their calling, and 
the means by which they can secure for themselves the best 
methods for the fruits of their labor. I have, therefore, al- 
ways been in favor of associations like this, and it is on this 
account that I have undertaken to extend to you the en- 
couraging hand of the Government under which you live, 
and to represent here, not so much as a teacher, as a learner 
and as an associate, that department of the Government 
which farmers have a special right to call their own. I con- 
sider it to be the duty of that department especially to en- 
conra e all associated and private endeavor with regard to 


the industry represented here. It is in accordance with the 
custom in this and in other countries for the fanning com 
mnnities to gather together to educate and enlighten them- 
selves upon the occupation in which they are engaged. It is 
these associations that have done so much toward helping the 
agriculturist to exercise that thought, that sound judgment, 
that prudence and careful consideration which we are exer- 
cising with so much proiit to ourselves in the business of 
life. It is indeed true that, in the older as well as in the 
newer sections of the country, agriculture has always been 
the first business to engage the attention of intelligent and 
enterprising people, and as such it is entitled to universal 
care and consideration. Farming is largely an experimental 
art in which new laws and facts are constantly discovered, 
and which is waiting on scientific investigation to lix the 
principles by which it should be conducted, and it is the 
duty of the department, therefore, by encouraging societies, 
schools, experiment stations and associations of every de- 
scription, to aid the farmer in his calling and in his efforts to 
develop and perfect his business." 

Indiana's wonderful development. 

Speaking of the State, Dr. Loring said: 

"Seventy years ago she barely had population enough to 
enter this Union — her industries were small, her manufact- 
ures primitive, and her agriculture circumscribed and sim- 
ple. Now she has 2,000,000 of people. In agricultural 
products her wheat crop amounted, in 1880, to 47, 281,852 
bushels; her corn crop to 115,482,300 bushels; her crop of 
oats to 16,599,518 bushels; her hay crop amounted to 
1,361,083 tons. She raised 1,135,770 bushels of flax and 
nearly 7,000,000 bushels of apples, while in all the smaller 
fruits her crop was enormous. The total value of her 
staple agricultural products for 1882 is $225,000,000. The 
number of cattle in this State in 1881 reached 1,254,655; the 
number of horses, 587.258; number of swine, 2,867,772; the 
number of sheep was 1,111,516. The wool product reached 
the encouraging quantity of 4,494,037 pounds." 


In a former State exhibition it was said tliat the plate-glass 
manufactured in the southern part of the State was equal to 
the finest French plate; that the force-blowers made in the 
eastern part of the State were of world-wide reputation, and 
that the State had the largest wagon manufactory in the 
world, in fact, the State was fast becoming a leading one 
both in agriculture and manufactures. 


That not only our own people, but others who may chance 
to see this work, may know something of the immense agri- 
cultural resources of this State some statistical reports are 
embraced here. Indiana is not so large as some of her 
sister States, but, when quantity and size are both taken into 
consideration, she ranks among the leading cereal producing 
States of the Union. 

In opening the State to immigration Indiana had much 
t) contend with. In her Territorial days the original owner? 
made it unpleasantly unhealthy for the pioneers, and after the 
red man had become dispossessed of his inheritance, the fever 
and financial distress played no important part in preventing 
that influx of population so necessary to her advancement. 
With the exception of these drawbacks, her condition was at 
uther times prosperous, and that these made no lasting im- 
pression is proven by her present proud position in a galaxy 
of States which compose our glorious Union. 



Indiana State Board of Agriculture. — President, Hon. 
Robert Mitchell, Gibson County; Secretary, Alex. Heron, 
Indianapolis, Marion County. Organized May, 18.51. 

Indiana Horticultural Societij. — President, Sylvester 
Jiihnson, Irvington, Marion County; Secretary, W. H. 
Ragan, Clayton, Hemi ricks County. Organized 1842. 


State Association of Short-Horn Breeders. — President, 
Hon. E. S. Frazee. Orange, Rush County; Secretary, J. W. 
Robe, Greencastle, Putnam County. Organized May, 1872. 
Indiana Jersey Cattle Breeders'' Association. — President, 
George Jackson, Beech Grove, Marion County; Secretary, 
T. A. Lloyd, Indianapolis. Organized January, 1883. 

Indiana Dairymen's Association. — President, J. E. 
Thompson, Waterloo, DeKalb County; Secretary, Sylvester 
Johnson, Irvington, Marion County. Organized Septem- 
ber, 1876. 

. Indiana, Swine Breeders' Association. — President, Richard 
Jones, Columbus, Bartholomew County; Secretary, W. A. 
Macy, Lewisville, Henry County. Organized January, 1877. 
Indiana Wool Growers'' Association. — President, Field- 
ing Beeler, Indianapolis, Marion County; Secretary, J. W. 
Robe, Greencastle, Putnam County. Organized October, 

India/na Poxdtry Breeders'' Association. — President, H. 
C. G. Bals, Indianapolis, Marion County; Secretary, D. H. 
Jenkins, Indianapolis, Marion County. Organized Jan- 
uary, 1875. 

Indiana Bee Keepers'' Association. — President, I. N. Cot- 
ton, Traders' Point, Marion County; Secretary, F. L. Daugh- 
erty, Indianapolis. Organized October, 1879. 

Indiana Cane Ch^owers' Assoc'iat'ion.. — President, Dr. A. 
Furnas, Danville, Hendricks County; Secretary, Prof. H. 
W. Wiley, Lafayette. Organized December, 1882. 

Indiana Tile Makers' Association. — President, Robert 
Thomas, Indianapolis; Secretary, J. J.W. Billingsley, Marion 
County. Organized November, 1876. 

Indiana Women's State Industrial Association. — Presi- 
dent, Mrs. Dr. M. E. Haggart, Indianapolis, Marion County; 
Secretary, Mrs. F. M. Adkinson, Indianapolis, Marion 
County. Organized September, 1878. 


Ar/ricultural Statistics of Indiana for 1841. 




28 015 




Bushels o badey\\^\ ■.■.■.■....■.■.■.':.'.■.'!.'.■.■.■..'.■.■.■.■.■.■.'.■.';;.'.';:;.■;;;■;■■.;;; 

Bushels of buckwheat 

Bushels of potatoes 

Numberofswinl....:;: . ... : . . 


Number of cattle .;::... 

Value of domestic animals 

Pounds of hops ." ." '.'. 

Pounds of honey and beeswax 

Tonsof hay 

Pounds of Btigai- made 




Agrioultural Statistics of 1850, 

1860 and 1870. 

1850. 1 1860. 1 1870. 

Acres oflaud in farms, improved 



Acres of land in farms, woodland 




$ 136.385,173 ft? 

6,704 414 

Totalvalue of all farm products 


Produce of market gardens 

Forest products.... 



9 824,2IU 


Value of al 1 live stock 





Nnmber of mules and asses 





nattle. not on farms ..' ""'""'' 


Swine' number of ...".■' 

Wheat! winter," bushels 

Rye, bushels 

Indian corn, bushels... 

Oats, bushels 

Barley, busdels 

Kuckwheat, bushels.... 
Tobicco, pounds 

Wool, ponndB. '.!'....'. ..! 
Wool, average of fleecei 
Peas and beans, busheb 
Potatoes, Irish, bnshe'e 
Potatoes, sweet, bushelf 

Butter, pounds 

Cheese, pounds 

I.',--, :.-.. 


Milk, sold gallons 




Grass seed, bushels 



Flax, pounds 

97 11 '( 


Flaxseed, bushels 


Sugar, m»ple, pounds 


1,3.J2 333 




[ 939,329 

1,22-1 m 











Bushele. BnebelP. BneheU. 

89,707 n5,4«2,30nl ]5,599.51S 

it MSisSi Iffieoi 

210 '619]002 77,42.1 

i»2 449,831 .i2;65 

9.13,473 61,58 

2,519 838,831 412,64 






' 2,431 




i J 









ai niton 




J In 
K^B Bko 






z\ 376893 


1 290,858 


























Saint Joseph 


Ti^plcanoe ;.■.':: .■.■:'..■:::: 


• ''lii 




VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS, 1880.- — ( Continued.) 








The State 



















G«T.v::;;.'::. ■•.■.•.;•;;.■.;:.:....:.. 




;, 18S0.—{Co)iti?vfed.) 






















10 60. 


Ja'Ssof'""'' "■■■■■■■'■ '■'■■■ 

■,:„ ^>i 

J 110 

Jefferson ;' 






' 945 

La'?H^'::::;;;;:;;;:::;- :::;:::■ 



10,700 2,593,559 


warhck:;:;::::::: :';.'.;.'.::':::.'::' 









H^Q 800 




















































































Blackford!. ■.'.■'" "..v. ;;!...';;.■■ ■■.;.'! 








Elkhart. . 



Gibson".'.'.. '.'.'.. '■.■.■■.■.■."■■.■.■ 





lg5J...n. .:;;:■;-::■.::. .;'■:; 




Johnson..'.;.;.'.;;. .:;: 




14 062 








Pike. .. 






LIVE STOCK AND ITS PBODUOTioNS, 1880. — {Continued.) 







































\var"fc°k.'.':; ■.■'.■.■.■;. ■.■.::::'.;::. :::. 


Whitfey.'.' .' .' .'.■ ... .'.'. .■..■.'.■.'.'.■.'.'.'.■.'. .'.V. 






SHEEP. (6) 




The State 

'l" 00,511 



CalbinB. l^'iindj. 1 
iolono 418,425 








Biacword:.: ■.'.'. '".■:.■:::: 





DuboiB...:;::. ;.;.■.■..•■.: 


Frankun. .■..:■■.■.:. ;■.:;!!;; 













































Howard.'.'...'.;..;. '.'.'.'."::. 







Mtrion, ."....;.::::. ::::::: 





' 1?-; 






Pulaski .... 
Putnam — 

Shelby. . 

Il,7.'il g;,04S, 7'.i,:)lb, 
13,645 37,577 71,851 

10,166 26,714 53,1)20 
11,665 39,905' 62,4261 
ExclaeiTe of spring lambs. 


THE CROP OF 1882. 

The wheat yield was equal to that of any previous year. 
The area was 3,063,348 acres, and production 46,928,643 bush- 
els. The cultivation and growth of wheat has developed more 
rapidly than any other staple crop, and more than kept pace 
with the population. 

The area grown in corn this year was 3,312,683 acres, and 
production 115,699,797 bushels. The increased yield of this 
crop, though not so marked as that of wheat, has been steady. 
In 1850 the bushels grown per capita was 52.58; in 1860 it 
was 53.01; in 1870, which was exceptionably unfavoi'able for 
the corn plant, it was but 30.41; but in 1880 the bushels grown 
per capita were 58.39. The wheat production of this year 
closely approximates one-tenth that of the United States, 
and the same is true of corn. 

The area of oats was 684,822 acres, from which was pro- 
duced 19,615,516 bushels, which is the largest production, 
both in the aggi-egate and per area, ever grown in the State. 
The crop of 1880 was the greatest that had previously been 
grown. The acreage that year was 686,901, and production 
, 15,405,822 bushels. Tlie area of 1880 was a little greater, and 
the bushels produced less. 

The acreage in hay was 984,982, and the tons produced, 
1,599,994. Last year 1,303,217 tons were harvested from 
988,560 acres. The hay crop is also the largest heretofore 
grown in the State. 

The Irish potato crop of this year is also the largest yet re- 
ported. That of 1880, with an acreage of 77,936, was 4,148,- 
034 bushels, being the best reported previous to this year. 
The area for this year was 72,934 acres, and production, 7,264,- 
830 bushels. 

The tile drainage of farm lands is rapidly increasing in all 
sections of the State having clay subsoils. Reports on tile 
drainage were received from all but two counties, which show 
tliat there are 9,824,297 rods of tile drain, or 30,701 miles. 

There were 1,781,571 acres of grazing lands, an increase of 
203,749 acres over that reported last year. The dairy indus- 
try shows a marked increase. There were 121,080,678 gal- 


Ions of milk reported, 26,937,124 pounds of butter, and 833,- 
110 pounds of cheese. 

The acres of timber land are reported as 4,585,012. The 
natural forests of the State are rapidly disappearing, but in the 
prairie sections there is a growing tendency to tree planting. 
The best timber in the State is found in the northeastern and 
southwestern sections. 

The excessive cold winter of 1880-'l destroyed 25 to 30 per 
cent, of the apple and peach trees. The number of bear- 
ing apple-trees reported is 5,927,418, and of peach-trees, 1,740,- 
577. In the two years ending with April, 1882, there were 
1,127,592 apple and 525,355 peach trees planted. 

The decrease of live stock was marked. This is due to tiie 
severe drouth which prevailed in 1881. The short grain and 
forage crops of that year influenced the sale of a large per cent, 
of surplus livestock, and hence the decrease in the number 
reported this year, as shown in the following summary: 

NO. IN 1882. 






Marketable fat hogs 




Signers of the Dkclaeation of Independence. — Presi- 
dents AND Their Cabinets. — Supreme Court Judges. — 
Speakers of the House of Representatives. — State 
Offioees. — Members of the House of Representatives. 
— Sketches of the Governors of Indiana. — United 
States Senators.— Biographical Sketches of Senators. 

8ignees of the declaration of independence, july 4, 1776. 
place and date of birth and profession. 

John Hancock Braintree, Mass 1737 Merchant. 

Samuel Adams Boston, Mass 1722 Merchant 

John Adams Quincy, Mass 1735 Lawyer. 

Thomas Jefferson Shadwell, Va 1743 Lawyer. 

Benjamin Franklin Boston, Mass 1755 Printer. 

Robert Morris England 1734 Merchant. 

Lewis Morris Harlem, N. Y 1736 Far»ner. 

Stephen Hopkins Scituate, Mass 1707 Farmer. 

Roger Sherman Newton, Mass 1731 Shoemaker. 

Charles Carroll Annapoli s, Md 1737 Lawyer. 

Josiah Bartlett Amesbury, Mass 1729 Physician. 

William Whipple Kittery, Me 1730 Sailor. 

Robert T. Paine Boston, Mass 1731 Lawyer. 

Philip Livingston Albany, N. Y 1716 Merchant. 

Francis Hopkinson Philadelphia, Pa 737 Lawyer. 

Richard Stockton Princeton, N. J 1730 Lawyer. 

John Witherspoon Jester, Scotland 1722 Minister. 

Thomas Stone Pointon, Md 1744 Lawyer. 

Thomas Nelson, Jr York, Va 1738 Soldier. 

William Hooper Boston, Mass 1742 Lawyer. 

Abraham Clark Elizabethtown, N. J.... 1726 Lawyer. 

Benjamin Rush Byberry, Pa 1735 Physician. 

John Hart Hopewell, N.J 1708 Farmer. 

Mathew Thornton Ireland 1741. . .Physician. 



George Clymer Philadelphia, Pa 1739 Merchant. 

Elbridge Gerry Marblehead, Mas3 1744 Merchant. 

James Smith Ireland 1715 Lawyer. 

John Morton Ridley, Pa 1724 Surveyor. 

George Ross New Castle, Del 1730 Lawyer. 

Samuel Huntington Connecticut 1732 Lawyer. 

Button Gwinnett England 1733 Merchant. 

Lyman Hall Connecticut 1730 Physician. 

George Walton Virginia 1740. Lawyer. 

George Wythe Elizabeth City, Va 1726 Lawyer. 

Benjamin Harrison Berkley, Va 1740 Farmer. 

Edwird Rutledge Charleston, 8. C 1749 Lawyer. 

Francis L. Lee Stratford, Va 17.34 Farmer. 

Arthur Middleton Banks of Ashley, S. C. .1743 Lawyer. 

J s ph Hewts Kingston, N. J 1730 Lawyer. 

George Taylor Ireland 1716 Physician. 

Thomas McKean Chester County, Pa ... 1 734 Lawyer. 

James Wilson Scotland 1743 Lawyer. 

Carter Baxter Newington, Va 1736 Farmer. 

John Penn Virginia. 1741 Lawyer. 

Thomas Lynch St. Georges, S. C 1749 Lawyer. 

Thomas Heyward St. Lukes, S. C 1749 Lawyer. 

Richard H Lee Stratford, Va 1732 Soldier. 

CiBsar Rodney Dover, Del 1730 Lawyer. 

William Pasca Maryland 1740 Lawyer. 

George Read Maryland 1734 Lawyer. 

Samuel Chase Maryland .1741 Lawyer. 

Oliver Wolcott. . Windsor, Conn 1736 Physician. 

William Ellery Kewport, R. 1 1727 Lawyer. 

William Williams Lebanon, Conn 1731 Politician. 

Francis Lewis Llandaff, Wales 1713 Merchant. 

William Floyd Long Island, N. Y 1734 Farmer 


-— -• 








April 30, 1789 

John Adams 

Thomas Jefferson 

March 4, 1797 

March 4, 1801 

Thomas Jefferson ... 

March 4, 180.^ 



March 4, 1809 

George Clintont 

March 4, 1809 

James Madison 


John Jaillafd^'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

Nov. 25,1814 

6 |Daniel D.Tompkins... 

March 4 1817 


James Monroe 

March 5, 1821 

Daniel D. Tompkins... 

March 6, 1811 


John Qulncy Adams.. 

March 4, 182.0 

March 4, 1825 

Andrew Jackson 

March 4, 1829 


MMch^4; 1833 


Andrew Jackson 

March 4 183) 




Martin Van Buren 

larch 4, 18:17 

Richard M. Johnson.. 

March 4, 1837 

John Tyler 

John Tyler 

April 6, 1841 

Samuel L.Sonthardi. 

April 6,1841 

James K.Polk 

March 4, 1845 

George M. DaUas 

Zachary Taylor t 

March 5, 1849 



Franklin l-ierce 

March 4, 1853 


David R.Atchisoni::'.: 

April 18, 1853 


James Buchanan 

aarch 4, 1861 

Hannibal Hamlin 

Harch 4, ISW 

Andrew Johnson 


April 1», 1865 

Lafayette S.Foster;.. 
Benjamin F. Wade;... 


March 4, 1869 

Schuyler Colfax 

Ulysses S. Grant 

March 4, 1873 


Henry Wilsont 


March B, 1877 

William A. Wheeler.. 

Chester A. Arthur.... 
















Thomas Jefferson 

E dTun^Rando"? h '. '. '. 
Timothy Pickering... 
Timothy Pickering... 

John Marshall 

James Madison 

Sept. 26, 1789 

Dm'. 10,' 179.5 
May*^ is', 180(i 

March 6, 1809 
April 2,1811 


March 7; 1828 
March 6, 1829 
May 24,18:31 
May 29 18.33 
June^27, 18S4 

Daniel Webster 


John M.Clayton .'.';; 

Edward Bveiett. '.'.'.'. 
William L. Marcy... 

Lewis Cass 

Jer«miah8. Black... 


July 2. 


July iiC 
Nov. 6 

Dec. r 

March 5 
March 4 
April 15 


>ec" 1-. 



jfmfs' Monroe 


John Qain'cy Adams'.'. 
John Qtilncy Adams.. 



Edward Livingston... 
Louis McLane 



Daniel Webster 




H ,ai 








Alexander Hamilton 


Walter Forward 

Sept. 13. 1841 
March 3, 1843 

Alexander Hamiltoc 

March 4, 1793 


John C. Spencer 

Oliver Wolcott 

George M. Bibb 



KobertJ. Wallter 

March 6, 1845 

Jan. 1, 801 


Willium SI. Meredith... 

March 8 1849 


March 4, : 809 



Feb. 9," 814 



Philip F. Thomas 

3ct. 23, ,816 



Salmon P.Chase 

March 7, 1861 


«arch 5, 1817 

William Pitt Fe^senden 

Hugh McCulloch 

April 15,' 1865 

Samael D. Ingham.. 

March 6, 1829: 

Louis McLane 

Aug. 2,1831 

March it! 1873 

31 Benjamin H.Bristow... 

Sept. 2^3, 1833; 

3 1 Lot il. Morrill 

I^evi W.jodbary 

June 27, 1834; 


3- John Sherman 

Levi Woodbury 

March 4, 1837, 


M«ch sl 1881 


Thomas Kwing 

Thomas Ewin? 

March 5, 1841 
April 6,18111 

34 Charles J. Folger 

Oct. 27,1831 


Henry Knox 

Sept. 1- 


JohnC. Spencer 

Oct. 12,1841 






March ' 

March 8,' 1849 


Charfee M. Conrad 


Rog^r Griswold 


Jeffer-ion Davis 

Ma?ch 5; 1853 

Henry Dearborn 




Joseph Holt 

Jan. 18, 1881 


March 5 1861 


John Armstrong. . . 


Edwin M. Stanton 

Jan. 16 18S2 

Edwin M. Stanton 

IC William H.Crawford 


Ulysses S.Grant, (Hi in<. 

Ang. 12, 867 

JohnM. Schofleld 

■John C. Calhoun 

.March 5 

13' James Barbour 


William W.Belknap.... 

Oct. 25, 869 

10 Lew"isca88^°?; ■'.;;■.: 

Ang. 1 



James D.Cameron;:::; 

George W. JfcCrary.... 

March 12,1877 
Dec. 10, 1879 



March 7 

18 John Bell 

March 6 



Robert T. Lincoln^ 


April 6 




May 21, 79S 

Sept. 13, 1841 

March 4; : 801 

Jufy 24 1843 

July 15. : 601 

Thomas W. Gilmer.. .. 

Feb. 15,1844 

March 3, 805 

John Y.Mason 

March 14,1814 

4iPaal Hamilton 

March 7, : 80! 

March 10,1846 


6 B. W. Crownlnshleld. 

Dec. 19, 81 


July 32; 1850 

B. W. Crowninshield. 

March 4, ;817 

John P. Kennedy 

July 22, 1882 

March B, 1821 



iSamuel L. Southard. 


March 4^ 1865 


Gideon Welles. 

May 23, 183 

June 25, 1869 

SenrgeM. Robeson 

March 4, 1873 



March 4, 183' 

12 James K. Panlding.. 

June 25, 183 

Nathan Goff.Jr... 

Jan. 6. 831 

March S. 184 



March 5 881 


George E. Badger.... 

April 6,1841 


William E. Chandler... 

April 1 1882 


6 John P. Usher... 
John P. Usher... 

7' James Harlan 

8:orville H. Browning 
. « Jacob D. Cox 

10 Columbus Delano.... 
Columbne Delano... 

11 Zachariah Chandlei . 

13 Carl Schiirz 

13,Samael J. Kirkwood 

14 Henry M. Teller 

March 12,18 
March 5, 18 



'imothy Pickering. 

oleph Hablrs'haT.: 

Gideon Granger. .. 

Return J.' Meigs, JrV. 
Return J. Meigs, Jr.. 

John McLean 


March 5, 1831 
June 36; 1823 








Cave Johnson 


Joseph Holt. ...;.;.■■.■;.■ 

Horatio King 

Montgomery Blair 

William DenniPon'.'!!]! 
Alexander \V. Randall.. 



April 15, 1865 
July 25, IBB' > 


William T.'Barr'y..;; 
Amos Kendall 

March 4; 1?? 

March 4; 1873 

j\Ty f2:J8%* 
March 12,1877 


Francis Granger 

Francis Granger.. .. 

March 6', 1841 
April 6, 1841 

Dec. 20,1881 
April 3, 1883 


1 Edmund Randolph., 
""-und Randolph, 
am Bradford... 

4 Theophilus Parsons. I 

5 Levi Lincoln... ■ " 

6 Robert Smith 

7 John Breckinridge.. 

18 Hugh S. Legari 
JO John Y. Masor 

_„,-min F. But 
15 Felix Grundv.... 
"■" nryD. Gilpin. 



iJohn Rutledgef 

2 William Custiing 

3 James Wilson , 

4 John Blairf 

5 Robert H. Hairisonf .. 

6 James Iredell , 

7 Thomas Johnsonf , 

8 William Patterson 

9 Samuel Chase 

10 Bushrod Washington. . . 

11 Alfred Mooref 

12 William Johnson 

13 Brockhol>t Livingston. . 

14 Thomas Todd 

15 Joseph Story 

16 Gabriel Duvalf 

17 Smith Thompson 

18 Robert Trimble 

19John McLean 

20 Henry Baldwio 

21 James M. Wayne§ .... 

22 Philip P. Barbour 

23 John Catron 

24 John McKinley 

25 Peter V. Daniel 

26 Samuel Nelsonf 

27 Levi Woodbury 

28 Robert C. Grierf 

29 Benjamin R. Curtisf.... 

30 John A. Campbellf 

31 Nathan CliiTord 

33 Noah H.Swayne 

33 Samuel P. Miller 

34 David Davisf 

85 Stephen J. Field 

36 William Strongf 

37 Joseph P. Bradley 

38 Ward Hunt 

39 John M. Harlan 

40 William B Woods 

41 Stanley Matthews 

42 Horace Gray 

43 Samuel Blatohford 

* The figares before the names 

South Carolina. . . 
Massachusetts .. 
Pennsylvania . . 



North Carolina, 


New Jersey 



North Carolina. 
South Carolina. 

New York 


Massachusetts . . 


New York . ... 



Pennsylvania.. . 





New York 

New Hampshiri 
Pennsylvania. . . 
Massachusetts . . 



Ohio ..., 



Pennsylvania.. . 

New jersey 

New York 




Massachusetts. . 
New York 




1863-. . . . 


1870- . . . 
1877 .... 



1880 .... 


1882-. . . . 

Associates. The number of Associate Justices was incr 
pointment of Thomas Todd; increased to eight in 1857 
Catr .n and John McKinley; increased to nine in 1S63 by 
Field; d^reasid to eight on th3 death of John Catron it 
the death of Ja-nes M. Wuyne in 1867, and agam increase 





----- if 


P. A. ilahlenherg 


1, 1789 

Jonatban Trumbull 


2d Cong: 

24, 1791 

to Mar. 

4; 1793: 1740 


F.A. Muhlenberg 

M Cong 



Jonathan Dayton 

to Jllr. 

TheodOTe sedpiik ;.';;; 

3,' 1799: .... 

6th Can? 


4 1801. 1 1746 


Nathaniel Macon 

7th Cong. 

4, 1803. 1757 

Nathaniel Macon.'.' '!!!!! 

: c:: 

9th ConS 

Joseph B. Varnum 


10th Cong 

4, 1809: '1756 


Joseph B. Varnum 




HeSfycily.'. ::::::::'.:;: 

LangdonCheves j 



13th Cong. 



to Mar. 




Henry Clay 

14th Cong. 


4, 1815, 

to Mar. 

4, 1817. 


to Mar. 

Henry Cltty.!;;;! '.. 

Ses. i 

16th Cong. 


6, 1819 

to May 15, 1820. 

John W.Taylor -j 

16th Cong. 


15, 1820 

to Mar. 





Philip?. Barbour 

Va..". . . 

17th Cong. 

4, 1833. 



Heiry Clay 


18th Cong. 


4 1825. 

John W.Taylor 


IHth Cong. 

to Mar. 

4, 827. 



20th Coni. 

■i, 1827! 

to Mar. 


Andrew Stevenson.;:.":: 

22" coS|: 


?,' 1^.^.' 

to Mar 

i, 1833: 

Andrew Stevenson 

Ten: (■ 


2, 1834. 


John Bell ■ 

23d Cong. 


a, 1834, 



Ses. f 

James K. Polk, 


'sth Cone' 


5', l's':!7: 

to Mar. 

4' 1839' 




26th Cong. 


Ih! 1839: 

4: 1841 : 


John White 


27th Cong. 


to Mar. 




John W.Jones 


tS'.h Cong: 


l", 1845 


Robert C. -Win'throp: . : : : 


30th Cong. 


to Mar: 

4, im: 


Howell Cobb 

list Cong. 


32: I849', 

to Mar. 


Linn Boyd 

32d Coni. 


1800 1S59 

m Cong. 



Na°thanK-l'l' Bmk- .:: 

^' ',"■'■ 

Mth Cong. Feb. 
.5th Cong. Dec. 


m n';!!' 

irth Cong. July 


Schoylerr,, u. 

«lh Cong. Dec 


Wth Cong. 

Schuyler c.aM 

toth Cong. 


James i;. l;.:. 

(let Cong. 


4, 1869 

to Mar. 

4, 1871. 


James (i HI.!., 


to Mar. 

4, 1873. 

1,' 1873 

to Mar. 

4, 1875, 


M^clfaVc k'-rr 

na i 

44th Coni: 


6, 1875, 

to Aug. 

30; 1876. 




Samael J. Kandall. ..* 

44th Cong. 


4, 1876, 

to Mar. 

4, 1877. 


Samuel J. Randall '. 


4.5th Cong. 


15, 1877, 

to Mar. 

4, 1S79. 

Samuel J. Randall 

46th Cong. 


18, 1879 

to Mar. 



J. Warren Keifer 

47th ConS. 






Artliur St. Clair, Governor of the Northwestern Territory 
from Oct. 5, 1787, to July 4, 1800. 

Wm. Henr y Harriann, 1800-'12.ri1g I Tliomas Posey, 1813-'16. 
Joha'Gibson, acting, 1812-'13.:;,3a ' 


Jonathan J"innings, 1816-'33. 

William Hendricks, 1832-'25. 

Jas. B. Ray, 1835-'31. 

Noali Noble, 1831-'37. 

David Wallace, 1837-'40. 

Samuel Bigger, 1840-'43. 

Jas. Whitcomb, 1843-'48. 

Paris C. Danning, acting, 1848-'49. 

Joseph A. Wright, 1849-'57. 

Ashbel P. Willard, 1857-'60. 


Abram A. Hammond, lS60-'( 
Henry 8. Lane, a few diys : 

uary, 1861. 
Oliver P. Morton, acting, 1861-'65. 
Oliver P. Morton, 1865-'67. 
Conrad Baker, acting, 1867-'69. 
Conrad Baker, l869-'73. 
Thos. A. Hendricks, 1873-'77. 
Jas. D. Williams, 1877-'81. 
Albert G. Porter, 1881-'85. 


Christopher Harrison, 18I6-'19. 
Ratliff Boone, 1819-'24. 
James B. Ray, acting, 1834-'25. 
John H. Thompson, 1825-'28. 
Milton Stapp, 1828-'31. 
David Wallace, 1831- '37. 
David HUlis, 1837-'40. 
Samuel Hall, 1840-43. 
Jesse D. Bright, 1843-'45. 
Godlove S. Or;h, acting, 184.5. 
James G. Read, acting, 1846. 
Paris C. Dunning, 1816-'48. 

I James G. Read, 1849. 
James H. Lane, 1849-'53. 
Ashbel P. Willard, 1853-'57. 
Abram A. Hammond, 1857-'59. 
John R. Cravens, acting, 1859-'6.3 
Paris C. Dunning, acting, 1863-'( 
Conrad Baker, 1865-'67. 
Will Cumback, 18G7-'69. 
Will Cumback, 1869-'73. 
Leonidas Sexton, 1873-'77. 
Isaac P. Gray, 1877-'81. 
Thomas Hanna, 1881-'fe5. 


John Gibson, Territorial, 1800-'16. 
Robert A. New, 1816-'25. 
W. W. Wick, 1825-'29. 
James Morrison, 1829-'33. 
Wm. Shee's, 1833-'37. 
Wm. J. Brown, 1837-'41. 
Wm. Sheets, 1841-'4.5. 
John H. Thompson, 1845-'49. 
Charles H. Test, 1849-'53. 
Nehemiah Hayden, 1853-'55. 
Erasmus B. Co'lins. 185.5-'57. 
Daniel McClure, 1857-'58. 
Cyrus L. Dunham, 1858-'.59. 

Daniel McClure, 18.59-'61. 
Wm. A. P<;elp, 1861-'63. 
James S. Anthon, 1863-'65. 
Nelson Trusler, 1865-'69. 
Max P. A. Hoffman, 
Norman Eddy, 1871-'72. 
John H. Parquhar. 1872-'73. 
W. W. Curry, 1873-'74. 
John E. Neff, 1874. 
John P. Siianklin, 1879-'81. 
Emanuel R. HawD, 1880-'83. 
Wm. R. Mjers, 1882-'84. 



Wm. H. Lilley, 1816-'29. 
Morris Morris, ISSO-'-M. 
Horatio J. Harris, 1844-'47. 
Douglas McGuire, 1847-'50. 
E. W. H. Ellis, 1850-'53. 
John P. Dunn, 1853-'55. 
Hiram E. Talbot, 1855-'57. 
John W. Dodd, 1857-'60. 
Albert Lange, 1861-'63. 

Joseph Ristine, 1863-'65. 
Thos. B. McCarty, 1865-'69. 
John D. Evans, 1S69-'71. 
John C. Shoemaker, 1871-'73. 
James A, Wildman, 1873-'74. 
Ebenezer Henderson, 1875 
M. D. Manson, 1879-'81. 
Edward H. Wolfe, 1880-'82. 
Jas. H. Rice, 1882-'84. 


Daniel C. Lane, 1816-'23. 
Samuel Merrill, 1823-'35. 
Nathan B. Palmer, 1835-'41. 
Geo. H. Dunn, l841-'44. 
Royal May hew, 1844-'47. 
Samuel Hanna, 1847-'50. 
J. P. Drake, 1850-'53. 
Elijah Newland, 1853-'55. 
Wm. B. Noffsinger, 1855-'1857. 
Aquila Jones, 1857-'59. 
N. F. Cunningham, 1859-'61. 

J. S. Harvey, 1861-'63. 
Matthew L. Brett, 1863-'65. 
John I. Morrison, 1865-'67. 
Nathan Kimball, 1867-'71. 
James B. Ryan, 1871-'73. 
John B. Glover, 1873-'75. 
B. C. Shaw, 1875-'79. 
Wm. Fleming, 1879-'81. 
Roswell S. Hill, 1880- '82. 
John J. Cooper, 1882-'84. 


James Morrison, March 5, 1855. 
J. E. McDonald, Dec. 17, 1857. 
J. G. Jones, Dec. 17, 1859. 
John P. Usher, Nov. 10, 1861. 
Oscar B. Hord, Nov. 3, 1862. 
D. E. Williamson, Nov. 3, 1864. 
Bayliss W. Hanna, Nov. 3, 1870. 
James C. Denny, Nov. 6, 1872. 

Clarence A. Buskirk, Nov. 6, 1874. 
Thos. Woolen, November, 1878, to 

November, 1880. 
Daniel R. Baldwin, November, 1880, 

to November, 1882. 
Francis O. Hord. November, 1882, 

to November, 1884. 


James Noble, 1816-'31. 
Waller Taylor, 1810-'25. 
Wm. Hendricks, 1825-'37. 
Robert Hanna, appointed, 1831. 
John Tipton, 1831-'39. 
Oliver H. Smith, 1837-'43. 
Albert S. White, 1839-'45. 
Edward A. Hannegan, 1843-'49. 
Jesse D. Bright, 1845-'61. 
James Whitcomb, 1849-'52. 
Charles W. Cathcart, appointed, 

John Pettit, 1853-'57. 
Graham N. Fitch, 1857-'61. 
Joseph A. Wright, 1861-'63. 
Henry S. Lane, 1861-'67. 
David Turpie, 1863. 
Thomas A. Hendricks, 1863-69. 
Oliver P. Morton, 1867-'77. 
Daniel D. Pratt, 1869-'75. 
Joseph E. McDonald, 1875-'81. 
Daniel W. Voorhees, 1877-'85. 
Benj. Harrison, 1881-'87. 



James Scott, 1816-'31. 
John Johnston, 1816-'17. 
J. L. Holman, 1816-'31. 
Isaac Blackford, 1817-'53. 
S. C. Stevens, 1831-'36. 
J. T. McKinney, 1831-'37. 
Charles Dewey, 1886-'47. 
Jeremiah Sullivan, 1837-46. 
Samuel E. Perkins, 1846-'65. 
Thomas L. Smith, 1847-'.53. 
Andrew Davidson, 1853-'C5. 
Wm. L. Stewart, 1853-'57. 
Addison L. Roache, 1853-'54. 
Alvin P. Hovey, appointed, to 1854. 
S. B. Gookins, 1854-'57. 
Jas. L. Worden, appointed, 1858-'65. 
Jas. M. Hanna, appointed, 1858-'65. 

Charles A. Ray, 1865-'71. 
Jehu T. Elliott, 1865-'71. 
James S. Frazier, 1865-'71. 
Robert S. Gregory, 1865-'71 
James L. Worden, 1871. 
Ale.\. C. Downey, 1871. 
Samuel H. Buskirk, 1871. 
John Pettit, 1871. 
Andrew L. Osborn, 1872. 
Horace P. Biddle, 1874. 
Samuel E. Perkins, 1876. 
James L. "Worden, 1876. 
George V. Howk, 1882. 
Wm. E. Niblack, 1882. 
Byron K. Elliott, 1882. 
Wm. A. Woods, 1883. 
Alien Zoller, 1883. 


Wm. H. Harrison, delegate from the "Territory Northwest 
of the Ohio Kiver; " resigned in 1800, succeeded by William 
McMillan, who took his seat Nov. 24, ISOO. 


Benjamin Parke, Dee. 12, 1805; resigned in 1S08; suc- 
ceeded by Jesse B. Thomas, who took his seat Dec. 1, 1808. 
Jonathan Jennings, Nov. 27, 1809. 


1817-'22.— William Hendricks. 

1822-'24. — Jonathan Jennings. 

1823-'25.— Jonathan Jennings, William Prince, John Test, 
and Jacob Call. 

1825-'27.— Ratliff Boon, Jonathan Jennings, John Test. 

1827-'29.— Thomas H. Blake, Jonathan Jennings, Oliver H. 

1829-'31.— Ratliff Boon, Jonathan Jennings, John Test. 

1831-'33.— Katliff Boon, John Carr, Jonathan McCarty. 

1833-'35.— Ratliff Boon, Jolin Carr, John Ewing, Jonathan 


1835.'37.— Eatliff Boon, John Carr, John W. Davis, Ed- 
ward A. Hannegan, William Herod, George L. Kinnard, 
Amos Lane, Jonathan McCarty. 

lS37-'39.— Ratliff Boon, George H. Dunn, John Ewing, 
"William Graham, William Herod, James Rariden, Alberts. 

1S39-'11.— John Carr, John W. Davis, Tilghman A. How- 
ard, Henry S. Lane, George H. Proffit, James Eariden, 
Thomas Smith, William W. Wick. 

lS41-'43.— James H. Cravens, Andrew Kennedy, Henry S. 
Lane, George H. Proffit, Richard W. Thompson, David Wal- 
lace, Josepii L. White. 

lS43-'i5.— William J. Brown, John W. Davis, Thomas J. 
Henley, Andrew Kennedy, Robert Dale Owen, John Pettit, 
Samuel C. Sample, Caleb B. Smith, Thomas Smith, Joseph 
A. Wright. 

1845-'47.— Charles W. Cathcart, John W. Davis, Thomas 
J. Henley, Andrew Kennedy, Edward W. McGaughey, Rob- 
ert D. Owen, John Pettit, Caleb B. Smith, Thomas Smit 
William W. Wick. 

1847-'49.— Charles W. Cathcart, George G. Dunn, Elisha 
Embree, Thomas J. Henley, John Pettit, John L. Robinson, 
William Rockhill, Caleb B. Smith, Richard W. Thompson, 
William W. Wick. 

1S49-'51. — Nathaniel Albertson, William J. Brown, Cyrus 
L. Dunham, Graham N. Fitch, Willis A. Gorman, Andrew J. 
Harlan, George W. Julian, Joseph E. McDonald, Edward W. 
McGaughey, John L. Robinson. 

lS51-'53. — Samuel Brenton, John G. Davis, Cyrus L. Dun- 
ham, Graliam N. Fitch, 'Willis A. Gorman, Thomas A.Hen- 
dricks, James Lockhart, Daniel Mace, Samuel W. Parker, 
John L. Robinson. 

1853-'55. — Ebenezer M. Cliamberlain, John G. Davis, Cy- 
rus L. Dunham, Norman Eddy, William H. English, Andrew 
J. Harlan, Thomas A. Hendricks, James H. Lane, Daniel 
Mace, Smith Miller, Samuel W. Parker. 

1855-'57. — Lucien Barbour, Samuel Brenton, Schuyler 
Colfax, William Cumback, George G. Dunn,William H. Eng- 
lish, David P. Holloway, Daniel Mace, Smith Miller, John 
U. Pettit, Harvey D. Scott. 


1857-'59.— Charles Case, Schuyler Colfax, John G. Davis, 
William H. English, Jatnes B. Foley, James M. Gregg, 
James Hughes. David Kilgore, William E. Niblack, John U- 
Pettit, James Wilson. 

1859'-61.— Charles Case, Schuyler Colfax, John G. Davis, 
William M. Dunn, William H. English, William S. Holman, 
David Kilgore, William E. Niblack, John U. Pettit, Albert 
G. Porter, James Wilson. 

1861-'63.— Schuyler Colfax, James A. Cravens, W. McKee 
Dunn, William jS. Holman, George W. Julian, John Law, 
William Mitchell, Albert G. Porter, John P. C. Shanks, Dan- 
iel W. Voorhees, Albert S. White. 

1863-'65.— Schuyler Colfax, James A. Cravens, Ebenezer 
Dumont, Joseph K. Edgerton, Henry W. Harrington, Will- 
iam S. Holman, George W. Julian, John Law, James F. Mc- 
Dowell, Godlove S. Orth, Daniel W. Voorhees. 

186o-''67. — Schuyler Coif ax, Joseph H. Defrees, Ebenezer Du- 
mont, John H. Farquhar, Ealph Hill, George W. Julian, 
Michael C. Kerr, William E. Niblack, Godlove S. Orth, 
Thomas N. Stillwell, Daniel W. Voorhees, Henry D. Wash- 

lS67-'69.— John Coburn, Schuyler Colfax, William S. Hol- 
man, Morton C. Hunter, George W. Julian, Michael C. Kerr, 
William E. Niblack, Godlove S. Orth, John P. C. Shanks, 
Henry D. Washburn, William Williams. 

1869-'7L— John Coburn, William S. Holman, George W. 
Julian, Michael C. Kerr, William E. Niblack, Godlove S. 
Orth, Jasper Packard, John P. C. Shanks, James N. Tyner, 
Daniel W. Voorhees, William Williams. 

1871-'73.— John Coburn, William S. Holman, Michael C. 
Kerr, Mahlon D. Manson, William E. Niblack, Jasper Pack- 
ard, John P. C. Shanks, James N. Tyner, Daniel W. Voor- 
hees, William Williams, Jeremiah M. Wilson. 

1873-75.— Thomas J. Cason, John Coburn, William S. Hol- 
man, Morton C. Hunter, William E. Niblack, Godlove S. 
Orth, Jasper Packard, Henry B. Saylor, John P. C Shanks, 
James N. Tyner, William Williams, Jeremiah M. Wilson, 
Simeon K. Wolfe. 


1875-'77.— John H. Baker, Nathan T. Carr, Thomas J. Ca- 
son, James L. Evans, Benoni S. Fuller, Andrew H. Hamilton. 
William S. Hayniond. William S. Holman, Andrew Hu 
phreys, Morton C. Hunter, Michael C. Kerr, Franklin Land- 
ers, Jeptlia D. New, Milton S. Robinson, James D. Williams, 

1877-'79.— John H. Baker, George A. Bicknell, Thomas M 
Browne. William H. Calkins, Thomas R. Cobb, James' L 
Evans, B. S. Fuller, A. H. Hamilton, John Hanna, M. C. 
Hunter, M. S. Robinson, Leonidas Sexton, M. D. White. 

1879-'81.— William Heilman, Thomas R. Cobb, George A. 
Bicknell, Jeptha D. New, Tliomas M. Browne, William R. 
Myers, Gilbert De La Matyr, Abraham J. Hostetter, God- 
loveJS. Orth, William H. Calkins, Calvin CowgilJ, Walpole 
6. Colerick, John H. Baker. 

1881-'S3.— William Heilman, B., Evans ville; Thomas R. 
Cobb, Z>., Vincennes; Strother M. Stockslager, D., Corydon; 
William S. Holman, D., Aurora; Courtland C. Matscm, D., 
Greencastle; Thomas M. Browne, ^., Winchester; Stanton J. 
Peelle, H., Indj^anapoiis; Robert B. F. Pierce, B., Crawfords- 
ville; Charles T. Doxey, Ji., Anderson; Mark L. DeMotte, 
Ji., Valparaiso; George W. Steele, i?., Marion; Walpole G. 
Colerick, Z>., Ft. Wayne; William H. Calkins, 7?., La Porte. 

18S3-'S5.— John J. Kleiner, Z>., Evansville; Thomas R. 
Cobb, Z)., Vincennes; Strother M. Stockslager, i?., Corydon; 
AVilliam S. Holman, £>., Aurora; Courtland C. Matson, D., 
Greencastle; Thomas M. Browne, B., Winchester; Stanton 
J. Peelle, E., Indianapolis; John E. Lamb, D., Terre Haute; 
Thomas B. Ward, A, Lafayette; Thomas J. Wood, Z>., 
Crown Point; George W. Steele, i?., Marion; Robert Lowry, 
D., Fort Wayne; William H. Calkins, R., La Porte. 


Arthur Si Clair was born in Scotland in 1734:, a grandson 
of the Earl of Rosslyn; educated at the University of Edin- 
burgh; studied medicine under John Hunter; inherited a 
large fortune on the death of his mother; entered the British 
army as an Ensign, May 13, 1757, and the next year he came 


to America; became distinguished under General Wolfe at 
Quebec; married at Boston, May 14, 1760, Miss Phoebe 
Bayard, half-sister of Governor James Bowdoin; resigned his 
commission in 1762; settled in Pennsylvania in 1764, erect- 
ing a line residence and several mills; held many offices, civil 
and military, and during the Hevolutionary war was eminent 
in his services; was a member of the Continental Congress 
17S5-'S7; became the first Governor of the Northwestern 
Territory, Feb. 1, 1788; made the treaty of Fort Harmar with 
the Indian tribes in 1789; fixed the seat of the Supreme Court 
for the Territory, January, 1790, at a point which he named 
Cincinnati, after the society of which he was an ofBcer; be- 
came Commander-in-Chief of the U. S. Army, March 4, 1791, 
which position he resigned May 5, 1792; made an unsuccessful 
expedition against the Indians of the Miami and the Wabash, 
but was vindicated from all blame by a Congressional commit- 
tee of investigation; was removed from the post of Governor 
by Jeiierson, Nov. 22, 1802, when he settled in a log house 
on the summit of Chestnut Ridge, near Greensburg, Pa., 
where he passed his remaining j-ears in poverty, and fruit- 
less efforts to effect a settlement of claims against the U. S. 
Government, but receiving small pensions, both from the 
National and State Governments. He died near Greens- 
burg, Aug. 31, 1818. In 1812 he published a "Narrative 
of the Manner] in which the Campaign against the Indians in 
1791 was conducted." 

Willuun Henry Harrison was born at Berkeley, Va., in 
1773. In 1801 he was appointed Governor of the Territory 
of Indiana, which position he held for more than ten years. 
In 1811, in the hard-fought battle of Tippecanoe, he defeated 
the Indians under the command of the "Prophet." In 1812, 
was made Brigadier-General, and in March, 1813, was made 
Major-General. In 1824 he was elected to the United States 
Senate from Ohio. In 1836 was defeated by Van Buren for 
President. Pie again became the nominee of the Whig party 
in 1840, and was chosen President by an overwhelming ma- 
jority. He was inaugurated March 4,1841, but died justone 
month afterward, and his remains now lie near the old home- 
stead at North Bend, Ind. 


Thomas Posey was born in Virginia, July 9, 1750; received 
an ordinary common-school education; removed to Western 
Virginia in 1769; participated in expeditions against the Ohio 
Indians, and in many battles of the Revolution, after which 
he resided for a number of years in Spottsylvania, County, Va.; 
was appointed Brigadier-General, Feb. 14, 1793; moved soon 
afterward to Kentucky, where he became Lieutenant-Governor 
and Ma^'or-General in 1809; was U. S. Senator from Louisiana, 
1812-'13; succeeded Harrison as Governor of Indiana, in 1818, 
and became Agent for Indian Affairs in 1816. He died at 
Shawneetown, 111., March 19, 1818. 

Jonathan Jennings, first Governor of the State of Indiana, 
1816-'22, was born in Hunterdon County, N. J., and died 
near Charlestown, Clark Co., Ind., July 26, 1834; he was a 
member of Congress, 1809-'16 and 1822-'31, and in 1818 he 
was appointed Indian Commissioner by President Monroe. 

William Hendricks, the second .Governor of the State of 
Indiana, was born in Westmoreland County, Pa., in 1783, 
and settled in IVtadison, Ind., in 1814, where he died May 16, 
1850. Besides that of State Executive, he filled many impor- 
tant ottices. He was Secretary of the convention which 
formed the first Constitution of Indiana; was a Representa- 
tive in Congress, 1816-'22, and U. S. Senator 1825-'37. 

Noah JVoble, Governor, 1831-'37, was born in Virginia, 
Jan. 15, 1794, and died at Indianapolis in February, 1844. 
During his term as Governor occurred the Black Hawk war, 
the inauguration of the great " internal improvements " of so 
much notoriety, the hard times of 1837, the last exodus of In- 
dians from the State, etc. 

J)<wid Wallace was born in Philadelpliia, Pa., April 4, 
1799; graduated at West Point in 1821 as Lieutenant of Ar- 
tillery, which position he resigned June 1, 1822; removed 
with his father's family in 1817 to Brookville, Ind.; studied 
law and acquired an extensive practice in Franklin Count}', 
was several times a member of the Legislature, once a mem- 
ber of the State Constitutional Convention, Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, 1837-'40, member of Congress, lS4i-'43, and Judge of 
Marion County, 1856-59. He died Sept. 4, 1859. 


Samuel Bigger was born in Warren County, Ohio, about 
1800; graduated at Athens, Ohio, University; studied law at 
Lebanon, and coininenced practice in Indiana, attaining emi- 
nence in the profession; was a Representative in the State 
Legislature, lS34:-'35, and afterward Judge of tlie Circuit 
Court. He was elected Governor of Indiana in ISiO, on the 
Whig ticket, and served his tertn acceptably. By his recom- 
mendation the Indiana Hospital for the Insane was established. 
He died in 18-15 at Fort Wayne. 

James Whitcomb was born in Stockbridge, Vt., Dec. 1, 
1791; educated at Transylvania University. Jan. 1, 1824, he 
established himself in the practice of law at Bloomington, 
Ind. In 1826 he was appointed Prosecuting Attorney for his 
district; was State Senator, 1830-35, and a leader of the 
Democratic party. In 1836 he was appointed Superintendent 
of the Land Office; resumed practice atTerre Haute in 1841; 
was Governor, 1843-'48, when he was elected to the U. S. 
Senate. He died in New York, Oct. 4, 1852. 

Joseph A. Wright was born in Pennsylvania, April 17, 
1810; educational advantages limited; early in life he settled 
in Indiana; admitted to the bar in 1829, and rose to eminence 
as a practitioner; member of the Legislature in 1833, and 
State Senator in 1840; member of Congress, 1843-'45; Gov- 
ernor of Indiana, lS49-'57; Minister to Prussia, 1857-61; 
U. S. Senator, 1861-'62; U. S. Commissioner to the Hamburg 
Exhibition in 1863, and Minister to Prussia again, from 1865 
until his death, at Berlin, May 11, 1867. 

Ashhel P. Willard was born in Oneida County, N. Y., the 
son of Erastus Willard, Slieriff of that county, 1832-'35; 
graduated at Hamilton College in 1842; was Governor of In- 
diana, 1853-'58; died at St. Paul in October, 1860. 

Henry S. Lane, brother of General James H. Lane, was 
born in Montgomery County, Ky., Feb. 24, 1811; received a 
good common-school education and some knowledge of the 
classics; studied law, moved to Indiana and was admitted to 
the bar; elected to the Legislature in 1837; to Congress in 
1841; was Lieutenant-Colonel of Volunteers in the Mexican 
war, 1846-'47; elected U. S. Senator, 1859, but denied the 
seat; elected Governor of Indiana in 1861, but in a few days 


after he took tlie chair he was elected U. S. Senator 
and served as such till 1867. 

Olivei' P. Morton was born in Wayne County, Ind., 
Aug. 4, 1S23; was apprenticed to a hatter at the age of fifteen, 
and worked at the trade four years, spending his leisure in 
study; graduated at the Miami University in 1S43; studied 
law with John S. Newman; admitted to the bar in 1847, and 
commenced practice at Centreville, this State; elected Circuit 
Judge in 1852; was defeated as the Republican nominee for 
Governor in 1856; was elected Lieutenant-Governor in 1860, 
with the understanding that General Henry S. Laue, who 
was placed at the head of the ticket, was to be elected to the 
U. S. Senate in the^event of Republican success, which plan 
was carried out, and he became Governor of Indiana; was 
elected Governor in 1864, and United States Senator, as a 
Union Republican, to succeed Henry S. Lane, same politics, 
and was re-elected, serving all together from March 4, 1867 
until his death, Nov. 1, 1877, at Indianapolis. In the autumn 
of 1865 he was stricken with partial paralysis, from which he 
never recovered. He was compelled to do his work by secre- 
taries, to be carried in and out of the Senate Chamber, and to 
address the Senate seated. 

Conrad Baker first served as acting Governor. He was 
elected by the Republicans Lieutenant-Governor of the State, on 
the same ticket with Oliver P. Morton for Governor, with the 
understanding that Mr. Morton should be sent to the United 
States Senate,and resign the government of this State to Mr. Ba- 
ker. The programme was carried out, and Mr. Baker served his 
place so well that at the end of the term he was elected by the 
people Governor, and he served the second term, making in 
all six years. Governor Baker was a faithful Executive, in 
sympathy with all the institutions of Republicanism and the 
interests of his State. He had a work compiled on " Indiana 
and her Resources," which is well calculated to draw men of 
capital to this fine commonwealth and enable her to compete 
with all her sister States in the Union. 

Thomas A. HendricJcs was born in Muskingum County, 
Ohio, Sept. 7, 1819; removed with liis father'in 1822 to Shelby 
County, Ind.; graduated in 1841 at South Hanover College; 


admitted to. the bar in 1843; was an active member of the 
State Constitutional Convention of 1850; Member of Congress 
from 1851-'5 from the Indianapolis district; Commissioner of 
the General Land OfBce of the United States 1855-'9; United 
States Senator, Democratic, 1863-'9, and, lastly. Governor of 
Indiana, lS72-'6. In the latter year he was candidate for 
Vice-President of the United States. 

James D. Williams was born in Pickaway County, Ohio, 
Jan. 16, 1808; removed to Knox County, Ind., in 1818; was 
educated in the log school-house of the country; was by occu- 
pation a farmer; was a member of the State House of Re])re- 
sentatives in 1843, 1847, 1851, 1856 and 1858; was elected 
to the State Senate in 1858, 1862 and 1870; was a delegate to 
the National Democratic Convention at Baltimore in 1872; 
was the Democratic nominee for United States Senatoi' in 1873 
against O. P. Morton; was elected a Representative from Indi- 
ana in the 44th Congress, 1875-'7, receiving 17,393 votes 
against 9,645 for Levi Ferguson , and Dec. 1, 1876, he resigned 
this office on account of having been elected Governor. His 
term expired Jan. 3, 1881, 

Albert G. Forte)' was born about the year 1823, at Law- 
renceburg, Ind. He worked on a farm and at the ferry 
business at Lawrenceburg, until he was fifteen years of age. 
Then went to Hanover College, Indiana, and finished his ed- 
ucation at Asbury College, at Greencastle, in 1843, being in 
his twenty-first year. He studied law, removed to Indianap- 
olis, became Supreme Law Reporter, and changed his politics 
from Democrat to Republican in 1856; was elected to Con- 
gress as a Republican in 1858, and again in 1860. He then 
declined further political preferment, and practiced law until 
he was offered and accepted the position of First Comptroller of 
theU. S. Treasury, while John Sherman was the Secretary. In 
18S0 he was elected Governor of Indiana, over Franklin Lan- 
ders, which office he occupies and creditably fills. 


James JV^oUe was bornatBattletown, Va., went to the fron- 
tier when a youth, located in Kentucky, and afterward in In- 
diana; served as United States Senator from Dec. 12, 1816, 
to Feb. 26, 1831, when he died at Washington, D. C. 


Waller Taylor was a Major and Aide to General Harrison 
at Tippecanoe; United States Senator, 1816-'25, and a man of 
much literary culture. He was breveted General, and died 
at Lunenburg, Va., Aug. 26, 1826. 

William Hendricks, see sketch of Governors. 

Rohert Hanna was born in Laurens District, S. C, April 
6, 1786; removed with his parents to Indiana, and subse- 
quently settled in Brookville in 1802; was Sheriff of the East- 
ern District of Indiana in 1809, and held the position until 
the organization of the State Government; was appointed 
Register of the Land Office, and removed to Indianapolis in 
1825; was appointed United States Senator as a Whig, in 
place of James Noble, deceased, serving from Dec. 5, 1831, 
to Jan. 3, 1832, when his successor took his seat; was elected 
a State Senator, but was defeated when a candidate for re-elec- 
tion; was killed by a railroad train while walking on the track 
at Indianapolis, Nov. 19, 1859. 

John Tipton was born in Sevier County, Tenn., in August, 
1785. His father having been killed by the Indians in 1793, 
he did not even enjoy the advantages of a public-school edu- 
cation, having to support a mother, two sisters and a halt 
brother. In 1807 he removed with them to Indiana, where he 
purchased fifty acres of land, paying for it by splitting rails at 
50 cents a hundred ; was elected Ensign of tliat noted frontier 
company, the "Yellow Jackets," in 1811, and served with 
them in the Tippecanoe campaign; was chosen Sheriff of Har- 
rison County, Ind., in 1815; was elected Master of Pisgah 
Lodge of Freemasons in 1819, and was Grand Master of Ma- 
sons in Indiana in 1819 and 1829; was elected a Eepresent- 
ative in the State Legislature in 1821 ; was U. S. Indian Agent 
with the Miami and Pottawatomie tribes from 1821: to 1831, 
when he was elected U. S. Senator, to fill the vacancy occa- 
sioned by the death of James Noble; was re-elected for a full 
term, and served from Jan. 3, 1832, until his death, April 5, 
1839, by pulmonary apoplexy, at Logansport, Ind. 

Oliver H. Smith was born in Trenton, N. J., Oct. 23, 1794, 

emigrated to Indiana in 1817, practiced law, and in 1824 was 

Prosecuting Attorney for the Third District of Indiana; was a 

member of Legislature in 1822, of Congress in 1827-'9, 



and of the United States Senate ISST-'iB. He published "Rec- 
ollections of Congressional Life," and " Early Indiana Trials, 
Sketches and Reminiscences." He died at Indianapolis, 
March 19, 1859. 

Albert S. White was born at Blooming Grove, X. Y., Oct. 
2i, 1803; received a classical education graduating at Union 
College in 1822; studied law and was admitted to the bar in 
1825, and commenced practice at La Fayette, Ind; was for five 
years Clerk of the Indiana House of Representatives; was 
elected Representative in Congress as i Whig in 1837, receiv- 
ing 10,737 votes against 3,369 votes for N. Jackson, Demo- 
crat, serving from Sept. 4, 1837, to March 3, 1839; was Pres- 
ident of several railroads; was elected U. S. Senator from 
Indiana, serving from Dec. 2, 1839, to March 3, 1845; declined 
a re-election ; was again elected Representative in Congress in 
1S61, as a Republican, receiving 13,310 votes against 11,489 
votes for Wilson, Democrat, serving from July 4, 1861, to 
March 3, 1863; was a commissioner to adjust claims against 
the Sioux Indians; was appointed by President Lincoln in 
1864 U. S. Judge for Indiana; died at Stockwell, Ind., Sept. 
4, 1864. 

Edward A. Hannegan was born in Ohio; received a good 
education; studied law; admitted to the bar in his twenty- 
third year, settling in Indiana. He was several times a mem- 
ber of the Legislature, and was a member of Congress 1833-'7; 
U. S. Senator 1843-'9; Minister to Prussia, 1849-'53. While 
partially drunk, in 1852, he killed his brother-in-law, Captain 

Jesse D. Bright was born in Norwich, Chenango Co., N.Y., 
Dec. 18, 1812; moving to Indiana, he received an academic 
education, and studied and practiced law; was Circuit Judge, 
State Senator, U. S. Marshal, Lieutenant-Governor of the 
State, and President of the U. S. Senate during several ses- 
sions. In 1857 the Democratic members of the State Legis- 
lature re-elected him to the U. S. Senate in a manner which 
was denounced as fraudulent and unconstitutional by his Re- 
publican opponents, and his seat was contested. He contin- 
ued a Senator until February, 1862, when he was expelled 
for disloyalty by a vote of 32 to 14. The principal proof of 


bis crime was recommending to Jeff. Davis, in March, 1861, 
a person desirous of furnishing arms. 

James Whitcomh, see sketches of Governors. 

Charles W. Gathcart was born on the Island of Madeira in 
1809; received a good English education; followed the sea 
in his boyhood; located at LaPorte, Ind., in 1831, and en- 
gaged in farming; was U. S. Land Surveyor several years; a 
Representative in the State Legislature; a Democratic Elector 
in ISio; Representative in Congress 1845-'7; re-elected to 
serve 18-17-'9; appointed U. S. [Senator in place of James 
Whitcomb, deceased, and served from Dec. 6, 1852, to March 
3, 1853; then returned to farming. 

John Pettit was born at Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., July 24, 
1807; received an academical education, studied law, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1838; commencing practice at La Fay- 
ette, Ind.; was a member of the State House of Represeota- 
tives two terms, U. S. District Attorney, Representative in 
Congress lS43-'5, as a Democrat, re-elected to the next Con- 
gress, serving altogether from Dec. 4, 1843, to March 3, 1849; 
was a Delegate to the State Constitutional Convention in 1850; 
was a Democratic Elector in 1852: was U. S. Senator from 
Jan. 18, 1853, to March 3, 1855, in place of James Whitcomb. 
deceased; was appointed by President Buchanan, Chief Jus- 
tice of the U. S. Courts in Kansas; in 1870 was elected Su- 
pi'cme Judge of Indiana. He died at La Fayette, Ind., June 
17, 1877. 

Graham ]V. Fitch was born at Leroy, N. Y., Dec. 7, 1810; 
received a classical education; studied medicine and practiced 
at Logansport, Ind. ; was professor in Rush Medical College, 
Chicago, 1844-'49; was an Indiana Presidential Elector in 
1844, 1848 and 1856; a member of the State Legislature in 
1836 and 1839; was a Representative in Congress from Dec. 
3, 1849, to March 3, 1853, being elected the last time over 
Schuyler Colfax, Whig; was U. S. Senator from Indiana from 
Feb. 9, 1857, to March 3, 1861; was a Delegate to the j^a- 
tional Democratic Convention at New York City in 1868. 

Henry S. Lane, see sketches of Governors. 

David Turpie was born in Hamilton County, Ohio, July 8, 
1829; graduated at Kenyon College in 1848 ; studied law; admit- 


ted to the bar in 1S49, and commenced practice at Logansport, 
Ind. ; was a member of the State House of Representatives in 
1852; was appointed Judge of the Court of Common Pleas 
in 1854, and of the Circuit Court in 1856, both of which po- 
sitions he resigned; was again a member of the Legislature 
in 1858; was U. S. Senator, as a Democrat, in place of Jesse 
D. Bright, expelled, from Jan. 22, 1863, to March 3, same 

Joseph A. Wrights see sketch of Governors. 
Thomas A. Hendricks^ see sketch of Governors. 
Oliver P. Morton, see sketch of Governors. 
Daniel D. Pratt was born at Palermo, Me., Oct. 26, 1813, 
and was taken to New York State by his parents when a lad; 
graduated at Hamilton College in 1831; removed to Indiana 
in 1832, where he taught school; went to Indianapolis in 1834, 
where he wrote in the Secretary of State's ofHce and studied 
law; commenced practice at Logansport in 1836; was elected to 
the Legislature in 1851 and 1853; was elected to the Forty-first 
Congress in 1868, by a majority of 2,287, and, before taking 
his seat, was elected U. S. Senator as a Eepublican, to succeed 
Thomas A. Hendricks, Democrat, and served from March 4, 
1869, to March 3, 1875; was appointed by President Grant 
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, serving from May 15, 
1875, to Aug. 1, 1876. He died at Logansport, very suddenly, 
of heart disease, June 17, 1877. 

Joseph E. McDonald was born in Butler County, Ohio, 
Aug. 29, 1819; taken to Indiana in 1826, and at LaFayette was 
apprenticed to the saddler's trade; was two years in college. 
but did not graduate; studied law, and was admitted to tiie 
bar in 1843, and commenced practice; was Prosecuting At- 
torney in 1843-'47; was elected a Representative in Congress 
as a Democrat in 1849, receiving 7,432 votes against 7,098 
for Lane, Whig, and served from Dec. 3, 1849, to March 
3, 1851. In 1856 he was elected Attorney-General of Indi- 
ana, and in 1858 re-elected; in 1859 removed to Indianapo- 
lis; in 1864 was the unsuccessful candidate for Governor ot 
Indiana, but in 1875 he was elected U. S. Senator, as a Dem- 
ocrat, to succeed D. D. Pratt, Republican. 


Daniel W. Voorhees was born in Fountain County, Ind., 
Sept. 26, 1S2S; graduated at the Asbury University in 1849; 
studied law; admitted to the bar in 1S51, when he commenced 
practice at Crawford sville; was defeated as a candidate for 
Congress in 1857, by only 230 votes in a total of 22,374, 
James Wilson being his opponent; was appointed by Presi- 
dent Buchanan, U. S. Attorney for Indiana, 1858-'60. In 
1859 he went to Virginia as counsel for John E. Cook, one of 
John Brown's raiders; was elected a Eepresentative to Con- 
gress from Indiana in 1861. receiving 12,535 votes against 
11,516 votes for T. H. Nelson, Republican; was re-elected in 
1863, receiving 12,457 votes against 9,976 for H. D. Scott, 
Republican; was again elected in 1S65, by 12,880 votes, 
against 12,296 for Washburn, but the latter in 1866 success- 
fully contested his seat; was again re-elected twice, serving 
from March 4, 1869, to March 3, 1873; was appointed U. S. 
Senator Nov. 12, 1877, to serve in place of O. P. Morton, anci 
in 1879 was elected for a full term. 

Benjamin Harrison, born Aug. 20, 1833, at North Bend, 
Ohio; entered Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, and gradu- 
ated in June, 1852, fourth in a class of sixteen; settled in In- 
dianapolis in 1854, and entered into the practice of law. In 
the fall of 1860 he was elected reporter of the Supreme Court 
of Indiana. In 1862 he entered the army, recruiting Com- 
pany A, of the Seventieth Indiana Regiment, with a Lieuten- 
ant's recruiting commission, and Governor Morton gave him 
the command of the regiment, numbering 1,010 men, and 
marched to the field, Kentucky then demanding his services. In 
the Atlanta campaign his regiment was in the Third Brigade, 
Twentietli Army Corps, commanded by General Hooker. 
When General Biittertield left the division. Colonel Harri- 
son was assigned to the command of the brigade; was mus- 
tered out as Brevet Brigadier-General. On his return to 
Indiana he was re-elected reporter of the Supreme Court, 
and became a partner in the law firm of Porter, Harrison & 
Fishback. In 1876 he ran for Governor of Indiana, against 
James D. Williams, and was defeated. He was elected U. S. 
Senator in 1881, for a full term. 



SuPEEMACiES.— States of the Union. — Settlement, Origin, 
Names, etc. — Population bi- Counties. — Population of 
Cities and Towns, 1850 to 1880. — -Valuation, Receipts 
AND Expenditures from 1840 to 1883. — Manufactures. 
— Railroads. — Foe Ready Reference of Great Impor- 

Indiana belonged to the '• Territory of Louisiana " till 1721; 
was then included in Illinois as a '• District " of said Territory 
until 1774-, then included in the '• Province of Quebec" until 
1788; then was a part of the "Territory Northwest of the 
Ohio River" until 1800; then "Indiana Territory" until 
1816, since which time it has been a "State." French to 
1774; British, 1774 to 1788; LT. S. Government, 1788 to the 
present time. 

states of the union. 

their settlement, origin of name and meaning, coanomen, mottoes, 

admission into the union, area, etc , etc. 

Alabama. — This State was first explored by La Salle in 1684, 
and settled by the French at Mobile in 1711, and admitted as 
a State in 1817. Its name is Indian, and means '• Here we 
rest." Has no motto. Area 50,722 square miles. Montgom- 
ery is the capital. Governor's salary, $3,000. Length ot 
term, two years. 

Arkansas.— BecdimQ a State in 1836. Area, 52,198 square 
miles. Little Rock is the capital. Its motto is Regnant 
Poj9M^i—" The people rule." It has the Indian name of its 
principal river. It is called the " Bear State." Governor's 
salary, $3,500; term, two years. 


California. — Has a Greek motto, Eureka, which means "I 
have found it." It derived its name from the bay forming 
the peninsula of Lower California, and was first applied by 
Cortez. It was first visited by Spaniards in 1542, and by the 
celebrated English navigator, Sir Francis Drake, in 1578. In 
1846 Fremont took possession of it, defeating the Mexicans, 
in the name of the United States, and it was admitted as a 
State in 1850. Area, 188,982 square miles. Sacramento is 
the capital. Governor's term, four years; salary, S6,000. 

Colorado. — Contains 106,475 square miles. AVas admitted 
as a State in 1876. It has a Latin motto. Nil sine Numiiie, 
which means, " Nothing can be done without divine aid." It 
was named from its river. Denver is the capital. Govern- 
or's salary, $3,000; term, two years. 

Connecticut. — Qai transtulit sustinet, "He who brought 
us over sustains us," is her motto. It was named from the 
Indian Qnonch-ta-Cut, signifying " Long Elver." It is called 
the " Nutmeg State." Area, 4,674 square miles. Hartford 
is the capital. Salary of Governor, $2,000; term, two years. 

Delaware. — "Liberty and Independence," is the motto of 
this State. It was named after Lord De La Ware, an English 
statesman, and is called "The Blue Hen," and the " Diamond 
State." It was first settled by the Swedes in 1638. It was 
one of the original thirteen States. Has an area of 2,120 
square miles. Dover is the capital. Governor's salary, 
$2,000; term, two years. 

Florida. — Was discovered by Ponce de Leon in 1512, on 
Easter Sunday, called by the Spaniards, Pascua Florida, 
which, with the variety and beauty of its flowers at this early 
season, caused him to name it Florida — which means in Span- 
ish, flowery. Its motto is, "In God we trust." It was ad- 
mitted into the Union in 1845. It has an area of 59,268 
square miles. Its capital is Tallahassee. Governor's term, 
four years; salary, $8,500. 

Georgia. — Owes its name to George II. of England, who 
first established a colony there in 1732. Its motto is " Wis- 
dom, justice and moderation." It was one of the original 
States. Capital, Atlanta. Area, 58,000 square miles. Gov- 
ernor's salary, $4,000; term, four years. 


Illinois. — Motto, " State Sovereignty, National Union." 
Name derived from the Indian word Illini, meaning, "Supe- 
rior men." It is called the " Prairie State," and its inhab- 
itants, " Suckers." Was iirst explored by the French in 
1673, and admitted into the Union in 1818. Area, 55,410 
square miles. Capital, Springfield. Governor elected for 
tour years; salary, $6,000. 

Ind'iana. — Is called the "Hoosier State. Was explored in 
1682, and admitted as a State in 1816. Its name was sug- 
gested by its numerous Indian population. Area, 33,809 
square miles. Capital, Indianapolis. Governor's salary, 
$5,000; term, four years. 

Iowa. — Is an Indian name and means, "This is the land." 
Its motto is, " Our liberties we prize, our rights we will main 
tain." It is called tlie "Hawk Eye State." It was first vis- 
ited by Marquette and Joliette in 1673; settled by New 
Englanders in 1833, and admitted into the Union in 1846. 
Des Moines is the capital. It has an area of 55,045 square 
miles. Governor's salary, $3,000; term, two years. 

Kansas. — Was admitted into the Union in 1861, making the 
thirty-fourth State. Its motto is. Ad astra per aspera, "To 
the stars through difficulties." Its name means "Smoky wa- 
ter," and is derived from one of her rivers. Area, 78,841 square 
miles. The capital is Topeka. Governor's salary, $3,000; 
term, two years. 

KenhwJcy. — Is the Indian name for " At the head of the 
rivers." Its motto is, " United we stand, divided we fall." 
The sobriquet of " dark and bloody ground " is applied to 
this State. It was first settled in 1769, and admitted in 
1792 as the fifteenth State. Area, 37,680 square miles. Cap- 
ital, Frankfort. Governor's salary, $5,000; term, four years. 

Louisiana. — Was called after Louis XIV"., who, at one time 
owned that section of the country. Its motto is " Union and 
Confidence." It is called the " Creole State." It was vis- 
ited by La Salle in 1684, and admitted into the Union in 1812, 
making the eighteenth State. Area, 46,431 square miles. 
Capital, New Orleans. Governor's salary, $4,000; term, four 

Maine. — Tliis State was called after the province of Maine 
in France, in compliment of Queen Henrietta, of England, 


who owned that province. Its motto is Dirigo, meaning " I 
direct." It is called " The Pine Tree State." It was settled 
by the English in 1625, and was admitted as a State in 1820. 
Area, 31,766 square miles. Governor's term, one year; sal- 
ary, $2,000. 

Maryland. — Was named after Henrietta Maria, Queen of 
Charles I. of England. It has a Latin motto, Cresciteet mul- 
tlplicamini, meaning " Increase and Multiply." It was set- 
tied in 1634, and was one of the original States. It has an 
area of 11,124: square miles. Capital, Annapolis. Govern- 
or's salary, §4,500; term, four years. 

Massachusetts. — Is the Indian for " The country around the 
great hills." It is called the "Bay State," from its numerous 
bays. Its motto is Ense petit pJacidam sub lihertate qu ietem, 
" By the sword she seeks placid rest in liberty." It was set- 
tled in 1620 at Plymouth by English Puritans. It was one of 
the original thirteen States, and was the first to take up arms 
against the English during the Revolution. Area, 7,800 square 
miles. Boston is the capital. Governor's salary, $5,000; 
term, one year. 

Michigan. — Latin motto, Tiiehor, and Si quwris peninsio- 
lain ammnam cii'Gumspice, "I will defend" — " If you seek a 
pleasant peninsula, look around you." The name is a con- 
traction of two Indian words meaning "Great Lake." It was 
early explored by Jesuit missionaries, and in 1837 was admit- 
ted into the Union. It is known as the "'Wolverine State." 
It contains 56,243 square miles. Capital, Lansing. Gov- 
ernor's salary, $1,000; term, two years. 

Minnesota. — Is an Indian name, meaning, "Cloudy water." 
It has a French motto, VEtoile du Nord—''T\\e Star of the 
North." It was visited in 1682 by La Salle, settled in 1846, 
and admitted into the Union in 1858. It contains 83,531 
square miles. St. Paul is the capital. Governor's salary, 
$3,000; term, two years. 

Mississippi. — Is an Indian name meaning, "Long river," 
and the State is named from the "Father of Waters. " The 
State was first explored by De Soto in 1541; settled by the 
French at ISTatchez in 1716, and was admitted into the Union 
in 1817. It has>n area of 47,156 square miles. Jackson is 
the capital. Governor's salary, $4,000; term, four years. 


Missouri.- — Is derived from the Indian word "muddy," 
which more properly applies to the river that flows through 
it. Its motto is Sal as populi suprema lex esto, " Let the 
welfare of the people be the supreme law." The State was 
first settled by the French near Jeflerson City in 1719, and in 
1821 was admitted into the Union. It has an area of 67,380 
square miles, equal to 43,123,200 acres. Capital, Jeflerson 
City. Its inhabitants are known by the oflensive cognomen 
ofPnkes." Governor's salary, $5,000; term, four years. 

NebrasJca. — Has for its motto, "Equality before the law." 
Its name is derived from one of its rivers, meaning "broad 
and shallow, or low." It was admitted into the Union in 
1867. Its capital is Lincoln. It has an area of 75,995 square 
miles. Governor's salary, $2,500; term, two years. 

Nevada. — " The Snowy Land," derived its name from the 
Spanisli. Its motto is Latin, VoIe?is et potens., and means 
"willing and able." It was settled in 1850, and admitted 
into the Union in 1864. Capital, Carson City. It has an 
area of 112,090 square miles. Governor's salary, $6,000 ; 
term, four years. 

New Hampshire. — Was first settled at Dover by the English 
in 1623. Was one of the original States. Has no motto. It 
is named from Hampshire County in England. It also bears 
the name of "The Old Granite State." It has an area of 
9,280 miles, which equals 9,239;200 acres. Concord is the 
capital. Governor's salary, $1,000 ; term, one year. 

Neio Jersey. — Was named in honor ot the Island of Jersey 
in the British channel. Its motto is " Liberty and Indepen- 
dence." It was first settled at Bergen by the Swedes in 1624. 
It is one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 
8,320 square miles, or 5,324,800 acres. Capital, Trenton. 
Governor's salary, $5,000; term, three years. 

New Yo7'k.—T\i& "Empire State" was named by the Duke 
of York, afterward King James II. of England. It has a 
Latin motto, Excelsior, which means '"Still Higher." It was 
first settled by the Dutch in 1614 at Manhattan. It has an 
area of 47,000 square miles, or 30,080,000 acres. It is one of 
the original thirteen States. Capital is Albany. Governor's 
salary, $10,000; term, three years. 

North Carolina. — Was named after Charles IX., King ot 


France. It is called "The Old North," or " The Turpentine 
State." It was first visited in 152i by a Florentine navi- 
gator, sent out by Francis I., King of France. It was settled 
at Albemarle in 1663. It was one of the original thirteen 
States. It has an area of 50,704 square miles, equal to 32,- 
450,560 acres. Kaleigh is the capital. Governor's salary, 
$3,000 ; term, four years. 

Ohio. — Took its name from the river on its Southern 
boundary, and means "beautiful." Its motto is linperimn 
m Imperio — "An Empire in an Empire." It was first per- 
manently settled in 1787 at Marietta by New Englanders. It 
was admitted as a State in 1803. Its capital is Columbus. It 
contains 39,964 square miles, or 25,576,960 acres. Governor's 
salary, $4,000; term, two years. 

Oregon. — Owes its Indian name to its principal river. Its 
motto is Alls volaf propriis — " She flies with her own wings." 
It was visited by tlie Spaniards in the sixteenth centur}'. It 
was settled by the English in 1813, and admitted into the 
Union in 1859. Its capital is Salem. It has an area of 95,- 
274 square miles, equal to 60,975,360 acres. Governor's 
salary, $1,500; term, four years. 

P en n sylvan id. — This is the "Keystone State," and means 
"Penn's woods," and was so called after AVilliam Penii, its 
original owner. Its motto is, "Virtue, liberty and indepen- 
dence." A colony was established by Penn in 16S2. The 
State was one of the original thirteen. It has an area of 46,- 
000 square miles, equaling 29,440,000 acres. Harrisburg is 
the capital. Governor's salary, $10,000; term of office, three 

Rhode Island. — This, the smallest of the States, owes its 
name to the Island of Ehodes in the Mediterranean, which 
domain it is said to greatly I'esemble. Its motto is " Hope," 
and it is familiar!}' called "Little Rhody." It was settled by 
Roger Williams in 1636. It was one of the original thirteen 
States. It has an area of 1,306 square miles, or 835,840 acres. 
Its capital is Providence. Governor's salary, $1,000; term, 
one year. 

South Carolina. — The Palmetto State wears the Latin name 
of Charles IX., of France (Carolus). Its motto is Latin, 
Animis opihusque parati, " Ready in will and deed." The 


first permanent settlement was made at Port Eoyal in 1670, 
where the French Ilnguenots had failed three-quarters of a 
century before to found a settlement. It is one of the original 
thirteen States. Its capital is Columbia. It has an area of 
29,385 square miles, or 18,806,400 acres. Salary of Gov- 
ernor, $3,500 ; term, two years. 

Tennessee. — Is the Indian name for the "River of the Bend," 
i.e. the Mississippi, which forms its western boundary. She 
is called "The Big Bend State." Her motto is, "Agriculture, 
Commerce." It was settled in 1757, and admitted into the 
Union in 1796, making the sixteenth State, or the third ad- 
mitted after the Revolutionary war — Vermont being the first, 
and Kentucky the second. It has an area of 45,600 square 
miles, or 29,184,000 acres. Nashville is the capital. Gov- 
ernor's salary, $4,000; term, two years. 

Texas. — Is the American word for the Mexican name by 
which all that section of the country was known before it was 
ceded to the United States. It is known as "The Lone Star 
State." The first settlement was made by La Salle in 1685. 
After the independence of Mexico in 1822, it remained a 
Mexican Province until 1836, when it gained its indepen- 
dence, and in 1845 was admitted into the Union. It has an 
area of 237,504 square miles, equal to 152,002,560 acres. 
Capital, Austin. Governor's salary, $4,000; term, two years. 
Vermont. — Bears the French name of her mountains, Verde 
Mont, "Green Mountains." Its motto is "Freedom and 
Unity." It was settled in 1731, and admitted into the Union 
in 1791. Area 10,212 square miles. Capital, Montpelier. 
Governor's salary, $1,000 ; term, two years. 

Virginia. — The Old Dominion, as this State is called, is 
the oldest of the States. It was named in honor of Queen 
Elizabeth, the "Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir "Walter 
Raleigh made his first attempt to colonize that region. Its 
motto is Sic semijer tyramiis, " So always with tyrants." It 
was first settled at Jamestown, in 1007, by the English, being 
the first settlement in the United States. It is one of the orig- 
inal thirteen States, and had before its division in 1862, 61,- 
352 square miles, but at present contains but 38,352 square 
miles, equal to 24,545,280 acres. Richmond is the capital. 
Governor's salary, $5,000; term, four years. 

West Virginia. — Motto, Montani semper liberi, '•Mount- 
aineers are always free." This is the only State ever formed, 
nnder the Constitution, by the division of an organized State. 
This was done in 1862, and in 1S63 was admitted into the 
Union. It has an area of 23,000 square miles, or 14,720,000 
acres. Capitol, Charleston. Governor's salary, $2,700; term, 
four years. 

Wisconsin. — Is an Indian name, and means "Wild-rushing 
channel." Its motto, Clvltatus successit harhartim, "The 
civilized man succeeds the barbarous." It is called "The 
Badger State." The State was visited by the French ex- 
plorers in 1665, and a settlement was made in 16G9 at Green 
Bay. It was admitted into the Union in 1848. It has an 
area of 52,924 square miles, equal to 34,511,360 acres. Gov- 
ernor's salary, $5,000; term, two years. 

The salary of the Governors of Territories is $2,600 per 







1870. 1 1880. 

18T0. 1880. 



1,333' 15,385 

S-',M86 a),016 


I3.942I 17,-37 





1.-1,1.00 i9,-.;« 


Population of the United States in 1880, 50,155,783. 


ANA IN 1850, 1860, 1870 and 1880. 







Browns! own 

Cambridge City. . 






Columbia City 












Franklin City 


Fort Wayne ... . 















La Fayette 


La Pone 
































8,1, >)« 







































Mount Vernon. . 




Michigan City . . 








New Castle 

North Vernon . . 
New Harmony. . 

New Albany 







Rising Sun 










South Bend 




Tell City , 


Terre Haute . . . , 

Union City 






Williamsport. . . 


Winchester .... 



Waterloo City. . 











8. 9.50 1 









The wealth and progress of the State can better be shown 
bj' giving the assessed valuation by decades, as the changes in 
that of real estate is only made once in ten years. The prog- 
ress of the last half century, or nearly that cycle of time, is 
one in which any State might be proud. The assessed valu- 
ation is also known to exceed in round numbers two-thirds of 
the real or true value of the property of the State, and in 
many cases this is too high a rate, for even less than fifty per 
cent, of its true value is often returned upon the assessment 
roll. But so far as that is concerned, it is universal, and in 
comparison of counties and States, the assessed value would 
be the proper figures for a guide. 

In ISiO the assessed valuation of the State was $91,756,- 
018; the amount received from taxation, $186,653.04; ex- 
penditures for the year, $179,658.25. 

In 1850, the assessed valuation of the State was $137,443,- 
565; the amount of expenditures were $1,513,534.04; re- 
ceipts, $1,432,442.78, the State falling behind. 

In 1860, the assessed valuation of the State was $455,011,- 
378; the amount of receipts from taxation, $1,658,217.88; 
expenditures, $1,621,107.48. 

In 1870, the assessed valuation of the State was $662,283,- 
178; received from taxation, $3,589,889; expenditures, $3,- 

Amount of State debt, Nov. 1, 1880, $4,998,178.34, bear- 
ing 2^ to 5 per cent, interest. 

State receipts, for year ending Nov. 1, 1880, $3,689,170.56. 

State expenditures for year, $3,387,057.11. 

Amount of taxable property as assessed, 1880: Eeal, $525,- 
413,900; personal, $192,382,202; total, $717,796,102. 

Rate of State tax, 30 cents on each $100. 


Besides the great agricultural and stock products of the 
State, Indiana has made wonderful strides in manufactures, 
especially in the decade between 1870 and 1880, and the few 
succeeding years. This manufacturing interest developed at 


an early day for this Western country, and first took an active 
start in 1840. It grew slowly but surely, and had secured a 
small foothold in 1850. From that time on its progress has 
been wonderful, so much so that Indiana stands now among 
the acknowledged manufacturing States of the Union. The 
mineral resources of the State have done much to develop 
manufacture, and since this latter source of wealth has only 
been productive, to any extent, the past fifteen years, manu- 
factures have increased more rapidly during that time. 


Manufacturing establishments. . 

Steam engines employed 

Total horsepower 

Total No. walerwheels 

Horse-power waterwheels 

Hands employed 

No. males over 16 years 

No. females over 15 years 

No. of youths 

Capital employed 

Wages paid ... 

Cost of material 

Value of products 

$ 53,052,425 



The above statistics of manufacturing in Indiana, for the 
years 1850, 1860 and 1870, were compiled from the reports 
of the Bureau of Statistics. 

The principal articles of e.^port from the State at the pres- 
ent time are pork and flour. The former is mostly produced 
in the southern, and the latter in the northern part of the 
State. To these great staples may be added horses, mules, 
fat cattle, corn, poultry, butter, most of the agricultural prod- 
ucts of the "West, and a wide range of articles of manufiict- 
nre. The numerous canals and railroads which intersect 
each other at many points in the State afford great facilities 
for transportation, so that the producers can reach any mar- 
ket desired at a normal expense. For the year 1880 the cen- 
sus report gives us the following figures: 

Manufacturing establishments, 11,198; capital employed, 
$65,742,962; value of material, $100,262,917; value of prod- 

uct, SliSiOOe,*!!; number of hands employed, 69,508; total 
amount of wages paid, $21,960,888. 

This shows a profit on the capital invested within a fraction 
of forty per cent., and on the cost ot production a fraction 
over twenty-one per cent. 


There were 144,000 miles of telegraph lines in the United 
States, Jan. 1, 1883. 

There were 245,000 telephones in use and 700 telephone ex- 
changes, Jan. 1, 1883. 

Indiana had, Jan. 1, 1883, 478 periodicals, of which 40 
were daily papers and 404 weeklies. The remainder were 
monthlies, etc. 

The census gives 70,008 persons over ten years of age in 
Indiana who could not read, and 110,761, white and colored, 
who could not write. 

The total receipts of the postoffices of Indiana, 1882, were 
$1,112,536, and the total expenses, $1,109,170. Receipts 
over expenses, $3,366. 

Indiana mined, up to 1882, $40.13 worth of gold. This is 
not generally known, nor where it came from. She mined 
no silver. 

The Northwest Territory was settled in 1787. 

The Territory of Indiana was organized 1800. 

The State of Indiana was organized 1816. 

Wayne County, Ind., was organized 1810. 

The first capital of the Territory was Vincennes, 1800. 

The second capital was Corydon, Clark County, 1805. 

The first State capital, Corydon, Clark County, 1816. 

The second State capital, Indianapolis, 1825. 

The first State capitol completed, 1S35. 

The first session held in it, December, 1835. 

Kichmond laid out in 1816 ; incorporated, 1818. 


Alaska was ceded to the United States by Russia, June 20, 
The old United States Bank was first chartered Feb. 25, 

1791, and the second charter granted March, 1816, and ex- 
pired Marcli 3, 1836. 

The s;reat Chicago fire occurred Oct. 8, 1871 ; loss, $195,- 

The great Boston fire occurred Nov. 9, 1872 ; loss, $73,- 

The Dorr Rebellion, in Rhode Island, 1812. 

The Electoral Commission Act approved Jan. 29, 1877. 

The first National Convention of the Free Soil party at 
Bufialo, Aug. 9, 1848. 

Lee's surrender at Appomattox, April 12, 1865. 

Lincoln assassinated April 14, 1865. 

Congress declared war against Mexico, May 13, 1846. 

The Monroe Doctrine was declared by President Monroe 
in his message Dec. 2, 1823. 

Mormons first settled at Salt Lake, Utah, July 24, 1847. 

The Continental Congress passed the "Ordinance of 1787 " 
Sept. 15, 1787. 

Pianos invented in 1710. 

Postage stamps first used in the United States, 1847 ; in 
England, 1840. 

The first sewing machine, Howe, inventor, 1846. 

The Mormon prophet, Joseph Smith, killed at Carthage, 
111., June 27, 1844. 

Morse invented the telegraph 1835. 

First telegraph in operation May 27, 1844, between Balti- 
more and Washington cities. 

First Atlantic .telegraph cable, 1858. 

First speaking telephone, Bell's, May 14, ,1877. 

Washington was inaugurated the first President April 30, 

The Yellowstone National Park Act was passed by Con- 
gress Feb. 28, 1871. 

The Union Pacific Railroad completed across the continent 
May 7, 1869. 

The first railroad in the United States, Oct. 2, 1828. 


Education. — The Public Schools. — Their Pkogeess. — Indi- 
ana State Univeksity. — Purdue University. — Indiana 
State Normal Schools. — Denominational and Private 
Institutions of Learning. — State Pomo logical Society. — 
Benevolent AND Penal Institutions. — State Capitol. — 
Some Important Laws. — Social Statistics. — The First 
Paper Published in Indiana. 


The subject of education has been referred to in almost 
every gubernatorial message from the organization of the 
Territory to the jiresent time. It is indeed the favorite 
enterprise of the Hoosier State. In the first survey of Western 
hinds, Congress set apart a section of land in every township, 
generally the sixteenth, for school purposes, the disposition 
of the land to be in hands of the residents of the respective 
townships.* Besides this, to this State were given two en- 
tire townships for the use of a State Seminary, to be under 
the control of the Legislature. Also, the State Constitution 
provides that all tines for the breach of law and all commuta- 
tions for militia service be appropriated to the use of county 
seminaries. In 1S25 the common-school lands amounted to 
680,207 acres, estimated at $2 an acre, and valued therefore 
at $1,216,044. At this time the seminary at Bloomington, 
supported in part by one of these township grants, was very 

There were also seminaries the same year in active oper- 
ation in Clark, Union, Knox, Monroe, Gibson, and Orange 

♦The history of subsequent legislation for the benefit of common schools 
is given in detail in the chapter devoted to the public schools of Wayne 


counties, and the Cambridge Academy, in Dearborn County, 
besides the common schools of tlie State. Tlie latter, how- 
ever, were not in an advanced condition at that earl3' day. 

The permanent common-school fund has been increased 
during the year 1882-'83, $70,747.79. This entire fund now 
amounts to $9,207,411.51, and is larger than that of any 
other State. The several coiinties hold and loan on mort- 
gaged real estate, equal to twice the value thereof, .$5,204,- 
252.60 of the permanent school fund. During the past year 
$354,440 were expended in building school-houses. Space 
forbids an extended school history of the State, but that 
history is familiar to the people of each locality, and one 
county, in a measure, is but a repetition of another. The 
State may well be proud of the exalted position she holds 
among her sisters as the acknowledged head of the educa- 
tional progress of the Union. 


In 1802 Congress granted lands and a charter to the people 
of that portion of the Northwest Territoi-y residing at Yin- 
cennes, for the erection and maintenance of a seminary of 
learning in that early settled district. Congress had done 
the same for Ohio. In 1807 an act passed the Legislature in- 
corpoiating the Vincennes University and naming the follow- 
ing gentlemen as a Board of Trustees: Wm 11. Harrison, 
Jno. Gibson, Thos. H. Davis, Henry Vanderburgh, Walter 
Taylor, Benj. Parke, Peter Jones, James Johnson, John Rice 
Jones, Geo. "Wallace, Wm. Bullitt, Elias McNamee. Jno. 
Badolet, Henry Hnrst, Geo. W.Johi.ston, Francio Vigo, Jacob 
Kuykendall, Sam'l McKee, Nathaniel Ewing, Geo. Leech, 
Luke Decker, Sam'l Gwathmey and John Johnson. A sale of 
a township of land in Gibson County was ordered, being part 
of the grant of Congress in 1802, the proceeds to be applied 
to the object of education, but the sale was slow and the pro- 
ceeds small. The members of the board seemed to forget 
the importance of their duty, failed to meet, and the institu- 
tion not only dropped out of existence, but seemed, also, out 
of memory. 

In 1816 Congress granted another townsliip in Monroe 


County, located within its present limits, and the foundation 
of a university was laid. Four years later, and after Indiana 
was erected iuto a State, an act of the local Legislature ap- 
pointing another Board of Trustees and authorizing them to 
select a location for a university and to enter into contracts 
for its construction, was passed. The new board met at 
Bloomington and selected a site at that place for the location 
of the present building, entered into a contract for the erec- 
tion of the same in 1822, and in 1825 had the satisfaction of 
being present at the inauguration of the university. The first 
session was commenced under the Eev. Bayard R. Hall, 
with twenty students, and when the learned professor could 
only boast of a salary of $150 a year; yet, on this very limited 
sum the gentleman worked with energy and soon brought 
the enterprise through all its elementary stages to the position 
of an academic institution. Dividing the year into two 
sessions of five months each, the board, acting under his ad- 
vice, changed the name to the Indiana Academy, under 
which title it was duly chartered. In 1827 Prof. John H. 
Harney was raised to the chairs of mathematics, natural phil- 
osophy and astronomy, at a salary of $300 a year, and the 
salary of Mr. Hall raised to $400 a year. In 1828 the name 
was again changed by the Legislature to the Indiana Col- 
lege, and the following professors appointed over the differ- 
ent departments: Rev. Andrew Wylie, D. D., Prof, of Mental 
and Moral Philosophy and Belles Lettres; John H. Harney, 
Prof, of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy; and Rev. Bay- 
ard R. Hall, Prof, of Ancient Languages. This year, also, 
dispositions were made for the sale of Gibson County lands 
and for th'e erection of a new college building. This action 
was opposed by some legal difficulties, which after a time 
were overcome, and the new college building was put under 
construction, and continued to prosper until 1854, when it 
was destroyed by fire, and 9,000 volumes, with all the ap- 
paratus, were consumed. The curriculum was then carried 
out in a temporary building, while a new structure was 
going up. 

In 1873 the new college, with its additions, was completed, 
and the routine of studies continued. A museum of natural 


history, a laboratory and the Owen cabinet were added, and the 
standard of the studies and morale generally increased in ex- 
cellence and in strictness. 

The university buildings are in the collegiate Gothic style, 
simply and truly carried out. The building, fronting College 
avenue, is 145 feet in front. It consists of a central building 
60 feet by 53, with wings each 38 feet by 26, and the whole, 
three stories high. The new building, fronting the west, is 
130 feet by 50. Buildings lighted by gas. 

The faculty numbers thirteen. 

The university may now be considered on m fixed founda- 
tion, carrying out the intention of the president, who aimed 
at scholarship rather than numbero, and demands the atten- 
tion of eleven professors, together with the State Qeologist, 
who is ex-officio member of the faculty, and required to lecture 
at intervals and look after the geological and mineralogical 
interests of the institution. The faculty of medicine is rep- 
resented by eleven leading physicians of the neighborhood. 
The faculty of law requires two resident professors, and the 
other chairs are remarkably well represented. 

The university receives from the State annually about $15,- 
000, and promises with the aid of other public grants and 
private donations to vie with any other State university within 
the Eepublic. 


This is a "college for the benefit of agricultural and the 
mechanic arts," as provided for by act of Congress, July 2, 
1862, donating lands for this purpose to tlie extent of 30,000 
acres of the public domain to each Senator and Representa- 
tive in the Federal assembly. Indiana having in Congress 
at that time thirteen members, became entitled to 390,000 
acres; but as there was no Congress land in the State at this 
time, scrip had to be taken. The national gift was accepted 
by the Legislature, and on March 6, 1865, organized a " Board 
of Trustees of the Indiana Agricultural College." This board, 
by authority, sold the scrip April 9, 1867, for $212,238.50, 
which sum has increased to about $100,0(iO and is invested in 
U. S. bonds. The location of the college was made May, 


1869. John Purdue, of LaFayette, gave $1.50,000 and Tippe- 
canoe County $50,000, which secured the institution and the 
name was changed to Purdue University. Donations were 
also made by the Battle Ground Institute and the Battle 
Ground Institute of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The buildings are located on the 100-acre tract near Chaun- 
cey, which Mr. Purdue gave in addition to his munificent 
donation, and to which eighty-six and a half acres more have 
since been added. The boai-ding-house, dormitory, the labora- 
tory, boiler and gas house, a frame armory and gymnasium, 
stable with shed, and a workshop are all to the north of the 
gravel road, and form a gronp of buildings within a circle ot 
600 feet. Of these buildings, the boarding-house is a brick 
structure, in the modern Italian style, flanked by a turret at each 
of the front angles and measuring 120 feet front by 68 feet 
deep. The dormitory is a quadrangular edifice, in the plain 
Elizabethan style, four stories high, arranged to accommo- 
date 125 students. Like the other buildings, it is heated by 
steam and lighted by gas. Bathing accommodations are in 
each end of all the stories. The laboratory is almost a dupli- 
cate of a similar department in Brown University, R. I. It is 
a much smaller building than the boarding-house, but yet suffi- 
ciently large to meet the requirements. A collection of min- 
erals, fossils and antiquities, purchased from Mr. Richard 
Owen, former President of the institution, occupies the tem- 
porary cabinet or museum, pending the construction of a new 
building. The military hall and gymnasium is 100 feet front- 
age by 50 feet deep, and only one story high. The uses to 
which this hall is devoted are exercises in physical and military 
drill. The boiler and gas house is an establishment replete in 
itself, possessing every facility for supplying the buildings of 
the university with adequate heat and light. It is further 
provided with pumping works. Convenient to this depart- 
ment is the retort and great meters of the gas house, capable 
of holding 9,000 cubic feet ot gas, and arranged upon the 
principles of modern science. The barn and shed form a 
single building, botli useful, convenient and ornamental. 

In connection with the agricultural department of the uni- 
versity, a brick residence and barn were erected and placed at 


the disposal of the farm superintendent, Major L. A. Burke. 

The buildings enumerated above have been erected at a 
cost approximating the following : Boarding-house, $37, - 
807.07; laboratory, $15,000; dormitory, $32,000; military 
hall and gymnasium, $6,410.47; boiler and gas house, $1,- 
81-4]; barn and shed, $4,500 ; workshop, $1,000; dwelling 
and barn, $2,500. 

Besides the original donations, Legislative appropriations, 
varying in amount, have been made from time to time, and 
Mr. Pierce, the treasurer, has donated his official salary, 
$600 a year, far the] time he served, for decorating the 
grounds, if necessary. 

The university was opened in March, 1S74: only a class 
was formed, however, at that time. In September following 
it was fairly started, a curriculum was adopted, and the first 
term of the Purdue University entered upon. This curricu- 
lum comprised the varied subjects generally pertaining to a 
university course, viz. : In the school of natural sciences — 
physics, industrial mechanics, chemistry, and natural his- 
tory; in the school of engineering — civil and mining, together 
with the principles of architecture; in the school of agricult- 
ure — theoretical and practical agriculture, horticulture and 
veterinary science ; in the military school— the mathematical 
sciences, German and French literature, free-hand and me- 
chanical drawing, with all the studies pertaining to the nat- 
ural and military sciences. Modern languages and natural 
history embrace their respective courses to the fullest extent. 


This institution was founded at Terre Haute in 1870, in 
accordance with the act of the Legislature of that year. The 
building is a large brick edifice situated upon a commanding 
location and possessing some architectural beauties. The 
course of study embraces the legal subjects known as reading, 
writing, spelling, arithmetic, geography. United States his- 
tory, English gi-ammar, physiology, manners and ethics, also 
universal history, the mathematical sciences and many other 
subjects foreign to older institutions. The first studies are 
prescribed by law and must be inculcated ; the second are op- 


tional witli the professors, and in the case of Indiana gener- 
ally hold place in the curriculum of the normal school. 

The model, or training, school, specially designed for the 
training ot teachers, forms a most important factor in State 
educational matters, and prepares teachers of both sexes for 
one of the most important positions in life, viz., that of edu- 
cating the youth of the State. The advanced course of studies, 
together with the higher studies of the normal school, em- 
braces Latin and German, and prepares young men and wo- 
men for entrance to the State University. 


This institution was organized Sept. 16, 1873. The school 
occupies the building known as the Valparaiso Male and Fe- 
male College building. Four teachers were employed. The 
attendance, small at first, increased rapidly and steadily, until 
at the present writing, the eleventh year in the history of the 
school, the yearly enrollment is more than 3,000. The number 
of instructors now employed is twenty-three. 

From time to time additions have been made to the school 
buildings, and numerous boarding halls hare been ei-ected, so 
that now the value of the buildings and grounds owned by 
the school is !? 100,000. 

A large library has been collected, and a complete equip- 
ment of philosophical and chemical apparatus has been pur- 
chased. The department of physiology is su])plied with skele- 
tons, manikins, and everything necessai-y to the demonstration 
of each branch of the subject. A large cabinet is provided for 
the study of geology. In fact, each department of the school 
is completely furnished with the apparatus needed for the 
most approved presentation of every subject. 

The Commercial College in connection is finely fitted up 
and ranks among the foremost business colleges of the United 


Indiana is not behind in literary institutions under de- 
nominational auspices. There are quite a number, all well 
conducted, the attending youths being alone influenced by 
Christian example. 


NoTEE Dame UNivERSiTr, near South Bend, is a Catholic 
institution and is one of the most noted and successful in the 
United States. It was founded in 1842 by Father Sorin. 
The first building was erected in 1843, and the university 
has continued to grow and prosper. At this time it has 
thirty -five professors, twenty-six instructors, nine tutors, and 
a library of 12,000 volumes. The main building has a front- 
age of 244 feet and a depth of 155 feet. The bell of this in- 
stitution, one of the finest in the world and the largest in the 
United States, weighs 13,000 pounds. 

Indiana Asbory University, at Greencastle, is an old 
and now well-established institution under the auspices of 
the Methodist Episcopal church, named after its first bishop, 
Asbury. It was founded in 1835. 

Howard College, not denominational, is located at Ko- 
komo, and was founded in 1869. 

Union Christian College, Christian, at Merom, was or- 
ganized in 1858. 

Moore's Hill College, Methodist Episcopal, situated at 
Moore's Hill, was founded in 1854. 

Earlham College, at Richmond, is under the manage- 
ment of the Orthodox Friends, and was founded in 1859. It 
has 3,300 volumes in its library. 

Wabash College, atCrawfordsville, was organized in 1834. 
Twelve thousand volumes are in its library. Ic is under 
Presbyterian management. 

Concordia College, Lutheran, at Fort Wayne, was founded 
in 1850, and has a library of 3,000 volumes. 

Hanover College, Presbyterian, was organized in 1833, 
at Hanover. Its library has 7,000 volumes. 

Hartsville University, United Erethren, at Hartsville, 
was founded in 1854. 

Northwestern Christian University, Disciples, is located 
at Irvington, near Indianapolis. It was founded in 1854. 
The library has 3,000 volumes. 


This society was formed Oct. 18, 1860. Eeuben Ragan 
was elected its first President, and Wm. H. Loomis, of Ma- 


rion County, its Secretary. A constitution was adopted which 
provide<l for biennial meetings at Indianapolis, in January of 
the year. 

The first meeting was held Jan. 9,1861, and a committeeman 
for each congressional district was appointed, all of them to- 
gether to be known as the "State Fruit Committee," and 
twenty-five members were enrolled daring this session. At 
the regular meeting in 1863 the constitution was so amended 
as to provide for annual session?, and the address of the 
newly elected President, Hon. I. G. D. Nelson, of Allen 
County, urged the establishment of an agricultural college. 
He continued in the good cause until his work was crowned 
with success. 

In 1875 the Lcijislature enacted a law requiring that "one 
of the trustees of Purdue University shall be selected by 
the Horticultural Society." 


By the year 1830, the influx of paupers and invalid per- 
sons was so great that the Governor called upon the Legislat- 
ure to take steps toward regulating the matter, and also to 
provide au asylum for the poor, but that body was very slow 
to act on tiie matter. At the present time, however, there is 
no State in the Union which can boast a better system of be- 
nevolent institutions. The Benevolent Society of Indianap- 
olis was organized in 1843. It was a pioneer institution ; its 
field of work was small at first, but it has grown into great 


The Institute for the Education of the Blind was founded 
by the Legislature of 1817, and first opened in a rented build- 
ing Oct. 1 of that year. The permanent buildings were 
opened and occupied in February, 1853. The original cost 
of the buildings and grounds was $110,000, and the present 
valuation of buildings and grounds approximates $300, (iQO. 
The main building is 90 feet long by 61 deep, and with its 
right antl left wings, each 30 feet in front and 83 in depth, 
give an entire frontage of 150 feet. The main building is five 


stories in height, surmounted by a cupola of the Corinthian 
style, while each wing is similarly overcapped. The porti- 
coes, cornices and verandahs are gotten up with exquisite 
taste, and the former are molded after the principle of Ionic 
architecture. The building is very favorably situated, and 
occupies a space of eight acres. 


In 1843 the Governor was instructed to obtain plans and 
information respecting the care of mutes, and the Legislature 
also levied a tax to provide for them. The first to agitate 
the subject was Wm. Willard, himself a mute, who visited 
Indianapolis in 1843, and opened a school for mutes and con- 
tinued for a year. The next year the Legislature adopted this 
school as a State institution, appointing a Board of Trustees 
for its management, consisting of the Governor and Secretary 
of State, ex-officio, and Revs. Henry Ward Beecher, Phineas 
D.Gurley, L. H. Jameson, Dr. Dunlap, Hon. James Morrison 
and Rev. Matthew Simpson. They rented the large building 
on the southest corner of Illinois and Maryland streets, and 
opened the first State Asylum there in 1844 ; but in 1846, a 
site for a permanent building just east of Indianapolis was 
selected, consisting first of thirty acres, to which 100 more 
have been added. On this site the two first structures were 
commenced in 1849, and completed in the tall of 1850, at a 
cost of $30,000. In 1869 -'70 another building was erected, 
and the throe together now constitute one of the most benefi- 
cent and beautiful institutions to be found on this continent, 
at an aggregate cost of $220,000. The main building has a 
facade of 260 feet. Here are the offices, studj' rooms, the 
quarters of oificers and teachers, the pupils' dormitories and 
the library. The center of this building has a frontage of 
eighty feet, and is five stories iiigh, with wings on either side 
sixty feet in frontage. In this central structure are the 
store-rooms, dining-hall, servants' rooms, hospital, laundry, 
kitchen, bakery, and several school-rooms. Another struc- 
ture known as the "rear building" contains the chapel and 
another set of school-rooms. It is two stories high, the center 
being fifty feet square and the wings 40 x 2(i feet. In addition 


to these there ai-e many detached buildings, containing the 
shops of the industrial department, the engine-house and 

The grounds comprise 105 acres, which in the immediate 
vicinity of the buildings partake of the character of orna- 
mental or pleasure gardens, comprising a space devoted to 
fruits, flowers and vegetables, while the greater ])artis devoted 
to pasture and agriculture. 

The first instructor in the institution was Wni. Willard, a ' 
deaf mute, who had up to lS4i conducted a small school for 
the instruction of the deaf at Indianapolis, and now is em- 
ployed by the State, at a salary of $S00 per annum, to follow 
a similar vocation in its service. 

The Legislature of lS32-'3 first adopted measures provid- 
ing for a State hospital for the insane, but on account of 
financial troubles failed to carry it out. During the year 1842 
the Governor, acting under the direction of the Legislature, 
procured considerable information in regard to hospitals for 
the insane in other States; and Dr. John Evans lectured before 
the Legislature on the subject of insanity and its treatment. 
As a result, plans and suggestions from the superintendents 
and hospitals of other States were submitted to the Legislat- 
ure in 1844, which body ordered the levy of a tax of one cent on 
the $100 for the purpose of establishing the hospital . In 1845 a 
commission was appointed to obtain a site, and Mount Jackson, 
then Ihe residence of Nathaniel Bolton, was selected, and the 
Legislature, in 1846, ordered the commissioners to proceed 
with the erection of the building. Accordingl}', in 1847, the 
central building was completed, at a cost of $75,000. It has 
since been enlarged by the addition of wings, some of which 
are larger than the old central building, until it has become 
an immense structure, having cost over half a million dollars. 

The wings of the main building are four stories high, and 
entirely devoted to wards for patients, being capable ot 
accommodating 500. 

The grounds of the institution comprise 160 acres, and, like 
those of the institute for the deaf and dumb, are beautifully 
laid out. 

The hospital was opened for the reception of patients in 


1848. The principal- structure comprises what is known as the 
central building and the right and left wings. It presents a 
very imposing appearance and shows to advantage its im- 
mense frontage of not less than 624 feet. The central build- 
ing is five stories in height, and contains the store-rooms, 
offices, reception parlors, medical dispensing rooms, mess- 
rooms and the apartments ot tiie superintendent and other 
officers, with those of the female employes. Immediately in 
the rear of the central building, and connected with it by a 
corridor, is the chapel, a building 50 x 60 feet. This chapel 
occupies the third floor, while the under stories hold the kitchen, 
bakery, employes' dining-room, steward's office, employes' 
apartments and sewing-rooms. In rear of this again is the 
engine house, 60 x 50 feet, containing all the paraphernalia 
for such an establishment, such as boilers, pumping works, 
fire plugs, hose, and above, on the second floor, the laundry 
and apartments of male employes. 


The first penal institution of importance is known as the 
" State Prison South," located at Jeffersonville, and was tiie 
only prison until 1859. It was established in 1821. Before 
that time it was customary to resort to the old-time punish- 
ment of the whipping-post. Later the manual labor system 
was inaugurated, and the convicts were hired out to employers, 
among whom were Captain Westover, afterward killed at 
Alamo, Texas, with Crockett, James Keigwin, who in an 
affray was fired at and severely wounded by a convict named 
"Williams, Messrs. Patterson, Hensley, and Jos. R. Pratt. 
During the rule of the latter of these lessees, the attention of 
the authorities was turned to a more practical method of util- 
izing convict labor; and instead of the prisoners being per- 
mitted to serve private entries, their work was turned in the 
dii'ection of their own prison, where for the next few year 
they were employed in erecting the new buildings now known 
as the " State Prison Soutli." This structure, the result of 
prison labor, stands on sixteen acres of ground, and comprises 
the cell houses and work-shops, together with the prisoners' 
garden, or pleasure ground. 



In 1859 the first steps toward the erection of a prison in the 
northern part of the State were taken, and by an act of Legis- 
lature, approved March 5, this year, authority was given o 
construct prison buildings at some point north of the National 
road. For this purpose Si50,000 were appropriated, and a 
large number of convicts from the Jeflersonville prison were 
transported northward to Michigan City, which was just se- 
lected as the location for the new penitentiary. The work 
was soon entered upon, and continued to meet with additions 
and improvements down to a very recent period. So late as 
1875 the Legislature appropriated $20,000 toward the con- 
struction of new cells, and in other directions also the work 
of improvement has been going on. The system of govern- 
ment and discipline is similar to that enforced at the Jeffersou- 
ville prison. 

The prison reform agitation which in this State attained 
telling proportions in 1869, caused a Legislative measure to be 
brought forward, which would have a tendency to ameliorate 
the condition of female convicts. Governor Baker recom- 
mended it to the General Assembly, and the members of that 
body showed their appreciation of the Governor's philan- 
thropic desire by conferring upon the bill the authority of a 
statute; and further, appropriated §50,000 to aid in carrying 
out the objects of the act. After the passage of the act the Gov- 
ernor appointed a Board of Managers, and these gentlemen, se- 
curing the services of Isaac Hodgson, caused him to draft a plan 
of the proposed institution, and further, on his recommendation 
asked the people for an appropriation of another $50,000, 
which the Legislature granted in February, 1873. The work 
of construction was then entered upon and carried out so 
steadily, that on the 6th of September, 1873, the building 
was declared ready for the reception of its future inmates. 
Governor Baker lost no time in proclaiming this fact,and Oct. 
4 he caused the wardens of the State's prisons to be instructed 
to transfer all the female convicts in their custody to the new 


institution which may be said to rest on the advanced intelli- 
gence of the age. It is now called the " Indiana Reforma- 
tory Institution for "Women and Girls." 

This building is located immediately north of the deaf and 
dumb asylum, near the arsenal, at Indianapolis. It is a 
three-story brick structure in the French style, and shows a 
frontage of 174 feet, comprising a main building, with lateral 
and transverse wings. In front of the central portion is the 
residence of the superintendent and his associate reformatory 
officers, while in the rear is the engine house with all the ways 
and means for heating the buildings. Enlargements, addi- 
tions and improvements are still in progress. There is also a 
school and library in the main building, which are sources of 
vast good. 


In 1867 the Legislature appropriated $50,000 to aid in the 
formation of an institution to be entitled a house for the cor- 
rection and reformation of juvenile defenders, and vested 
with full powers in a Board of Control, the members of which 
were to be appointed by the Governor, and with the advice 
and consent of the Senate. The Governor (Baker) had selected 
a site three-fourths of a mile south of Plainiield, and about 
fourteen miles from Indianapolis, and this was concurred in 
by the Board of Control. A fine farm of 225 acres was pur- 
chased, having a fertile soil and a most picturesque situation, 
with a stream of running water. On a plateau in its center a 
site for the proposed house of refuge was fixed. 

A plan whicli ultimately met the approval of the Governor 
and board favored t!ie erection of one principal building, one 
house for a reading-room and hospital, two large mechanical 
shops and eight family houses. Jan. 1, 1868, three family 
houses and work-shop were completed; in 1869 the main 
building and one additional family house were added; but 
previous to this, in August, 1867, a Mr. Frank P. Ainsworth 
and his wife were appointed by the board, superintendent and 
matron respectively, and temporary quarters placed at their 
disposal. In 1869 they removed to the new building. This 
is 64 X 128 feet, and three stories high. In its basement are 


kitchen, laundry and vegetable cellar. The iirst floor is de- 
voted to oflices, visitors' room, house-father and family dining- 
room and store-rooms. The general superintendent's private 
apartments, private offices and five dormitories for officers oc- 
cupy the second floor, while the third floor is given up to the 
assistant superintendent's apartment, library, chapel and 

The family houses are similar in style, forming rectangular 
buildings 36 x 58 feet. The basement of each contains a fur- 
nace room, a store-room and a large wash-room, which is con- 
verted into a play-room during inclement weather. On the 
first floor of each of these buildings are two rooms for the 
house-father and his family, and a school-room, which is also 
convertible into a sitting-room for the boys. On the third 
floor is a family dormitory, a clothes-room and a room for the 
"elder brother," who ranks next to the house-father. And 
since the reception of the first boy, from Hendricks County, 
Jan. 23, 1868, the house plan has proved equally convenient, 
even as the management has proved efficient. 

Other buildings have since been erected. 


About 1832, at the suggestion of the architect who was to 
build the State House, with the concurrence of the commis- 
sioners, the block north of the State House square was re- 
served for sale, to await the determination of the Legislature 
as to the propriety of adding it to the public ground, making 
it an oblong square corresponding to the form of the edifice 
to be erected. The plan drawn by Mr. Town, the artist, was 
adopted by the Legislature, and he was to complete the build- 
ing by November, 1837, for §58,000. The building erected 
in pursuance of this contract served the State until within a 
few years. 


The exemption and homestead laws give every resident 
householder the right to claim as exempt from execution 
]iroperty real or personal, to the amount of $300, on any debt 
founded on contract made since May 6, 1853. This right ex- 


ists vvliile in transitu from one residence to another, within 
the State. There is no homestead exemption. 

The legal rate of interest is six per cent., bnt any other 
rate, not exceeding ten per cent., may be provided for by 
contract in writing. All interest over ten per cent, is illegal, 
as to the excess only. The rate of interest on judgments is 
six per cent, in the absence of a contract, but any rate may 
be provided for by contract, not exceeding, however, ten per 

Regarding judgments of the Supreme and Superior Courts, 
they are liens upon all real estate of defendant liable to exe- 
cution in the county where rendered, for the space of ten 
years, and after the expiration of twenty years are deemed 
satisfied. A transcript of the judgment of any Court of Rec- 
ord may be filed in another county, and from the time of filing 
becomes a lien on the real estate of the judgment debtor in 
that county. An order of attachment binds the defendant's 
property in the county where issued, and becomes a lien from 
the time of delivery to the sheriff. Goods in the hands of a 
consignee are subject to a lien for any debt due from the con- 
signor. Justice's judgments become a lien on real estate from 
the time of filing transcript in the Common Pleas Court. Judg- 
ments on bonds payable to the State become a lien on the 
real estate of the debtor from the commencement of the action. 
Every recognizance binds the real estate of the principal from 
the time it is taken, but that of the surety only from the time 
judgment of forfeiture is taken, those taken by justices in 
criminal cases become a lien from the time of filing in circuit 
or criminal courts.* 

The law regarding liens of mechanics, etc., is also impor- 
tant. Mechanics and all persons furnishing materials for, or 
performing labor upon, any building, or machinery therefor, 
have a lien on the building and real estate upon which it is 
situated for tlieir pay, either jointly or separately, by filing 
notice of intention to hold such lien in the recorder's office 
within sixty days after conclusion of the work or completion 
of building. The lien relates to the time when the work or 
repairs commenced, and has priority over any subsequent 

♦Manual of Laws and Courts. 


claim only. All wlio '' iile under" on action pending prior to 
judgment are allowed a pro rata decree. Sub-contractors 
can acquire lien in the same manner, whether the original 
contractor is paid or not, or thej may give notice to the owner 
to stop payment, and recover whatever is due the contractor. 
The statute gives a lien on all boats and water craft for debts 
contracted for supplies, wages, repairs, etc. A mortgage for 
purchase-money has preference over a prior judgment against 
the purchaser. Mechanics and tradesmen have a lien on 
goods left for alteration or repair; liverymen and feeders, on 
stock left with them; forwarding and commission merchants, 
on goods in storage. Attorneys have a lieu for their fees on 
all judgments taken by them, upon entering notice on the 
docket or order book at the time of taking, giving the amount 
of such fees. 

Touching the law on limitation of actions, we quote from 
the digest of Henry D. Pierce, Esq., as follows: " Actions for 
injuries to person or character, and for penalty or forfeiture 
by statute, must be commenced within two years; against pub- 
lic otKcer or his sureties, within three years; for the recovery 
of real property sold by executors, etc., on a judgment direct- 
ing such sale, by a party to the judgment, his heirs or as- 
signs, subsequent to the date of judgment, within five 
years after confirmation of sale; on accounts and contracts 
not in writing, for use, rents, and profits of real property, for 
injuries to property, and for the recovery of personal prop- 
erty and damages for the detention thereof, for relief against 
frauds and for money collected by public ofiicer, within six 
years; for the recovery of real property sold on execution, 
when action is brought by execution debtor, his heirs or as- 
signs, after date of judgment, within ten years. All actions 
not limited by statute shall be brought within fifteen years 
after the same shall have accrued ; actions on written contracts, 
judgments of a Court of Record, and for the recovery of real es- 
tate, within twenty years. Persons under legal disability may 
bring their actions within two years after such disability is 
removed. Set-off or pa^^ment may be pleaded, notwithstand- 
ing the same are barred by statute. When a cause of action is 
barred by the statute of the State where the defendant re- 


sided at date of contract, the lex loci contractus shall orovern 
the limitation. An acknowledgment or new promise, in or- 
der to operate as a new or continuing contract, must be in 
writing, signed by the party to be charged." 

In reference to the law bearing upon the rights ot married 
women, we have the following brief resume from the pen of 
the same writer: "A married woman may sue and defend 
alone where the action concerns her separate property,or where 
the action is between herself and husband. The wife may 
claim the benefit of the exemption law for her husband in his 
absence. She may qualify as an executri.\ with the consent 
in writing ot her husband. Marriage, after having been 
appointed an administratrix, does not cause her removal if 
her husband consents in writing. Married women may make 
wills as if single. A wife of an insane husband may contract 
in relation to her separate property as a femme sole. A mar- 
ried woman holds her real and personal property and all profits 
therefrom absolutely as lier separate property,and they are not 
liable for the debts of her husband, but she cannot alien or 
encumber her personal or real estate unless her husband join 
in the conveyance. The separate deed of the husband conveys 
no interest in his wife's land. The courts may authorize her 
to sell and convey her own real estate in case of abandonment 
by her husband, or his confinement in the penitentiary, and to 
make any contracts. By the statute of 1S52, tenancies by the 
curtesy and dower are abolished. A widow takes one-third 
of her deceased husband's real estate in fee, free from all 
demands of creditors, where the estate does not exceed ten 
thousand dollars; where it does not exceed twenty thousand 
dollars, one-fourth only; and where it exceeds twenty thousand 
dollars, one-fifth only as against creditors. She takes one-third 
of the personalty. h\ all cases she takes tbree hundred dol- 
lars from the estate without accounting. If a widow marry a 
second husband, she cannot alienate real estate held by virtue 
of her previous marriage, but it goes to her children by the 
former marriage. A second or subsequent wife, if there are 
children by a former wife, takes only a life estate in her hus- 
band's lands unless she have children alive. A widow may 
elect to take under her husband's will, or the law. Alienage 
of the wife does not afi[ect her rights if the husband is a citi- 


zen, or if an alien he be autliorized to liold lands. Tlie wife's 
interest is saved from reversion in the absence of heirs, where 
an estate is given to the husband in consideration of love and 
aiiection. A widow may occupy the dwelling and forty acres 
of land of her deceased husband, free of rent, for one year." 

The following are the only causes upon which divorces can 
be granted under the new law : 1st. Adultery. 2d. Impo- 
tency, existing at time of marriage. 3d. Abandonment for 
two years, -ith. Cruel and inhuman treatment of one party 
by the other. 5th. Habitual drunkenness of either part\% or 
the failure of the husband to make reasonable provision for 
the family. 6th. The failure of the husband to make reason- 
able provision for the family for a period of two years. 7th. 
The conviction in any county, of cither party, of an infamous 

In relation to notes, bills, and pi'otest, the law is interest- 
ing and important: "Bills of exchange and promissory notes, 
payable in banks within the State, are governed by the 'law 
merchant.' On all bills of exchange payable within the State, 
whether sight or time bills, three days of grace are allowed. 
Notes and bills not payable in bank are governed by statutory 
provisions as follows: All notes and bills are negotiable by 
endorsement. The assignee may, in his own name, recover 
against the maker. The suit must be brought in the name of 
the real party in interest. Whatever defense or set-off the 
maker of any such instrument had before notice of assign- 
ment against an assignor, or the original payee, he shall have 
also against their assignee. The maker is entitled to all de- 
fenses against the note in the hands of the assignee which he 
could make against it in the hands of the payee. All notes 
and bills should contain the clause, 'Without any relief what- 
ever from the Valuation or Appraisement Laws of Indiana.' 
The holder of a note or bill, whether negotiable b}' the law 
merchant or by the law of this State, may institute suit 
against thfe whole or any number of the parties liable; but no 
more than one suit at the same term. Damages of five per 
cent, are allowed upon protested bills drawn or negotiated 
in this State, if drawn upon a person at a place out of the 
State ; and ten per cent, if drawn upon a person out of the 
United States. Beyond such damages no interest or charges 


are allowed, except from date of protest. A holder, without 
consideration, cannot recover damages. Protest must, of 
course, be made on the last day of grace, in the usual form. 
If the notary's certificate shows that written notices were duly 
given to the several parties, naming them, it is sufficient evi- 
dence of the fact." 

The law in relation to taxes is important. Taxes attach as 
a lien on real estate on the first day of April in each year. 
Corporation taxes mostly attach on the first day of January. 
Penalties attach on the third Monday in March, annually, and 
after that day all unpaid taxes are collectable by distress and 
sale of personalty. Sales of real estate for taxes occur in 
each county on the first Monday of February annually. All 
lands on which taxes are delinquent for two years are offered. 
After sale the owner has two years in which he may redeem. 
If not redeemed within the time, a deed is made to the pur- 
chaser by the county auditor. In order to sustain a tax sale, 
the party claiming under it must show a substantial compli- 
ance with every provision of the law authorizing the sale. 
After four years no suit to review the title can be brought. A 
tax deed is only 'prima facie evidence of regularity of the pro- 
ceedings, and may be contradicted. Possession under a tax 
deed is adverse though the title be invalid. 

As to wills, all persons of a sound mind, who are twenty- 
one years of age, may make wills and devise all their estate, 
of every kind, to any person or corporation, saving the legal 
provision for the widow. Married women may devise their 
sejjarate property. Wills must be in writing (except nuncu- 
pation, bequeathing not to exceed $100), signed by the testa- 
tor or some person by his direction and in his presence, and 
attested by two persons subscribing as witnesses. Wills may 
be probated by the court of any county where the testator 
resided, or in which he shall die leaving assets, on proof ot 
execution by one or more subscribing witnesses, or by proof 
of handwriting ot the testator and of the witnesses, in case of 
their incompetency, death or absence. Provisions are made 
by statute for contesting the validity and probate of wills, 
either before or within three years after offered to probate. 
Wills executed without the State, and probated in another 
State or country, according to the laws thereof, may in most 


cases be recorded, and shall have the same effect as it executed 
in the State. 

Regarding witnesses, no party in a civil suit is disqualified 
as a witness by reason of interest, and one party to the suit 
may compel the other to testify. Husband and wife are not 
competent witnesses as to matters for or against each other, 
or communications made during marriage. When an execu- 
tor, administrator or guardian is a party, and the judgment 
affects the estate, neither party can testify unless called by the 
adverse party. A want of belief in the Supreme Being only 
affects the credibility. 

The criminal laws of the State of Indiana consist of well- 
defined penalties for various crimes. The list is too long, 
however, to be inserted here. 


The following statistics in regard to churches have been 
collected: The number of church organizations is 4,921 ; 
number of church edifices, 4,462 ; total membership, 444,- 
459; value of church edifices, lots and other property, §10,- 
825,555; ministers' salaries for the year, §1,246,913; other 
church expenses for the year, §293,965 ; missionary and other 
benevolent collections, §187,227; number of Sunday-schools, 
24,003; number attending Sunday-schools, 257,873 ; average 
attendance on public worship, 428,812. 

Tlie number of volumes of books in private and public 
libraries is 1,174,840, and the number of pianos, organs and 
sewing machines, 68,885. 

THE "western sun" 

was the first newspaper published in the Indiana Territory, 
now comprising the four great States of Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin, or tbe State of Indiana, and the 
second in all that country once known as the " Northwestern 
Territory." It was commenced at Vincennes, in 1803, by 
Elihu Stout, of Kentucky, and first called the Indiana Ga- 
zette, and July 4, 1804, was changed to the Western Sun. 
Mr. Stout continued the paper until 1845, amid many dis- 
couragements, when he was appointed Postmaster at that 
place, and sold out the office. 


cases be recorded, and shall have the same effect as it executed 
in the State. 

Regarding witnesses, no party in a civil suit is disqualified 
as a witness by reason of interest, and one party to the suit 
may compel the other to testify. Husband and wife are not 
competent witnesses as to matters for or against each other, 
or communications made during marriage. When an execu- 
tor, administrator or guardian is a party, and the judgment 
affects the estate, neither party can testify unless called by the 
adverse party. A want of belief in the Supreme Being only 
affects the credibility. 

The criminal laws of the State of Indiana consist of well- 
defined penalties for various crimes. The list is too long, 
however, to be inserted here. 


The following statistics in regard to churches have been 
collected: The number of church organizations is 4,921 ; 
number of church edifices, 4,462 ; total membership, 444,- 
459; value of church edifices, lots and other property, §10,- 
825,555; ministers' salaries for the year, $1,246,913; other 
church expenses for the year, §293,965 ; missionary and other 
benevolent collections, §187,227; number of Sunday-schools, 
24,003; number attending Sunday-schools, 257,873 ; average 
attendance on public worship, 428,812, 

The number of volumes of books in private and public 
libraries is 1,174,840, and the number of pianos, organs and 
sewing machines, 68,885. 

THE "western sun" 

was the first newspaper published in the Indiana Territory, 
now comprising the four great States of Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin, or the State of Indiana, and the 
second in all that country once known as the " Northwestern 
Territory." It was commenced at Yincennes, in 1803, by 
Elihu Stout, of Kentucky, and first called the Indiana Ga- 
zette, and July 4, 1804, was changed to the Western Sun. 
Mr. Stout continued the paper until 1845, amid many dis- 
couragements, when he was appointed Postmaster at that 
place, and sold out the office. 



Early Pioneer History. — Dearborn County and Lawrence- 
burgh, 1S03. — Locust and Squirrel Yeaes, ISOO and 1801. 
— The First Officers of Dearborn County. — Richaed 
Rde, the First Justice of the Peace, 1806. — Pioneer Life. 
— The Red Men. — The First Settlements. — The Settlers. 
— The Log Cabin. — Wild Gaiie. — Dress and Manners. — 
Market Prices foe Cattle, Horses, Hogs and Grain. — 
Country Stores. — Financial Depression. — The Ways of 
1820 and the Style of 1883. 

eaely pioneer history. 

The history of Wayne County dates back to the beginning 
of the present century. Jan. 14, 1790, Knox County was 
formed, covering the present States of Indiana and Illinois. 
Then another county was formed in the northeast, the line 
coming down as far as Ft. Wayne and covering the present 
State of Michigan, with the exception of the upper peninsula. 
Apr. 30, 1802, Congress passed an act enabling the people of 
the territory now cJoinpi-ising the State of Ohio to torm a 
State Government from a line drawn due north from the 
center of the Big Miami River, the portion west to continue 
to be of the Indiana Territory. This act of Congress at 
above date was not acted upon until March 7, 1803, when 
Ohio became a State, and there was no organization between 
those two dates, Congress giving up its territorial control, and 
the State not coming into existence until the latter date. 
Dearborn County was formed March 7, 1803, and then in- 
cluded the principal part of Southeastern Indiana, including 
Wayne County. Lawrenceburgh was made the county seat. 


which had a few small huts, and in 1810, wlien Wayne County 
was formed, began to have some pretentions to a village. It 
may not be inappropriate here to give a short description of 
the old county seat which held sway over Wayne County, 
which was written in 1826. According to the writer an im- 
mense business was done at Lawrenceburgh, something that 
astonished the people. Its great business interest and com- 
mercial supremacy is thus set forth by Mr. Jno. Scott: 

" Some idea can be formed of the commerce and growing 
importance of this town and county by the following state- 
ment of produce shipped at the river, for the Mississippi and 
lower country market, from the 1st of January to the 1st of 
May, 1826, a period ot four months. In giving this state- 
ment we have confined ourselves almost exclusively to the 
product of the neighborhood of the town, not having it in 
our power to give the whole amount of produce exported 
from the county, which would, it is believed, swell the sum 
to 880,000 or $100,000. 

14,140 bushels corn (« 50c. per bushel $ 7,070.00 

51 horses (» |75 each 3,825.00 

136tonshay('i !f:20 ppr ton 2,720.00 

45 head of cattle .« !?-35 each 1,125.00 

2,131 ban. '^ ,.r ln„k si; 12,786.00 

1,393 k. ! -■ 4,179.00 

4931ivri, ^ .- 2,465.00 

66h0L-li. ,: .-^32 per hoffshead 2,112.00 

lOtous.i - ;- naiH,! wi-iirht 1,000.00 

11 ban.! invl . 88.00 

SObus-li. : -" . I !...-Ih-1 40.00 

186 ban. ■ : . :: ■ I 558.00 

500 call. .11- u 1,1 i.v .'..■ |.. -I fill. in 135.00 

453 kegs iul,;,cci. ." .S1U..30 |ifi key 4,756.50 

74 dozen chickens iu. $2 per dozen ' 148.00 

12,250 pounds pork, in bulk, @ 4c 490.00 

The writer says he made no mention of small articles, such 
as oats, hoop-poles, flaxseed, etc., which he thought would 
run up to $6,000 or $7,000, yet it had amounted to the above 
large sum. He also informed us that to carry this enormous 
amount of produce to market it required twenty fiat-boats, 
which cost an average each of $100. He places the population 
of Lawrenceburgh at 700. It had 150 handsome brick and frame 
dwellings, nine stores, five taverns, six lawyers and three 


physicians, with a vast number of mechanics of various pro- 
fessions. There was a storehouse, five stories high, which 
was considered the best from Cincinnati to the Falls {this is 
meant the falls at Louisville]. "There is also," says the 
writer, " an extensive silk- lace factory established in the town, 
which supplies a large district of country with the article, 
and the only one of the kind west of the mountains [refer- 
ring to the Alleghanies]; also a printing othce and a Masonic 
lodge." The writer was evidently impressed with the great 
business importance of Lawreuceburgh, which was, even at 
that day, of gigantic dimensions. The article, however, is 
valuable, giving as it does the price of produce at that time 
and the means of transportation, and while the present gen- 
eration can smile at the insignificant sura, as it would now be 
considered, no doubt it was a large and exceedingly prosper- 
ous business for that day. Such was the pioneer county seat 
of "Wayne County before it claimed an independence of its 
own, not exactly then, but something over a decade later. 


The year 1800, while the county was a part of the original 
county of Knox, was known as locust year. There were im- 
mense swarms of the pests, and they destroyed almost every- 
thing green. It was many years ere locust year was forgotten. 
The next year, 1801, came another pest — squirrels. They 
were so numerous as to destro}' all the grain, traveling from 
one section to another, making serious depredations. A fear of 
actual want was felt on the part of the settlers who were 

When Ohio was made a State, in 1803, the first principal 
meridian line was made the State line between Ohio and In- 
diana. The next meridian line is eighty-nine miles west of 
the State line. The only base line running through the State 
crosses it from east to west in latitude 38^ 30' , leaving the 
Ohio River twenty-five miles above Louisville, Ky., and 
striking the Wabash River four miles above the month of the 
White River. In 1805 Michigan was cut off of Indiana Ter- 
ritory, and in 1809 Illinois was formed. As above stated. 
Dearborn County was formed March 7, 1803, and em 


braced the country from the boundary line of Ohio to the 
mouth of the Kentucky Kiver, and to Fort Recovery. This 
included the present county of "Wayne. 

The first local officers of Dearborn County, at that time 
including Wayne, were: Benj. Chambers, Jno. Brownson, Ja- 
bez Percival, Barnett Hulick, Richard Stevens, Jeremiah 
Hunt, Wm. Major and James McCarthy, Judges of the 
Common Pleas Court, General Quarter Sessions and Orphans' 
Court; Samuel C. Vance was appointed Clerk; John Brown- 
son received his commission as Judge of Probate; Jas. Dill, 
Recorder; Jonathan White, Coroner; Benj. Chambers, Colo- 
nel, and John Brownson, Major. Benj. Chambers also 
became the first member of the Legislative Council, and 
David Lamphere was made Sheriff, his commission dating 
from Aug. 23, 1803. Jas. Dill resigning the office of Re- 
corder, James Hamilton received and accepted the office. 

The first General Quarter Sessions was held at the 
log cabin of Judge Percival. A man named Nicholas 
Cheek got angry at Judge Percival and struck him with a 
piece of board, breaking his arm. Mr. Cheek had his trial 
then and there, and was both fined and imprisoned. This is 
the first trial on record. The first Justice of the Peace was 
Richard Rue, he being appointed in 1806, by the Governor 
of the Territory, for this portion of Dearborn County. At 
that time the justices were appointed by the Governor. It 
may not now be generally known that at one time the hunt- 
ing ground of the " Six Nations," was tlie territory bounded 
by the Ohio, Wabash and Scioto rivers. It was the common 
hunting ground of all the tribes and was not to be settled. 
This brings us down to the first settlement of what is now 
Wayne County. 


One of the most interesting phases of national or local his- 
tory is that of the settlement of a new country. What was the 
original state in which the pioneer found this country? and, 
How was it made to blossom as the rose? are questions pro- 
pounded by almost every individual of the country in which 
he makes his home, or sojourns in for a time. 


Forests were to be felled, cabins erected, mills built, and 
tbe rivers and creeks made to labor for the benefit of man- 
kind; the beautiful prairies were to be robbed of their natural 
ornaments, and the hand of art was to assist in their decora- 
tion. Who was to undertake this work? Are they qua) iiied 
for the task? What will be the effect of their labors upon 
future generations? 

This country was the home of the red men, a home from 
which they were loth to part. God had given them this 
beautiful valley for their home. It was a migratory field for 
the restless buffalo; the elk and the bear roamed its wooded 
hills; the deer and wild turkey made it their home; the val- 
lej'S and the upland were filled with small game; fish sported 
in the cool and pellucid waters of its rivers and creeks, and 
in shadowy nooks near bubbling springs and crystal fountains 
the aborigines built their wigwams. It was a paradise for 
the hunter, and the Indians had roamed lord of all. 

In 1795 the valley, with its wealth of forest and stream, 
with its high and rolling upland, bold bluffs and nestling 
valleys, became the ]iroperty of the pale faces. 

There is little difierence in pioneer life even at this day. It 
is the poor and hard-working element that seeks a home in a 
new country, as a general thing, and at this da}', especially, 
very few who enjoy the churches, schools, railroads and tele- 
graph, and are able to remain, will care to leave for a resi- 
dence in the wilds of the West. The exception to these are 
those who may be in fair circumstances, but have large fami- 
lies, who are willing to give up their comfort for the better 
providing of the future for their children. Thus we find the 
pioneer generally poor but robust, with an energy which 
labor increases, and with an endurance that seems to baffle all 
opposing forces. 

The first settlements in the valleys of Whitewater within 
the limits of the present county of Wayne were made in the 
vicinity of the site of the city of Richmond, then in the county 
of Dearborn, the county-seat of which was at Lawrenceburg, 
on the Ohio River. Of the present territory of Wayne 
County only that part which lies east of the Twelve Mile 
Purchase was then the pro])erty of the General Government, 


and offered for sale to settlers. This strip of land was, at 
the south line of the county, about eight and one-quarter 
miles wide; at the north line, about four and one-quarter 
miles, and on the National Road about six and three-quarter 
miles. The Twelve Mile Purchase was twelve miles wide, 
and extended from the Ohio River north to the bounds of the 
State. Its eastern and western lines were parallel, running 
from the river about 13° east of a due north course ; the 
east line about two and one-half miles west of Richmond, 
running near or through the old town of Salisbury, the west 
line dividing Cambridge City near the west end of the town. 
This land was purchased of the Indians in the latter part of 
1809. It was not surveyed, however, and read}' for sale be- 
fore 1811, though a few persons had previously settled on it. 

In the year 1805 the first settlement of white men on the 
banks of Whitewater was commenced, and the first rude cabin 
built. In the spring of that year, George Holman, Richard 
Rue, and Thomas McCoy, with their families, from Kentucky, 
settled about. two miles south of where Richmond now stands. 
Rue and Holman had served under Ueneral Clark in his Indian 
campaigns several years before the formation of the North- 
western Territory under the ordinance of 1787. Both had 
been captured by the Indians and held as prisoners about 
three years and a half Both also lived on the lands on 
which the}' settled until their death, far advanced in age. 
Rue was the first justice of the peace in this part of the county. 

Holman and Rue selected and entered their lands late in 
1804, at Cincinnati, on their way home. Early in the winter 
they I'eturned to build cabins for their families, bringing with 
them, on their horses, such tools as were necessary in that 
kind of architecture, and a few cooking utensils. Holman's 
two eldest sons, Joseph and William, then about eighteen and 
sixteen years of age, accompanied their father to assist him 
in this initiatory pioneer _labor. In a very few days, two 
cabins were ready for occupancy. Rue and Holman, leaving 
the boys to take care of themselves, started again for Ken- 
tucky to bring their families. 

On reaching their homes they found two Pennsylvanians, 
who were in search of new land, and had brought their fami- 


lies with them. Thej soon decided to accompany Rue and 
Holman and tiie four families, with their effects, consisting 
of clothing, provisions, tools, cooking utensils, etc. — all on 
pack horses, traveling with wagons so groat a distance through 
an unbroken wilderness being impracticable. McCoy and 
Blount selected their lands near those of their two friends. 
Tlius was commenced the settlement of Wayne County. 

Not many miles distant, on the Elkhorn Creek, the Ends- 
leys and Coxes, with their families, settled in the latter part 
of the same year. These pioneers were soon followed by the 
Rev. Lazarus Whitehead, a Baptist minister, Aaron Martin, 
Charles Hunt, and their families. Rev. Hugh Call, a Meth- 
odist minister, also came in 1806, and settled near Elkhorn 
Creek, where he lived until his death, in 1862, at the age of 
105 yeai's. Shadrack Henderson, with his family, settled, in 
1806, on the west side of the Whitewater, and in the same 
year a Mr. Lamb built a cabin not far from that of Mr. Call's 
on the Elkhart, in which he lived for several years. 

It was in the latter part of this year that the settlement ot 
Richmond was commenced, or, at least, most of the land in 
that vicinity was taken up in this year, although much of it 
was not occupied until the spring and summer of 1807. 
"About the first of March, 1806," says Mr. Young, in his 
valuable history of Wayne County, '• David Hoover, then a 
young man residing with his father in the Miami country, in 
Ohio, with four others, in search of a place for making a set- 
tlement, took a section line some eisfht or ten miles north of 
Dayton, and traced it a distance of more than thirty miles, 
through an unbroken forest, to this place, where he afterward 
settled. He fancied he had found the Canaan his father had 
been seeking. His parents were of German descent, and 
members of the society of Friends. They had emigrated from 
Pennsylvania to North Carolina, and thence to Miami, where 
they had temporarily located until a permanent homo could 
be selected. Young Hoover and his companions were sup- 
posed to be the first white men who explored the territory 
north of Richmond. They discovered many natural advant- 
ages, among which were the pure spring water issuing from 
the banks of the stream, with its prospective mill-sites, in- 


exhaustible quarries of limestone, and a rich soil. Following 
the stream south a short distance, they found traps set, and 
near the west bank of the Whitewater, nearly opposite Kich- 
mond, they saw some Indians. From these Indians, who 
could speak broken English, they learned the white man had 
settled below, on the east side of the stream. They made 
their way thither, and found the Holman, Rue and McCoy 
families. After a brief rest they started back for the Miami, 
by a different route, and reported the finding of the ' prom- 
ised land.' " 

In May or June following, the first entries were made. 
Andrew Hoover, father of David, entered several quarter sec- 
tions, including that which the latter had selected for him- 
self on his first trip. John Smith entered on the south side 
of what is now Main street, cleared a small patch of ground, 
and built a cabin near the blutf. Jeremiah Co.x purchased 
his quarter section late in the summer, north of Main street, 
of Joseph Woodkirk, who had bought it of John Meek. 
Woodkirk having made a small clearing and planted it with 
corn. Cox paid him for his improvement and corn. Andrew 
Hoover had a number of sons and daughters, who settled 
around him as they got married. David had taken a wife in 
Ohio before coming to the territory. But he did not occupy 
his log cabin until the last of March the next year (1807). 
Here, on the west bank of Middle Fork, he resided until his 
death, in 1866. 

The land in and about Bichmond was settled chiefly by 
Friends from North Carolina, some of them from that State 
direct, others after a brief residence in Ohio. As the Hoover 
family were the pioneers of these people, but for the discov- 
ery made iiere by young Hoover and his fellow adventurers, 
the society of Fi-iends would probably not have had the honor 
of being the first proprietors of tlie land on which Richmond 
stands, and of naming the city. Indeed, the Judge, in his 
"Memoir," modestly' claims " the credit of having been the 
pioneer of the great body of the Friends now to be found in 
this region." 

Although the Hoovers had entered their lands in May or 
June, 1806, most of them did not bring tlieir families until 


the spring of 1807. Jerry Cox says: "We were the first 
lainily of the Friends that settled within the limits of Wayne 
County. But soon after [the same year, 1806], came John 
Smith and family, Elijah Wright, and Frederick Hoover. In 
the following fall, several of the Hoover family came out to 
build cabins and ,to sow turnip seed. In the spring after, 
Andrew Hoover, Sr., David Hoover, and Wm. Bulla came. 
Some later in the spring came John Harvey and some others 
not recollected." 

The spirit of emigration prevailed strongly in the Southern 
States, especially in North Carolina. The Friends had settled 
in that State before the adoption of the Constitution of the 
United States, which allowed the enslavement of the African 
race in this country. They were generally unfriendly to slav- 
ery; hence, probably, their desire, in great part, to find homes 
on better soil and in more congenial society. 

Elijah Fisher came to Indiana in 1806, while it was in its in- 
fancy. He came with his wife and infant son, from Shelljy Coun- 
ty, Ky., and settled on a farm two miles south of Richmond. His 
second child was the second white child born in the territory. 
In the war of 1812 he took an active part. In the erection 
of the first brick house built in Wayne County outside of 
Richmond, he fired the brick and put up the building for Dr. 
Thomas, north of Richmond. iThe second one he built for 
himself on his farm near Richmond; a portion of the wall still 
remains standing. He had ten children, of whom but four 
are still living — Fermelia Gentry, of Centerville; Catherine 
Moore Crawford, of Indianapolis; Rowanna Harvey, of Ham- 
ilton, Miss. ; Martha J. Elmer, of Grundy Center, Iowa. He 
died in Centerville, Feb. 4, 1852, in his seventieth year. 

Soon after tlie families above mentioned, others of the Cai-- 
olina Friends began to arrive. Among those who settled in 
the vicinity of Richmond were: Jacob Meek, in 1806; Elijah 
Wright, in 1806 or 1807; Jesse Bond, 1807, on the farm 
where now is Earlham College; John Burgess, 1808; Valentine 
Fegg, 180!), two miles westerly from Richmond; John Town- 
send, (year not ascertained); Cornelius Ratliff, 1810; John Mc- 
Lane,1810; and about the same time came families of the names 
of Stewart,Evans, Gilbert, Tliomas Roberts, and others. On East 


Fork, also, a settlement was commenced early. Joseph Was- 
son, a ReTolutionary soldier, settled there in 1806, and Peter 
Fleming in 1807, both having entered their lands as early as 
1805; Benjamin and Robert Hill, 1806; Ralph Wright and 
John Hawkins, 1807; John Morrow, 1808; John Charles, 
1809; James and Peter Ireland (year not ascertained). With 
the exception of the Fleming, Wasson, and Ireland families, 
who were Presbyterians from Kentucky, the most or all o 
those named above were Friends, and came from North Car- 
olina. The names of the places they came from became stere- 
otyped phrases. When asked from what part of that State 
they came, the common answer was, " Guilford County, near 
Clemens's store," or "Beard's hat shop," or "Deep River 
settlement of Friends," or " Dobson's cross-roads." 

Besides those above mentioned, many others settled on 
East Fork, some about th^ same time, and some several years 
later; but the dates of their settlement are not ascertained. 
Among them was David Wasson, a son-in-law of Peter 
Fleming, afterward known as Judge Fleming, who had 
entered several hundred acres, on which he settled his 
children, reserving for himself a homestead, since known 
as the " Barnes farm," and the '• Woods place," and 
now owned by John Brown, adjoining the State line. 
The farm early owned by his son, Samuel Fleming, and 
now by James Smelser, was a part of the Judge's 
purchase. Charles Moffitt, an early settler, lived on the south 
side of East Fork, near Richmond, where he built a mill. He 
remained there until his decease, many years ago. Hugh 
Moffitt, a son, still resides near the homestead. A little 
above, Amos and John Hawkins settled early with their fami- 
lies; and a little further on, Wm. Ireland, long since deceased. 
Next, Benj. Hill, already mentioned, who remained there un- 
til his death, about forty years ago. His wife survived him 
until 1867. Adjoining on the east was Joseph Wasson, be- 
fore mentioned. Nathaniel McCoy Wasson built a cabin, in 
1809, on the homestead near the banks of East Fork; married 
and lived there until his death, in 1864. Near by was John 
Gay, an early settler, known as Major Gay, who early sold 
his land to Jacob Crist, still living on the premises. John 


Drake, with his numerous orrowii up sons, settled early on 
their farms adjoining the Ohio line. The Drakes were of 
the Baptist denomination. Daring tlie prevalence of a ma- 
lignant fever, at an early period of the settlement on East 
Fork, a number of robust, middle-aged men fell victims to it. 
Of this number were David and John Wasson. * * * On 
Middle Fork, near its mouth, was William Bulla, an earl}' 
settler, and son-in-law of Andrew Hoover, Sr. He early 
built a saw-mill on his farm nsar the site of Burson's oil-mill. 
He lived there until his decease, some years ago, at an ad- 
vanced age. Near the lands of the Hoover families, Jesse 
Clark, Ralph Wright, Alexander Moore, and Amos and Ab- 
ner Clawson settled. A little further up were the Staffords, 
Bonds, Blinkers, Swallows, Ashbys, Andrewses, and others, 
all of whom, we believe, were from jSTorth Carolina, and chiefly 
friends. They had a smnll log meeting-house in the vicinity, 
and were subordinate to the Whitewater monthly meeting. 
William Bond had erected a saw-mill, and Joshua Bond a 
cheap oil-mill. Edward Bond, Sr., died a few years after he 
came. A little further up, Jeremiah Cox, Jr., settled, and 
early built a grist-mill, to the great gratification of the set- 
tlers. Above Cox's mill were a few inhabitants. Among 
these were Isaac Commons, Robert Morrison, Barnabas Bos- 
well, Isaac, John and William Hiatt, and John Nicholson, the 
farms of some of whom are now within the limits of Franklin 
Township. Balden Ashley settled near Cox's mill, and owned 
the land from which has long been obtained the lime fur- 
nished the builders of Richmond. On the West Fork, above 
the lands of the Ratliff and Hoover families, already men- 
tioned, was Joshua Pickett, an early settler. Next above was 
the Addington settlement, on botli sides of the stream. Fur- 
ther up, the first settlers were the Starbucks, Swains, Harrises, 
Turners, and others, who were useful, enterprising citizens. 
Paul Swain and William Starbuck wagoned produce ot 
various kinds to Fort Wayne. Edward Starbuck, Sr., was 
an early justice of the peace. William died in middle life. 
Hester Starbuck, his widow, died within the last three or four 
years, having lived to an old age. An early settlement was 
also made in 1806, about four or five miles southeast of Rich- 


mond, by Jesse Davenport, Jacob Fonts, and his sons AVill- 
iam and Jacob, and his son-in-law, Thomas Bulla, natives of 
North Carolina, but immediately from Ohio. By the forma- 
tion of Boston, the land of Davenport was taken into that 
township. Other families came in soon after. 

These were not all of the early settlers of even Wayne 
Oounty, but other names will be found in the township his- 
tories in the second volume of this work. The trial, troubles 
and privations of these early settlers, like others who located 
in other sections of the State, were nobly borne, and in time 
prosperity added to progress made the wilderness change to a 
scene of civilization, and farms, ripening grains, and pleasant 
■and improved homes took the place of the rude cabin and the 
wild forests. 


In the Richmond Palladium of an early day, the follow- 
ing incident was published, and is worthy of record. It was 
sometimes the case that the early pioneers settled their difBcul- 
ties by a fist fight. For sume such manner of dealing contrary 
to the law the first grand jury convened in Wayne County, 
brought in a bill against Geo. Holman for assault and battery; 
he was found guilty and fined 12^ cents. He appeared to 
have been one of the grand jury at this time; whether he 
aided in finding a bill against himself, the record does not 
say. This jury, the first ever called, was composed of the 
following named persons: Wm. Scarse, foreman; Sam'l Woods, 
Thos. McCoy, J. Keslank, Geo. Holman, J. Hodges, Samuel 
Walker, Richard Maxwell, Bennett Starr, Robert Bennett, 
John Williams, Aaron Wade, Geo. Addington, \Yni. Meek, 
Isaac Harvey, Delsuan Bates, Josiah Easton, Jos. Woodkirk, 
and Wm. Burke. 

In Holman case the following jurj'was summoned: Jno. 
Benton, Jno. Drake, Jno. Armstrong, Nathaniel Scire, Tiios. 
Bulla, Samuel Hunt, Harvey Druley, David F. Sacket, Joel 
Furguson, Benj. Smith and Jesse Davenport. From Dr. 
Plummer's history the following names of early settlers are 
given, the age of some at the time of their death and the date 
of arrival in Wayne Countj^: 







Richard Rue 

Geo. Holman 

Jos Wondkirk. ... 








James Alexander 

Berj. Small 

Jno Morrow 



Wm. Blount 


Thos. Roberts 


Jno. Smilli 


Valentine Pegg .••. . 

Jno. Charles 

Cornelius Ratliff, Sr 

Jno. McLane 

Samuel Charles 


David Hoover 

Jos. WassoD 


John Atldington 

Mrs. Addington (mother). 


Richard Williams 


Ralph Wright 

rhosMooreV. ■.■.■.■.:.■::■■ 


John Hawkins . . . 


Ephraim Overman 

Jno. Wneht 

Robt Hill 


The remarkable a<i;es tliese early settlers attained speaks 
well for their habits atid the healthfulness of the country. 

Until 1807 the people of the eastern ])artof Wayne Coutity 
procured their flour and had their grinding done at Gertnan- 
towM, Ohio, and other distant places. In the above named 
year Jeremiah Co.x built a tub-mill, and the same year a saw- 
mill on the west side of the river, below Newman's Creek. 

In 1807 William Bulla erected a saw-mill on Middle Fork. 
December, 1807, Charles Hunt started acorn cracker, and in 
1808 Jeremiah Cox erected another. Phillip Harter built the 
first carding machine. Tlie first clearitig was tnade by Joseph 
Woodkirk. The first entry of land in Wayne County was by 
Peter Fleming and Jos. Wasson, in the winter of 1804; the 
next by Andrew Endsley, in the summer of 1805, and Peter 
Smith in the winter of the same year. The first road wa& 
opened in the fall of 1806 to Preble County, Ohio, near where 
Paris now stands. 

In 1807 another road was opened to Eaton into the Wayne 
trace which led to Ilatnilton, Ohio. 

In 1828 the National Road was located to Ptichmond atid 
through Wayne County. It might be mentioned here that 
the whole length of the National Road in Indiana was 119^ 
miles, and the cost of bridging and masonry. !f^313.099. 


The first brick house in the county was erected by John 
Smith, in liichmond, in 1811. The first brewery was erected 
by Ezra Boswell, in 1818. 

A distillery was established in 1820. It was in operation 
less than two years. 


The first thing upon arrival was to set about building the 
cabin. While this was being done the family slept in their 
wagons or upon the grass, while the horses or mules, hobbled 
to prevent escape, grazed the prairie around them. A 
description of the cabin may not be uninteresting now, and 
will be of profound interest to future generations, who will be 
so far removed from pi-oneer life as to wonder over the primi- 
tive styles and habits of long ago. 

Trees of uniform size were chosen and cut into logs of the 
desire<i length, generally twelve to fifteen feet, and hauled to 
the spot selected for the future dwelling. On the appointed 
day the few neighbors who were available would assemble 
and have a "house-raising." Each end of every log was sad- 
dled and notched so that they would lie as close down as pos- 
sible; the next day the proprietor would proceed to "chink 
and daub" the cabin, to keep out the rain, wind and cold. 
The house had to be re-daubed .every fall, as the rains of the 
intervening time would wash out a great part of the mortar. 
The usual height of the house was seven or eight feet. • The 
gables were formed by shortening the logs gradually at each 
end of the building near the top. The roof was made by 
laying very straight small logs or stout poles suitable dis- 
tances apart, generally about two and a half feet, from gable 
to gable, and on these poles were laid the " clapboards" after 
the manner of shingling, showing about two and a half feet to 
the weather. These clapboards were fastened to their place 
by " weight poles," corresponding in place with the joists 
just described, and these again were held in their place 
bj' "runs" or '"knees," which were chunks of wood about 
eighteen or twenty inches long fitted between them near the 

1 |i m^^' ' 


ends. Clapboards were made from the nicest oaks in the 
vicinity, by chopping or sawing tliem into four-foot blocks 
and riving these with a frow, which was a simple blade fixed 
at right angles to its handle. This was driven into the blocks 
by a mallet. As the frow was wrenched down through the 
wood, the latter was turned alternately over from side to side, 
one end being held by a forked piece of timber. 

The chimney to the Western pioneer's cabin was made by 
leaving in the original building a large open place in one 
wall, or by cutting one after the structure was up, and by 
building on the outside, from the ground up, a stone column, 
or a column of sticks and mud, the sticks being laid up cob- 
house fashion. The fire-place thus made was often large 
enough to receive fire-wood six to eight feet long. Sometimes 
this wood, especially the " back-log," would be nearly as 
large as a saw-log. The more rapidly the pioneer could burn 
up the wood in his vicinity, the sooner he had his little farm 
cleared and ready for cultivation. For a window, a piece about 
two feet long was cut out of one of the wall logs, and the hole 
closed sometimes by glass, but generally with greased paper. 
Even greased deer-hide was sometimes used. A doorway was 
cut through one of the walls if a saw was to be had; otherwise 
the door would be left by shortened logs in the original 
building. The door was made by pinning clapboards to two 
or three wooden bars and was hung on wooden hinges. A 
wooden latch, with catch, then finished the door, and the 
latch was raised b3' anyone on the outside by pulling the 
leather string attached. For securitj' at night this latch- 
string was drawn in, but for friends and neighbors, and even 
strangers, the "latch-string was always hanging out," as a 
sign of welcome. In the interior over the fire-place would be 
a shelf called the " mantel," on which stood the candle-stick or 
lamp; probably, also, some cooking or table-ware, and pos- 
sibly an old clock and other articles. In the tire-place would 
be a crane, and on it pots were hung for cooking. Over the 
door in forked cleats hung tlie ever trusty rifle and powder 
horn; in one corner stood the large bed for the "old folks," 
and under it the trundle bed for the children; in another stood 
the old-fashioned spinning wheel, with a smaller one by its 


side; in another the only table, large and strong, and in the 
remaining corner was a rude cupboard holding the table-ware, 
which consisted of a few cnps and saucers and blue-edo;ed 
plates standing singly on their edges against the back so as to 
give a more conspicuous display, while around the room were 
scattered a few splint-bottom or Windsor chairs and two or 
three stools. In the erection of this cabin the neighbors, 
would come for miles around to help him and give him a fair 
start in the world. They gave him a warm welcome, the 
right hand of fellowship was extended, and the new settler 
felt at home at once. The latch-string hung on the outside, 
and what the cabin held was at the command of the traveler 
or neighbor. Corn was the principal article of food, and the 
wild game furnished the meat for their families. A cow was 
generally secured, and the pioneer was then hap]3y as well as 
rich. Store goods were not often seen or worn. 


The bed was very often made by fixing posts in the floor 
about six feet from the one wall and four feet from the adjoin- 
ing wall, and fastening a stick to this post about two feet from 
the floor, on each of two sides, so that the other end of each of 
the tw'j sticks could be fastened in the opposite wall; clap- 
boards were laid across these, and thus the bed was complete. 
Guests were given tiiis bed, while the famil}' disposed them- 
selves in another corner of the room, or in the " loft." When 
several guests or travelers were on hand, many ingenious ways 
were resorted to for their accommodation. The clearing of 
the woodland was no idle pastime to even the rugged pioneer. 
Years of toil, of hardship and privation fell to his lot; but for 
the toil of the then present, he expected and did reap, in al- 
most all cases, an abundant future. Still the old pioneer 
believed in labor. It was not only necessary to provide for the 
present and future, but it gave strength to the muscles, and 
health to the entire system. 

The pioneer women had very tew conveniences which now 
adorn the kitchens of to-day. The range or stove was then 


unknown, but the large fire-place was fitted with a crane and a 
supply of hooks of different lengths, and from one to four 
pots could be hung over the fire at once. Then the long- 
handled frying-pan, the bake-pan, the Dutch-oven, and along 
about 1830 came the tin bake-oven. With these the pioneer 
women did their hot, laborious work. But the}' knew how to 
cook. The bread and the biscuit of those days have not been 
improved upon. 

A better article for baking batter-cakes was the cast-iron 
spider or Dutch skillet. The best thing for baking bread in 
those days, and possibly even yet in these latter days, was the 
flat-bottomed bake-kettle, of greater depth, with closely fit- 
ting cast-iron cover, and commonly known as the " Dutch- 
oven." With coals over and under it, bread and biscuit 
would qiiickly and nicely bake. Turkey and spareribs were 
sometimes roasted before the fire, suspended by a string, a 
dish being placed underneath to catch the drippings. 

Hominy and samp were very much used. The hominy, 
however, was generally hulled corn — boiled corn from which 
the hull, or bran, had been taken by hot lye, hence some- 
times called "lye hominy." True hominy and samp were 
made of pounded corn. A popular method of making this, 
as well as real meal for bread, was to cut out or burn a large 
hole in the top of a huge stump, in the shape of a mortar, 
and pounding the corn in this by a maul or beetle suspended 
on the end of a swing-pole, like a well-sweep. AVhen the 
samp was sutficiently pounded it was taken out, the bran 
floated ofi", and the delicious grain boiled like rice. 

The chief articles of diet in early day were corn bread, 
hoininj' or samp, venison, pork, honey, beans, pumpkin (dried 
pumpkin for more than half the'year), turkey, prairie chicken, 
squirrel and some other game, with a few additional vegeta- 
bles a portion of the year. Wheat bread, tea, coflFee and fruit 
were luxuries not to be indulged in except on special occa- 
sions, as when visitors were present. 

At the table hot drinks were made with sassafras root, 
spicewood, or sycamore bark. Genuine tea and coffee were 
sometimes to be had but not often. Parched grains of rye or 


corn were soinetiines pounded up and made a substitute for 
coifee. Corn-meal was converted into bread in various ways. 
The simplest method was to mix the meal with salt and 
water into a stiff dough and bake it on the hot stones of the 
fire-place — this was the original and only genuine "johnny- 
cake." Tiie mixture thinly spread and baked on a board or 
in a pan set upright before the tire made "hoe-cake," and if 
mixed with eggs and baked in a Dutch-oveu, it was " pone." 
"Corn-dodger" was another variety of the ancient nourish- 
ment made of about the same ingredients. Hominy was 
prepared by soaking the corn in strong lye of wood ashes to 
remove the outside covering and then washing thoroughly in 
clean water. Corn-meal was often made into mush and eaten 
from wooden bowls. If fried with the jelly of meat liquor it 
was called, by the Dutch, " suppawn," and was a favorite 
diet. N ow and then a cup of coffee, sweetened with iioney, the 
product of a lucky find in the shape ot a bee tree, a juicy ven- 
ison steak or a piece of turkey, and corn bread made of mashed 
corn pounded in a mortar or ground in a hand mill, composed 
the steady week day and Sunday diet of the old pioneer. 

Venison could be found in great abundance, and in the 
forests large flocks of wild turkeys were frequently seen. 
Bears were still to be seen occasionally, and at times an odd 
buffalo or two; but the favorite fields of the buffalo in the 
Ohio Valley were the grassy regions of Kentucky. Turkeys 
were seldom shot as the ammunition was too valuable to 
waste upon them. Tiiey were generally caught in traps, or 
rather pens, with the lower part of one side left open. Corn 
was strewn around and inside the pen, and the foolish birds, 
seeing no escape at the top, and never thinking to escape the 
way they came, became easy prisoners. In this way thej' 
were caught by the score. If the turkey was young it was 
sometimes prepared by skinning and roasting before the tire 
on a spit, the grease being caught with a dripping pan. 
Stoves were then unknown, and all cooking was done on the 
hearth or at tires kindled out of doors. In the scarcity of 
other game, opossums were used occasionally for food — a dish 


in especial favor among the colored people. Quails were not 
numerous as they seem to follow civilization rather than pre- 
cede it. Fish were plentiful in the streams and were caught 
in different ways, generally on a troll-line on a single hook, or 
by piercing them with a gig. This was game for the boys. 

The skins of the wild beasts were brought to the cabins by 
hunters, and there prepared for use. Deer skins were tanned. 
The hair was first removed by ashes and water and the skins 
were then rubbed with soft soap, lye, and the brains of the 
deer. As all these substances contain alkali, they were use- 
ful in removing the fat and tissue. Then after lying for two 
or three days in a steeping vat or trough, the skins were 
stretched over a smooth round log, from which the bark had 
been removed, and scraped with a graining-knife. Such a 
dressing rendered the skins soft and pliable, and many of 
the settlers became skillful curriers. Bear skins were dressed 
with the hair on, and used for robes, carpets, or tor bed- 
clothing. Wolves were numerous in some sections, and oc- 
casionally a panther's scream pierced tlie still forest, but 
domestic animals were seldom destroyed by them. 


The dress, habits, etc., of a people throw so much light 
upon their condition and limitations, that in order to better 
show the circumstances surrounding the people, a short ex- 
position of life at different epochs is here given. 

Dressed deer-skins and blue cloth were worn commonly in 
the winter for pantaloons. The blue handkerchief and the 
deer-skin moccasins generally covered the head and feet. In 
1800 scarcely a man thought himself clothed unless he had a 
belt tied around liis blanket coat, and on one side was hung 
the dressed skin of a pole-cat filled with tobacco, pipe, flint 
and steel. On the other side was fastened, under the belt, 
the butcher knife. 

Among the Americans home-made wool hats were the com- 
mon wear. Fur hats were not common, and scarcely a boot 
was seen. The covering of the feet in winter was chiefly moc- 
casins made of deer-skins and shoe-packs of tanned leather. 
Some wore shoes, but not common in very early times. In 


the sammer the greater portion of the young people, male 
and female, and many of the old, went barefoot. The sub- 
stantial and universal outside wear was the blue linsey hunt- 
ing shirt. Sometimes it had a large cape, which answered 
well to save the shoulders from the rain. A belt was mostly 
used to keep the garment close around the person, and, nev- 
ertheless, there was nothing tight about it to hamper the body. 
It was often fringed, and at times the fringe was composed of 
red and other gay colors. The belt, frequently, was sewed to 
the hunting shirt. The vest was mostly made of striped lin- 
sey. The colors were often made with alum, copperas and 
madder, boiled with ihe bark of trees, in such manner and 
proportions as the old ladies prescribed. 

The pioneer's wife, witliout wiiom a pioneer's life wnuld 
have been a wretched failure, made the men's clothing; and 
moccasins of dressed deer-skins, and spun and wove the liduie- 
made cotton for herself and daughters. Eight yards were 
sufhcient and a dress would last a year or two. Sometimes 
gingham and calico were purchased, but it was only the rich 
that could indulge in such costly goods in which to array their 
wives and daughters. An extra quality and a brighter color 
of homespun was the general Sunday meeting dress of the* wo- 
men of that day, and when the men wanted to puton style, they 
purchased an article of cloth called Kentucky jeans. But 
durability and not style was the forte of the old pioneer, 
and the dress of deer-ski [is and the coon-skin cap was really 
the rage for solid wear. Jewelry, with the pioneer women, 
was rare. The plain gold ring was the principal ornament 
worn. A bonnet, composed of calico or some gay gingham, 
was worn on the head when in open air. 


In one respect the early settler had a few advantages Tiot 
possessed to-day, or by those of a generation back. While 
they endured the privation with which they were encom- 
passed with heroic fortitude and a patience which e.xalted 
them, these old-time heroes and heroines could get the neces- 
sities of life at a good deal less cost than their favored chil- 
dren of this day; and not only that, but there was any quantity 


of land to be had at Government price, $1.25 per acre, and 
excellent swamp land, all but the swamp, at 25 cents per 
acre — twelve months' time and county warrants taken at 
par — anxious to be tickled with a hoe, that it might laugh 
with a harvest. The tinancial crash of 1837 had completely 
demoralized values; property shrank to such amazing small- 
ness that many psople were in doubt as to whether they pos- 
sessed anything except their lives and their families. The 
wild-cat banks rapidly climbed the golden stairs, and their 
assets went glimmering. The necessaries of life wore cheap, 
and those who suffered most in those days were of the class 
called wealthy, excepting, perhaps, the managers of the wild- 
cat banks spoken of above. The farmer and mechanic here in 
the West had little to complain of. Their wants were few and 
supplies cheap; if corn was at a low figure, tea, coffee, sugar, 
and whisky were also cheap. The business depression brought 
on by the financial collapse referred to continued for several 
years, and still hovered over the land as late as lSi2. In 
1839 and ISiO prices of goods still ruled very low, and the 
prospect of an early rise seemed for from encouraging. 

Cows sold at from $5 to $10, and payable, perhaps, in trade 
at that. Horses brought for the best about §40, but could be 
bougiit from about $25 up for a fair animal. Working oxen 
were from $25 to $30 per yoke, and considered down to 
almost nothing. Hogs, dressed, sold from $1.25 to $1.50 
each. Garnered wheat brought from 35 to 50 cents a bushel; 
corn, 50 cents per barrel,delivered, and a good veal calf,75cents. 
You could go to the woods and cut down a bee-tree, gather the 
honey, bring it to market and get 25 cents a gallon for it. And 
such honey, so clear and transparent that even the bee-keeper 
of to-day, with his patent hive and Italian swarms, would have 
had a look ot envy covering his face on beholding it. The wild 
deer came forward and gave up his hams at 25 cents each, and 
the settler generally clinched the bargain by taking the skin 
also, and when not cut up into strings or used for patches 
brought anotlier quarter, cash or trade, as demanded. It was 
a habit in those days for fanners to help each other, and their 
sons to work in the harvest field or help do the logging to 
prepare for the seeding of new land. This was a source oi 


wealth to the sons of the early settlers and to those farm- 
ers who were nnable to purchase a home. They received 
from 25 to 60 cents per day and their board. That was 
wealth, the foundation of their future prosperity. It was the 
first egg laid to hatch them a farm, and it was often guarded 
with scrupulous care. Economy was often whittled down to 
a very line point before they could be induced to touch that 
nest egg, the incipient acre of the first farm. 

This covers a good deal of what the old pioneer had or re- 
ceived for labor and farm produce. 


As the settlers increased country stores began to make 
their appearance at cross-roads, followed by the necessary con- 
comitant — -the blacksmith shop. Their stocks consisted of salt, 
tea, tobacco, cotton, yarns, iron for horseshoes, nails, etc., 
powder, lead, shot, and steel points for plows. Added to 
these and considered staple articles, there was kept a moder- 
ate supply of calico, gingiiams, domestic cotton, Kentucky 
jeans, boots and shoes, etc.. with a fair article of corn whisky. 

These country stores were strongly built, and the logs of 
which they were composed hewed flat on the inside. The 
goods were placed in the most convenient places to get at. 
Boxes, in many instances, were utilized as counters, and 
while there was but little display in those good old times, but 
little was desired. 


Old Time Prices. — -A Sale of Hogs in 1826. — Raising Bees. 
— Hospitality. — Bee Hunting. — Going to Mill. — Wolf 
H0NT. — Snakes. — Monet and Barter. — Education. — 
Spelling Schools. — Sugar Making. — Marriage Bells. — 
Red Men on the War Path. — Watchful Caee. — The 
Bright Side. — What the Pioneers Have Done. — Women 
Pioneers. — Their Glorious Work.^Woman's AVork is 
Never Done. — A Peaceful Life. — The Close. 

old time prices. 

The early times worked seriously against the old settlers 
in other ways than sickness and privation. One among these 
were the high prices of the necessaries of lite, or what was 
called store goods. The old pioneer went without these 
necessaries for many years, or if he had them they were looked 
npon as luxuries and used sparingly. 

The day-book of an early merchant of Richmond, from dates 
1818 to 1822 (taken from Young's history), shows the fol- 
lowing prices: " Cotton yarn, $1 per pound; brown shirting, 
43f cents per yard; hand-saw, .$8; butt hinges, 25 cents per 
pair; powder, 62^ to 75 cents per pound, and shot, 18| cents; 
a skimmer, 37^ cents; bleached shirting, 62^ cents; knives 
and forks, from §2.00 to 3.75 per set; calico, 50 cents per 
yard; camphor, 37^ cents per ounce; ginger, 75 cents per 
pound; knitting needles, 12^ cents per set, and a jew's-harp, 
12^ cents." These were the figures, but fifteen years later 
when the bank crash came things clianged and store goods 
came down with the crash, as will be seen from the previous 
page. The reader will notice that the prices were made at the 


rate of eight shillings to the dollar. This was because the 
Spanish silver coin was the only curreac}! in use and the peo- 
ple adapted themselves to its use. The fractions were not cal- 
culated by cents, but by shillings and sixpences, and it was 
as easily figured up as the present dollars and cents are now. 

Not only were these high prices a serious drawback to ac- 
cumulating wealth on the part of the old pioneers, but an- 
other equally as unfortunate was the extremely low prices of 
farm produce, and both together were like a two-edged sword 
cutting both ways. Just what low prices, at times, meant in 
pioneer days may be gathered from another extract from 
Young's history. "Samuel K. Boyd, about the year 1S2G, 
started with a drove of hogs from Jacksonburg for Cincin- 
nati. He left them at Hamilton, and went to Cincinnati to 
contract a sale. He was offered but 60 cents per 100 pounds, 
dressed. Unwilling to sell at that price, he drove his hogs 
home, fed them two months longer, butchered them, and sold 
the pork for 80 cents a hundred. At another time he went 
with a four-horse team, taking sixteen barrels of flour, the 
empty barrels having cost 62^ cents. He sold the flour with 
the barrels for about 90 cents a barrel. He once went alter 
a load of merchants' goods, and took for loading down about 
1,000 pounds of corn-meal, which he could not sell at all. He 
was about to throw it into the river, but concluded to give it 
to the poor, and actually peddled it about town among those 
willing to accept it as a gift. And he sold wheat in Rich- 
mond, at a still later date, for 33^ cents a bushel. Lewis 
Burk, in 1830, bought 500 bushels of corn for 850. 

In some families, more flax and tow linen was made than 
was wanted for summer wear, and the remainder was ex- 
changed at the stores for calico or some other kinds of cotton 
cloth, to make dresses for women to wear to meeting, or for 
other necessaries. Many men, as well as their wives and 
children, went barefoot in summer. To procure their salt, 
several neighbors would join in sending a wagon to Cincin- 
nati in the fall, carrying maple sugar, deer skins, raccoon 
skins, oats, etc., and perhaps a little money, and returning 
with a load, chiefly of salt, intended for the year's supply. 
The journey was made in about ten days, sometimes in a 



Settlers flowed in. The early 3'ears of the present century 
gave life and progress to Wayne County. New arrivals 
made the woods echo with the sound of their axes, and cabins 
sprang up as if by magic. The miles which had been between 
cabins had become reduced so that once in a while neighbors 
would be within a mile, or even a half a mile, of each other, 
and "raising bees" became common, and were greatly 
enjoyed. A new comer would cut out the logs for his cabin, 
haul them to the ground ready to be put up, and then 
announce a "raising bee." The neighbors came from miles 
around, and the way that cabin went up into a square shape, 
capped with weight poles, was a "caution to slow coaches." 
And they sang at their work: 

" Our cabins are made of logs of wood, 
The floors are made of puncheon, 

The roof is held by weighted poles, 
And then we ' hang oft"' for luncheon." 
This would be followed by a swig from the little brown jug, 
kept especially for the occasion, and then with a hearty shake 
of the hand and a "wish you well," the neighbors left the 
new comer to put the finishing touches to his cabin. And 
this was a " raising bee "' of ye olden times. 


The pioneers were very few who had any kind of stock 
when they settled in this valley. Horses were brought by a 
good many and oxen for work, but of cattle, sheep and hogs 
there were but few, except, perhaps, cows. Some were soon 
brought in as it was found they could subsist almost entirel}' 
on mast or other wild food. They were slaughtered in early 
winter and what was not needed for present use was salted 
down for use in the hot months when venison was not 
fit for use. 

Cattle were also introduced, but the pioneers experienced 
very little trouble in providing for them. The forests were 
filled with budding sprouts while the low and open lands 
were densely covered with long grass which furnished splen- 
did provender till late in the winter. Toward spring, when 


the early buds began to swell, they were preferable, and if the 
under-brush became stripped, large beech trees were fre- 
quently felled for the cattle to trim up. 


The traveler always found a welcome at the pioneer's 
cabin. It was never full. Although there might be already 
a guest for every puncheon, there was still " room for one 
more," and a wider circle would be made for the new comer 
at the log fire. If tiie stranger was in search of land he was 
doubly welcome, and his host would volunteer to show him 
all the " first rate claims in this neck of woods," going with 
him for days, showing the corners and advantages of every 
" Congress tract " within a dozen miles of his cabin. 

To his neighbors the pioneer was equally liberal. If a 
deer was killed, the choicest bits were sent to his nearest 
neighbor, a half dozen miles away, perhaps. When a 
"shoat" was butchered, the same custom prevailed. If a 
new comer came in too late for "cropping," the neighbors 
would supply his table with just the same luxuries they 
themselves enjoyed, and in as liberal quantity, until a crop 
could be raised. When a new comer had located his claim 
the neighbors for miles around would assemble at the site of 
his proposed cabin and aid him in " gittin' " it up. One 
party with axes would cut down the trees and hew the logs; 
another with teams would haul the logs to the grounds; an- 
other party would " raise " the cabin, while several of the 
old men would " rive the clapboards " for the roof By night 
the little forest domicile would be up and ready for a " house 
warming," which was the dedicatory occupation of the house, 
when music and dancing and festivity would be enjoyed 
at full height. The next day the new arrival would be as 
well situated as his neighbors. 

This wild recreation was, in some respects, a peculiar one 
and many sturdy backwoodsmen gloried in this art. He 
would carefully watch, as it filled itself witli the product of 
some flower, and notice the direction taken by it as it struck 


a "bee-line" for its home, which, when found, would gener- 
ally be high up in the hollow of a tree. This tree would then 
be marked, and in September, or a little later, the tree would 
be cut and the honey secured, and [iretty active work was 
required to save it from wasting, as sometimes the tree 
would be shattered in its fall. Several gallons have been 
known to have been taken from a single tree. Thus, by a very 
little work, pleasant at that, the early settlers could keep 
themselves in honey the year round, and thus save buying 
sugar at the store. By the time the honey was a year old, 
and sometimes sooner, it would granulate, but this did not 
interfere with its quality. 


Not the least of the hardships of pioneer life was the pro- 
curing of bread. The first settlers had to be supplied the first 
year from other sources than their own lands, and the first 
crop, however abundant, gave only partial relief, there 
being no mills at band to grind the grain. Hence, 
the necessity of grinding by hand-power, and very 
many families were very poorly provided with means for 
doing this. The old grater and the wooden mortar burned in 
the end of a log did duty for many months ere either a hand- 
mill or a horse-mill was found in the country. Soon after the 
country became more generally settled enterprising men em- 
barked in the milling business, selecting sites on streams 
that were large and rapid enough to furnish the power. Mills 
were considered a public necessity, and were permitted to be 
erected wherever a desirable water-power could be secured. 
Those who lived contiguous to the rivers or streatns did not 
have far to go, but those who located in the country back had 
many hard days' travel "going to mill." When it became 
a day's journey or more it was considered quite a job, and 
sometimes swollen streams, without ferries or bridges, would 
keep them several days on their journey. Not only did the 
old settler go to mill, but he managed to lay in some supplies 
at the store which was generally near at hand. 


The "circular wolf hunt," in which all the men and boys 
would turn out on the appointed day, was generally considered 


the most eflectnal as also the most exciting method to get 
rid of these pests and depredators. The band of hunters 
would form in a circle comprising several miles squai-e of 
territory, and then with their horses and dogs close up grad- 
ually toward a common center of the field of operation, gath- 
ering in not only wolves, but also' deer and other animals. 
Five and sometimes ten wolves were captured and killed in a 
single daj. The men were organized in true army regulation 
style, and posted in the meaning of every signal and the rule 
to follow. Guns were seldom allowed on such occasions, as 
their use, while dangerous in a formed circle, was also likely 
to frighten and excite the animals to a more dangerous degree. 
The dogs, which were iiekl by their keepers until the pi'oper 
time arrived, wei-e depended upon in the final slaughter, and 
when the signal came they were turned loose, when they 
rushed to the center of battle, followed and cheered by the 
excited hunters. They would fight and hold the animals 
until the men got a chance to get in their work. The scene 
which would then transpire in the center of the battle could 
not easily be described, but it was exciting and dangerous 
enough to satisfy the most reckless. 

In pioneer times snakes were numerous, such as the rattle- 
snake, adder, blood snake, and many varieties of large blue 
and green snakes, milk snake, garter and water snakes, etc., 
etc. If, on meeting some of these, you would retreat, they 
would chase you very fiercely; but if you would turn and 
give them battle, the}' would immediately crawl away with all 
possible speed, hide in the grass and weeds, and wait for a 
" greener " customer. These really harmless snakes served 
to put people on their guard against the more dangerous and 
venomous kinds. 

It was the practice in some sections of the country to turn 
out in companies, with spades, mattocks and crow-bars, attack 
the principal snake dens and slay large numbers of them. 
In early spring the snakes were somewhat torpid and easily 
captured. Scores of rattlesnakes were sometimes frigliteiied 
out of a single den, which, as soon as they showed their 


heads throiigli the crevices of the rocks, were dispatched, and 
left to be devoured by tlie numerous wild hogs of that day. 
Some of the fattest of these snakes were taken to the house 
and oil extracted from them, and their glittering skins were 
saved as speciiics for rheumatism. 

Another method was to fix a heavy stick over the door of 
their dens, with a long grapevine attached, that one at a dis- 
tance could ping the entrance to the den when the snakes 
were all out sunning themselves. Then a large company of 
citizens, on hand by appointment, could kill scores of the 
reptiles in a few minutes. 


These implements as used by the pioneer farmers of the 
State would in this age of improvement be great curiosities. 
The plow used was called the " barshare " plow, tlie iron 
point consisted of a bar of iron about two feet long, and a 
broad share of iron welded to it. Sometimes they were made 
shorter to suit the ground in which they were to be used. At 
the extreme point was a coujter that passed through a beam 
six or seven feet long, to which were attached handles of the 
required length. The mold-board was a wooden one split out 
of winding or cross-grained timber, or hewed into shape, in 
order to turn the soil over. Sown seed was dragged in by 
drawing over the ground saplings with bushy tops. Instead 
of reapers and mowers for harvesting, the sickle and ci-adle 
were used, and the wooden rake. The grain was threshed 
out with a flail, or trodden out by horses or oxen. 

Hogs were always dressed before they were taken to market. 
The farmer, if forehanded, would call on his neighbors some 
bright fall or winter morning to help " kill hogs." Immense 
kettles of water were heated; a sled or two covered witii 
loose boards or plank constituted the platform on which the 
hog was cleaned, and was placed near an inclined hogshead 
in which the scalding was done; a quilt was thrown over the 
top of the latter to retain the heat; from the crotch of some 
convenient tree a projecting pole was rigged, to hold the 


animals for disemboweling and thorough cleaning. When 
everything was arranged, the best shot of the neighborhood 
loaded his rifle, and the work of killing was commenced. It 
was considered a disgrace to make a hog " squeal " by bad 
shooting or by a "shoulder-stick," tiiat is, running the point 
of the butcher-knife into the shoulder instead of the cavity of 
the breast. As each hog fell, the "sticker" mounted him 
and plunged the butcher knife into his throat; two persons 
would then catch him by the iiind legs, draw him up to the 
scalding tub, whicli had just been filled with boiling hot 
water with a shovelful of good green-wood ashes thrown in ; in 
this the carcass was plunged and moved round a minute or so 
until the hair would slip off easily, then placed on the plat- 
form where the cleaner would take hold of him and clean him 
as quickly as possible, with knives and other sharp-edged im- 
plements; then two stout men would take him up between 
them, and a third man to manage the gambrel (which was a 
stout stick about two feet long, sharpened at both ends, to be 
inserted between the muscles of the hind legs at or near the 
hock joint), the animal be elevated to the pole, where the 
work of cleaning was finished. 

There was one feature in this method of packing and mar- 
keting pork that made the country in the fall and winter a 
paradise for the poor man. Spare ribs, tenderloins, pigs' 
heads and pigs' feet were not considered of much value, and 
were freely given to all who would take them. If a barrel 
was taken to any pork house and salt furnished, the barrel 
was tilled and salted down gratuitously. So great in many 
cases was the quantity of spare ribs, etc., to be disposed of 
that they were hauled away in wagon loads and dumped in 
the woods out of town or some convenient ravine. 


Money was a scarce article,- and was not seen in large 
quantities, often, among the settlers. Indeed, unless to pay 
for their land or invest in a yoke of oxen, they had little use 
tor it, as they could transact most all their business about as 
well without it, on the "barter" system, wherein a good 
deal of tact in making exchanges was often displayed. When 


it failed in any instance, long credits contributed to the con- 
venience of the citizens. Bat for taxes and postage neither 
the barter nor tlie credit system would answer, and often let- 
ters were suffered to remain a long time in the postoffice for 
the want of the 25 cents demanded by the Government. 

Peltries came nearer being money than anything else, as it 
came to be customary to estimate the value of everything in 
peltries. Such an article was worth so many peltries. Even 
some tax collectors and postmasters were known to take pel- 
tries and exchange them for tlie money required by the 


Among the eary settlers who came to this State were many 
who, accustomed to the advantages of an older civilization, 
to churches, schools and society, became speedily homesick 
and dissatisfied. They would remain perhaps one summer, 
or at most two, then selling whatever claim with its improve- 
ments they had made, would return to the older States, 
spreading reports of the hardships endured by the settlers 
here and the disadvantages which they had found, or imagined 
they had found, in the country. The slight improvements 
they had made were sold to men of sterner stuff, who were 
the sooner able to surround themselves with the necessities of 
life, while their unfavorable report deterred other weaklings 
from coming. The men who stayed and were willing to en- 
dure privations belonged to a different guild; they were he- 
roes every one — men to whom hardships were things to be 
overcome, and privations endured for the sake of posterity, 
and they never shrank from this duty. It is to those hardy 
pioneers who could endure that tlie people of to-day owe the 
wonderful improvements made, and the developments, almost 
miraculous, that have brought this commonwealth in the past 
eighty years from a wilderness to the front rank among the 
States of this great nation. 


Though struggling through the pressure of poverty and 
privation, the early settlers planted among them the school- 
house at the earliest practical period. So important an ob- 


ject as the education of their children they did not defer until 
they could build more comely and convenient houses. They 
were for a time content with such as corresponded with their 
rude dwellings, but soon better buildings and accommodations 
were provided. As may readily be supposed, the accommo- 
dations of the earliest schools were not good. Sometimes 
school was taught in a room of a large or double log cabin, 
but oftener in a log house built for the purpose. A mud-and- 
stick chimney in one end of the building, with earthen hearth 
and a fire-place wide and deep enough to receive a four to six 
foot back-log, and smaller wood to match, served for warming 
purposes in winter and a kind of conservatory in summer. 
For windows, part of a log was cut out in two sides of the - 
building, and maybe a few lights of 8 x 10 glass set in, 
or the aperture might be covered over with greased paper. 
Writing-desks consisted of heavy oak plank or a hewed slab 
laid upon wooden pins driven into the wall. Tiie four-legged 
slab benches were in front of tiiese, and the pupils when not 
writing would sit with their backs against the front, sharp 
edge of the writing-desks. The floor was also made out of 
these slabs or "puncheons," laid upon log sleepers. Every- 
thing was rude and plain; but many of America's greatest 
men have gone out from just such school-houses to grapple 
with the world and make names fjr themselves and reflect 
honor upon their country. 


The chief public evening entertainment fir the first thirty 
or forty years of pioneer existence was the celebrated "spell- 
ing-school." Both young people and old looked forward to 
the next spelling-school with as raucii anticipation and anxi- 
ety as we nowadays look forward m a general Fourtli-of-July 
celebration; and when the time arrived the whole neighbor- 
hood, yea, and sometimes several neighborhoods, would flock 
together to the scene of academical combat, where the excite- 
ment was often more intense than had been expected, 
was far better, of course, when there was good sleighing; then 
the young folks would turn out in high glee and be fairly 
beside themselves. The jollity is scarcely equaled at the 
present day by anything in vogue. 



Next to the night spelling-sciiool the singing-school wa? an 
occasion of much jollity, wherein it was difficult for the aver- 
age siiigitig-inaster to preserve order, as many went more 
for fun than for music. This species ot evening entertain- 
ment, in its introduction to the Weat, was later than the spell- 
ing-school, and served, as it were, as the second step toward 
the modern civilization. Good sleighing weather was of 
course almost a necessity for the success of these schools, but 
how many of them have been pi'eve.ited by mud and rain. 


Not until after the settlers had supplied themselves with 
the more needful articles of clothing and with edibles of 
various kinds did wheat bread become a common article of 
food. It had not been " daily bread," but had been eaten 
only occasionally, as on Sundays and when visitors came. 
Then one would get a little of this luxury, with some " store 
coifee." Fortunately, there was not the same lack of sweet- 
ening material. The sugar maple furnished an abundance oi 
sugir and molasses. 

Trees were "tapped " in various ways. Generally a notch 
was cut into a tree with an ax, or a hole bored with an auger, 
below which a spile, or spout, was inserted to conduct the sap 
into a trough. Troughs were made from easy splittins trees 
twelve to fifteen inches in diameter. They were cut into 
pieces about two feet long, which were split exactly through 
the center. Of each of these halves was made with an ax a 
trough, holding about a common pailful of sap. The sap - 
was generally carried in pails or buckets to the boiling place, 
and emptied into a reservoir, which was a long trough made 
of a large tree, and holding many barrels. Sometimes a 
number of empty barrels or casks were taken to the bush, 
and used for that purpose. The kettles were hung against 
the side of a large log or fallen tree, and the sap was boiled 
down to a thin syrup and strained. The straining and final 
boiling were usually done in the house. For molasses, it was 
boiled to the proper consistency; for sugar, until it was gran- 


ulated, when it was poured into dishes to cool, and taken out 
in solid cakes. 

Great improvements on the early mode of sugar-making 
have been made. Wooden and tin buckets have been sub- 
stituted for the rough, uncouth trough which could not be 
emptied without waste. Kettles are sometimes set in tight 
furnaces of stone laid iiT lime mortar. Coals, ashes, and 
other dirt are thus kept out of the kettle?, and clean, light- 
colored sugar is produced. The first settlers had no market 
for their surplus sugar and molasses. Each made for him- 
self ; and there was no store in all the county ; nor, if there 
had been, would a merchant have taken sugar at a remuner- 
ative price, even in exchange for goods, as it would not have 
borne transportation to market. The nominal price was from 
5 to 6 cents per pound, though its cash value was much 
less. Those who have preserved their maple groves, or sugar 
orchards, as cliey are called, have, for several years past, re- 
ceived a fair reward for their labor in its production. 


The war spirit which had been excited, and kept up for a 
long period, by conflicts between the whites and the Indian 
tribes in the Northwestern Territory, had not long slum- 
bered — perhaps had not been entirely allayed — when the 
former began their settlements in the valleys of Whitewater. 
This warfare, there is reason to believe, was not, as some 
have supposed, wholly a " coniiict between civilization and 
barbarism." Many acts of savage barbarity recorded in the 
history of the early settlements were the outbreaks of resent- 
ments transmitted by those who had suffered injustice at the 
hands of half-civilized white men, or were provoked by some 
evil-disposed white men at the time. Judge Hoover, re- 
ferring to some of the depredations and murders committed 
by the Indians, says: " Candor, however, compels me to say, 
that, as is usually the case, we Christians were the aggress- 
ors." It must be confessed, however, that many of these 
Indian atrocities appear to have been committed in cold 
blood — at least without any immediate provocation. 

Scarcely had hostilities between the two countries com- 


meneed before tliese apprehensions were realized; and it 
became necessary tor the inhabitants to provide means of 
safety. The expedient adopted was the building efforts and 
block-houses by the people of the several settlements. These 
forts, or stockades, were made of two rows (sometimes but 
one row) of split timbers twelve to fourteen feet long, planted 
in the ground two and one-half or tliree feet deep. The tin- 
bers of the second row were so placed as to cover the cracks 
oftheiirst. Small cabins were erected inside of the stock- 
ades for the accommodation of the families. Usually one 
block-house was built in each fort. These block-houses were 
two stories high, the upper story projecting over the lower, 
say two feet, with port-holes in the floor of the projection, so 
that the men could see to shoot the Indians if they succeed- 
ed hi getting to the walls of the block-house. There were 
also port-holes in the walls of the upper and lower stories, 
through which shooting of much execution could be performed 
as the foe was advancing. 

The block-house was at a corner of the fort, the second 
story extending on two sides several feet beyond the marked 
boundaries of the fort. The projection of the second story 
beyond the walls of the first was generally between three and 
four instead of two feet. The block-house thus standing out 
a few feet beyond the walls of the fort gave ample range to 
shoot any person approaching the fort on two sides. And, 
by placing another block-house in the diagonally opposite 
corner of the tort, the other two sides of the fort were simi- 
larly guarded. 

The early settlers were much annoyed by the Indians. 
They were often frightened by their suspicious appearances 
and open menaces; and these fears were strengthened by 
actual murders committed in various parts of the territory, 
one of which is related by Eev. Mr. Smith in his "Miscel- 
lany," in substance, as follows: A man named Jones, return- 
ing from hunting, found his wife terribly frightened by the 
menaces of an Indian who was plundering the house. The 
Indian, on the approach of Jones, rushed out and made off, 
and Jones shot him as he ran, inflicting a severe, though not 
mortal, wound. The Indian escaped and reached his people. 


In a few days a delegation of Indians came to the white set- 
tlement and demanded redress. The whites were so well ac- 
quainted with the Indian character that they knew an amicable 
settlement must be made, or the Indians would take ven- 
geance; and perhaps some of their women and cliildren would 
be the sacrifice. The white men met for consultation, aud ap- 
pointed Esquire Rue, Wm. L. Williford, and George Smith, 
as commissioners to treat with the Indians. The Indians de- 
manded blood from the white man. The commissioners 
agreed and showed that the Indian was the aggressor. In 
view of this fact the Indians proposed to take a horse. A horse 
was according]}' purchased for them, and they were pacified. 

In 1811 John Shortridge was shot by an Indian south of 
the present town of Germantowu, and about a mile east of Mil- 
ton, while riding on iiorseback in compai.y with George Ish. 
This, however, is said to have been done by mistake. The 
Indian had had some difSculty with a man by the name 
of Isaiah Drury. Shortridge, having on Urury's overcoat, 
was mistaken for the owner, and shot on his white horse. 
He was carried about a mile to a fort which had been built 
half a mile south of where German town now is. Word hav- 
ing been sent to tlie fort north (Boyd Fort), Samuel K. Boyd 
and Larkin Harding went down, and attended Shortridge un- 
til his death, the next day. For the want of boards to 
make a cofBn, puncheon floor plank were used for the purpose. 

Chai-les Morgan, residing near the stream now called Mor- 
gan's Creek, and two boys, or youths, his half-brothers named 
Beesly, were killed near a sugar-camp by Indians in the even- 
ing. Tiie leader, or principal in this murder, is supposed 
— perhaps generally — to have been the notorious Indian, 
John Green. This supposition is probably based upon the 
fact that a mutual hatred existed betweem him and Morgan. 
The writer has been informed, upon authority which lie can 
not doubt, that Morgan, under the apprehension that Green 
was meditating his murder, intended to take the life of Green 
in order to save his own, and that he once started from home 
with the avowed intent of waylaying his adversary for this 
purpose. Although Green probably had evil designs against 
Morgan, and perhaps was accessory to the murder, there is 


strong presumptive evidence that he was not present when it 
was committed. The suspected murderers, four in number, 
were traced toward Muneietown and overtaken, and one of 
them was sliot; the others escaped. Morgan and his brothers 
were all scalped. The murder was cotnmitted in the spring 
ot 1813. This occurrence induced many families to take shel- 
ter in the forts erected for their protection. 


We give as an illustration of the watchful care which char 
acterized pioneer life the following remarks of an old settler: 
"The manner in which I used to work in those perilous times 
was that on all occasions I carried my rifle, tomahawk and 
butcher-knife, and a loaded pistol in my belt. When I went 
to plow I laid my gun on the plowed ground, and stuck a 
stick by it for a mark, so that I could get it quick in case it 
was wanted. I had two good dogs; I took one into the house 
leaving the otlier out. The one outside was expected to give 
the alarm, which would cause the one inside to bark, by 
which I was awakened, having my arms always loaded. I 
kept my horse in a stable close to the house, having a port- 
hole so that 1 could shoot to the stable door. During two 
years I never went from home with any certainty of return- 
ing, not knowing the minute I might receive a ball from an 
unknown hand." 


The history of pioneer life generallj' presents the dark side 
of the picture ; but the toils and privations of the early settlers 
were not a series of unmitigated sufferings. No; for while 
the fathers and mothers toiled hard, they were not averse to 
a little relaxation, and had their seasons of fun and enjoy- 
ment. They contrived to do something to break the mo- 
notony of their daily life and furnish them a good hearty 
laugh. Among the more general forms of amusement were 
the "quilting bee," " corn-husking," " apple-paring," ''log- 
rolling," and " house-raising." Our young readers will doubt- 
less be interested in a description of these forms of amuse- 
ment, when labor was made to aftbrd fun and enjoyment to 


all participating. The " qnilting-bee," as its name implies, 
was wlieii the industrious qualities of the busy little insect 
that "improves each sliining hour " were exeinplilied in the 
manufacture of quilts for the household. In the afternoon 
ladies for miles around gathered at an appointed place, and 
while their tongues would not cease to play, the hand was 
busily engaged in making the quilt, the desire being always 
manifested to get it out as quickly as possible, for then the 
fun would begin. In the evening the gentlemen came, and 
the hours would then pass swiftly by in playing games or 
dancing. " Corn-huskings " were when both sexes united in 
the work. They usually assembled in a large barn which 
was arranged for the occasion; and when each gentleman had 
selected a lady partner the liusking began. When a lady 
found a red ear she was subject to a kiss from her partner; 
when a gentleman found one he was allowed to kiss his lady 
partner. After the corn was all husked a good supper was 
served; then the " old folks " would leave, and the remainder 
of the evening was spent in the dance and in having a general 
good time. The recreation afforded to the young people on 
the annual recurrence of these festive occasions was as highly 
enjoyed, and quite as innocent, as the amusements of the 
present boasted age of refinement and culture. 


Indiana is a grand State in many respects, and in almost 
everything that goes to makeia live, prosperous community, 
not far behind the best. Beneath her fertile soil is coal 
enough to supply the State for generations; her harvests are 
bountiful; she has a medium climate, and many other things 
that make her people contented, prosperous and happy; but 
she owes much to those who opened up these avenues that 
have led to her present condition and happy suri'oundings. 
Unremitting toil and labor have driven oft' the sickly mias- 
mas that brooded over swampy bottom lands. Energy and 
perseverance have peopled every section of her wild lands, 
and changed them from wastes and deserts to gardens of 
beauty and profit. Where but a few years ago the barking 
wolves made the night hideous with their wild shrieks and 


howls, now is heard only the lowing and bleatinw of domestic 
animals. Less than a century ago the wild whoop of the 
Indian rent the air where now are heard tha engine and 
rumbling trains of cars, bearing away to markets the prod- 
ucts of our labor and soil. Then the savage built his rude 
hut on the spot where now rise the dwellings and school- 
houses and church spires of civilized life. How great the 
transformation! Tliis change has been brought about by the 
incessant toil and aggregated labor of thousands of tired 
hands and anxious hearts, and the noble aspirations of such 
men and women as make any country great. What will 
another half century accomplish? There are few, very few, 
of these old pioneers yet lingering on the shores of time as 
connecting links of the past with the present. What must 
their thoughts be as with their dim eyes they view the scenes 
that surround them? Let us cheer them up, revere and 
respect them, for beneath those rough exteriors beat hearts 
as noble as ever throbbed in the human breast. These 
veterans have been compelled to live for weeks upon hominy 
and, if bread at all, it was bread made from corn ground in 
hand-mills, or pounded up with mortars. Their children 
have been destitute of shoes during the winter; their families 
had no clothing except what was carded, spun, woven and 
made into garments with their own hands; schools they had 
none ; churches they had none ; afflicted witii sickness inci- 
dent to all new countries, sometimes the entire family at 
once; luxuries of life they had none ; the auxiliaries, im- 
provements, inventions and labor-saving machinery of to-day 
they had not ; and what they possessed they obtained by the 
hardestof labor and individual exertions, yet they bore these 
hardships and privations without murmuring, hoping for 
better times to come, and often, too, with but little prospect 
of realization. 

As before mentioned, the changes written on ever)' hand are 
most wonderful. It has been but fourscore years since the 
white man began to exercise dominion over this region, erst 
the home of the red man, yet the visitor of today, ignorant 
of the past of the country, could scarcely be made to realize 
that within these years there has grown up a population ot 


over 2,000,000 people, who in all the accomplishments of 
lite are as far advanced as are the inhabitants of the older 
States. Schools, churches, colleges, palatial dwellings, beauti- 
ful grounds, large, well-cultivated and productive farms, as well 
as cities, towns and busy manufactories, have grown up, and 
occupy the hunting grounds and camping places of the In- 
dians, and in every direction there are evidences of wealth, 
comfort and luxury. There is but little left of the old laud- 
marks. Advanced civilization and the progressive demands 
of revolving years iiave obliterated all traces of Indian occu- 
pancy, until they are only remembered in name. 

In closing this section it would be well to impress on the 
mind of the reader tiie fact that a debt of gratitude is due to 
tliose who pioneered this State, which can be but partially 
repaid. Never grow unmindful of the peril and adventure, 
fortitude, self-sacrifice and heroic devotion so prominently 
displayed in their lives. As time sweeps on in its ceaseless 
flight, may the cherished memory of them lose none of its 
greenness, but may future generations alike cherish and per- 
petuate them with just devotion and gratitude. 


Thus far the pioneer has been referred to as of the sterner 
sex, but were they the only pioneers in these once uncivilized 
regions ? Was man the only one who suflTered privation and 
want, who worked that a generation, then verging on man- 
hood, might iind the way " blazed " to the light of a higher 
civilization, and that a generation yet unborn might find the 
fruits of struggle in well-tilled fields, a full granary, and a 
home blessed with all tlie art and progress that a new era gave 
them I Was it in the culture and refinement of the people of a 
later day, who had received not only wealth descended from 
their forefathers, but tiiose benefits which science had discov- 
ered hidden in the deep and dark mysteries of nature, and 
were they to thank men alone for the blessings around them? 
No! but high on the scroll of fame should the pioneer women 
ot our land have their names emblazoned that generations yet 
to come, and for all time, may honor and bless the memory 
of the heroic women who gave themselves to the duties of a 


pioneer's life,fand who proudly and uncomplaicingly did the 
work which came before them, as onlj- women could do it, 
smoothing their rugged lives with the light of an undying love, 
and proving in every way the equal of man in carrying for- 
ward the work of making a wilderness take upon itself the 
garb of civilizatiem, and barren plains the wealth of fruitful 
fields and abundant harvests. Thus have the pioneer women 
worked and struggled, and the rude cabin to them was a home 
of love and happiness. 

Rude and primitive as that cabin might be, with a floor of 
mother earth, simple and unadorned, there was found within 
its walls many a heroine of early days. Not in the palaces of 
the rich of what is called this enlightened era is more true 
life-like happiness found than in those lowly cabins. There 
was no waiting in those days for a home of splendor before 
man found his mate, but the heroes and heroines of those 
days joined hands and hearts, and helped each other down tlie 
rugged pathway of life. He went into the field to work, that 
he might supply the food necessary for life, while she worked 
on in her own sphere, furnishing her husband's cabin with 
smiles of a loving heart, greeting her partner with the evident 
work of willing hands, keeping her true and womanly talents 
in full play, not only in preparing tlie food for the family 
meal, but in spinning and weaving, cutting and making, not 
only her own clothing, but the garments of those who were of 
her household and under her loving care. Much has been 
written of the "old pioneer" and his struggles in the early 
years of his life, heavy trials, misfortunes, and ultimately his 
success, but little has been recorded of his noble companion, 
the light of his cabin, who cheered him in his misfortunes, 
nursed him in sickness, and in health gave her whole 
strength to labor for their future welfare and happiness. 
There was little luxury or ease for the pioneer's wife of those 
early days, but whatever her destiny might be, it was met 
with a firm faith and a willingness to do her whole duty, liv- 
ing in the love of her husband and children and trusting in 
Providence to receive her final reward for the unceasing labor 
of years, well and nobly performed. Yes, there was" some- 
thing decidedly primitive in the building and furniture of 


those cabins of old. Tliey were built one and a halt' stories 
high, in many cases, that they might ha^e a "loft" to store 
away things, and sometimes to sleep in. The windows were 
covered by a light quilt to keep the wind and rain out; the 
puncheon floor was laid, the stick-aiid-mud chimney set up, a 
table and a chair or two, or stools made of split logs, with 
anger holes bored to put in the legs; some shelves made of 
the same material, holes bored and pins put in to hang up 
their clothes and other things, and that pioneer heroine was 
ready to meet her friends and neighbors and the world at large 
in a roomy and comfortable house. 

Then it was discovered that woman's work was never done. 
The household was asleep. The tired husband and father was 
resting his weary limbs in dreamland; the children were 
tossing here and there on their beds, as restless children 
always do. Nature itself had gone to rest and the outer 
world was wrapped in darkness and gloom, bnt the nearly 
exhausted mother sewed on and on, and the midnight candle 
was still shedding its pale light over the work or the vigils of 
the loved and loving mother. And this is the record of the 
thousands of noble women, the female pioneers, whose daily 
presence, loving hearts, earnest work and keen judgment 
made the work of civilization and progress one of success. 
And the question has often been asked, "What would the 
men of olden times liave done if the women of olden times 
had not been with tiiem?" And the reply comes back, "Ah! 
yes, what would they liave done?" 

These were the kind of women who made civilization a 
success, and brightened the pathway of material progress 
with the promise of a glorious future. There are a few yet 
living of that glorious pioneer band of women who gave their 
lives to the hard fate of a pioneer's wife. They bore their 
share of the trials, troubles, and labor of the times. They 
are deserving the love and veneration of all, and may their 
pathway to the unknown river be brightened by kind words 
and loving hearts. Let them glide softly and pleasantly down 
the river of Time, and let no regrets come from them of neg- 
lect or coldness. Their young days were days of hardship; 
let the evening of their life be bereft of care, peaceful and 


Of those who are now sleeping the sleep that knows no 
waking, they did their duty nobly and well, and while their 
allotted time on earth has passed tiiey have gone to a better 
world, a reward to all those whose life's pilgrimage has been 
worthily performed. And thus tiie pioneer women pass away. 
May they be ever blessed while living. One and all, living 
or dead, deserve a high and honored place in our country's 
history, and the compiler of the " History of Wayne County" 
gives this short tribute to their memory. Not that it is much, 
but that the lives of those who have done so much to bring this 
once wild vallej' to a land of civilization and Christianity has 
the veneration of the writer and of those he has met. And of 
those who have gone before will he hold a cherished memory 
until he, too, joins the throng on the golden shore, where time 
ceases and eternity begins the endless round. 


The county of Wayne from the exit of the red man had few 
stirring incidents to record in its early history. There was 
little to arouse the old pioneer from the even tenor of his way. 
The Indians had ceased from troubling, game was plenty, and 
honey could be easily found. Tlie distance to mill and 
postoffice to those who settled back in the country was their 
greatest trouble, and though wolves were oftentimes found 
troublesome on the way, there were no thrilling horrors en- 
acted, and so the settlers, through all these trying years, try- 
ing because of the privations endured, if not from danger, 
were working to improve their homes, that they and their 
children might have a competency in their old age. To be 
sure there were many incidents of these privations and cares 
that would be interesting to the reader; of hunting excursions 
that sometimes cost more than they came to; of the simple 
implements of industry which are now obsolete, and yet were 
the only help in all those early years of the hardy pioneers, 
and of the forest and the prairies. 

This and much more could be written, yet it is more or less 
familiar to all. The old pioneer, in many cases, has departed 
to his long home; even the children of those days have passed 
their threescore years and ten, yet with memories tenacious 


they have told of their cliildhood days until it has become an 
open book to all. Yet these pages are gathered together that 
with the future onward march of time, when memory has 
ceased and the last link broken that unites the present with 
the early days, then this work will be treasured as the missing 
link that should forever unite the pioneer of early history 
with the men and women of to-day. 

The country grew and prospered under the strength of the 
brawny arm and endurance of her noble old pioneers. Civil- 
ization advanced, and material progress could be seen on 
every hand. School-houses were built; education and Christi- 
anity went hand in hand, for the school-house was also the 
church, and thus the pioneer sought enlightenment, and 
bowed before his Maker. 

In closing this part of our iiistory, covering a little less 
than a quarter of a century of time, there has been sometliing 
written founded upon tradition, but little of it in comparison 
with the vast array of facts gathered and compiled within its 
pages. The early pioneer made history, but knew little how 
to preserve it. This is a sad loss to the country. Those 
years and the lives and actions of the heroes and patriots 
then living were ot the greatest importance. Then it was 
that the foundation was laid upon which a noble and enduring 
superstructure was to be reared, and upon which the moral, 
physical and political future of the country was to rest. 

There were no great stirring events or remarkable happen- 
ings, but it was a time of self-reliance, of persevering toil, of 
privations and of sutfering that was endured with heroic forti- 
tude. They believed in a future reward of successful labor 
and of the good time coming when the wooded hills and open 
prairies should resolve themselves into well-cultivated farms, 
their humble cabins into residences that would be fitting 
their improved tinanci:d condition and the advanced era in 
which they would live. They had come into tiie boundless 
wilderness poor in purse, but rich in faith, powerful in endur- 
ance, and their future was before them. 



by joseph doan. 

Wayne County Geologically Considkeed. — Its Prominent 
Features. — The Blue Limestone. — Number and Variety 
OF Fossils. — Wayne County Compared with other Local- 
ities. — The Western Continent not the New World. — 
The Ancient Whitewater River. — The Niagara Lime- 
stone.— Character of this Formation. — The Glacial 
Epoch. — What it did for Wayne County. — Value of the 
Lime-rock. — The Absence of Minerals. — Geology and 

geology of WAYNE COUNTY. 

The geology of a county that can offer to the miner no 
treasures of economical value will hardly prove interesting 
to the general reader. 

In localities where the linger of science points to hidden 
wealth waiting in the nether strata for the enterprise of man, 
all classes become intensely interested in the smallest details 
of the stratography. Although the blue limestone beneath 
us contains nothing more valuable than inferior building 
stone and marl for the soil, yet Wayne County in an impor- 
tant respect is one of the most remarkable geological localities 
in the world. 

Cincinnati is known to all civilized countries as the Mecca 
of the geological devotee. Sir Charles Lyell, of England, 
made the pilgrimage to this favored locality twice in his life, 
and stated that in the circle of seventy miles radius around the 
Queen City there were more perfect fossils accessible to the 
hand of man than in all of the rest of the world beside. Now 


fossil remains are the only clew to the dark mysteries beneath 
us. They form the articles of the geological creed and enable 
the student of nature to point out with unerring certainty to 
the miner and say, "Here dig for coal; there probe the 
rocky layers for salt and bromine; yonder find treasures 
of gold, silver, tin, copper and lead; but in Wayne County 
save your capital, leave the rocky crust undisturbed, unless 
you seek for marl for your worn-out fields, building-stone or 


upon which "Wayne County rests has not been explored to 
any great depth here, but every layer of it has been studied 
in other localities. Its upper members only are exposed here, 
and yet this vicinity has afforded more than a hundred species 
of animal and vegetable life, the largest number of any single 
locality in the world to my knowledge. 

At Columbus, Ohio, in the State House yard, the artesian 
auger struck this rock 926 feet beneath the surface, and per- 
forated all its layers, finding it to be 1,058 feet thick. 

At Saint Louis the builders of the great steel bridge, seek- 
ing for bed rock beneath the bottom of the Mississippi Hiver, 
found our Richmond layer of blue, and placed their masonry 
upon it ninety-five feet; below low-water mark. s| At High 
Bridge, on the Kentucky River and the Cincinnati jSouthern 
Railroad, the waters have worn a channel in it 1,300 feet 
lower than the strata of Richmond and have not reached 
its lowest member. 

These rocks yield the lead of Galena, 111. Why not here? 
Ages ago the Silurean stata at Galena rested immediately 
upon the melted igneous rocks below, and were cracked hy 
the piiessure and the cracks filled by melted galena. Melted 
lead was also forced into tlie meshes of porns rocks there, 
and veins of segregation formed.' 

The great thickness of marine and sedimentary strata be- 
tween Wayne County and the igneous rocks below make it 
next to impossible to suppose that there are any valuable 
minerals within our reach. The lowest point reached b}' the 
action of water in these layers in the Cinciuuati plateau is 


the bottom of the Ohio Kiver, at Point Pleasant, above the 
city. Prof. Orton divides the Cincinnati group into Point 
Pleasant beds, iif'ty feet; Cincinnati beds, 500 feet; Lebanon 
beds at the top, 425 feet thick. The strata here are level. 
No dip can be proved to exist. Wayne County appears to be 
situated exactly upon the Cincinnati anticlinal axis, which 
is believed to be a plateau in this locality on which for a large 
area these rocks have no dip but abound in depressions. 

East of us, though, the blue plunges under the gray at New 
Pari? and disappears; it re-appears at Dayton in force and is 
not finally covered until we reach a point east of Xenia, Ohio. 
South of us, though, they are covered with Niagara rocks. 
Beyond Elkhorn they re-appear to the southward and 
extend far into Kentucky, forming the foundation of the fa- 
mous blue-grass region of that State, suddenly dipping at a 
steep angle at Houstonville, on the Cincinnati Southern Rail- 
road, and disappearing forever in that direction. 

Southwest of here for twenty-five miles they show in most 
of the low places until on Williams' Creek, near Longwood 
Station, on the C, H. & I. K, they vanished under the cliff 
limestone in an interesting manner. Northward they are not 
exposed, but as the surface rises in that direction the fact of 
dip cannot be established. This blue bed rock of Wayne 
County, being impervious to water, furnishes it with its num- 
berless springs which are of great importance. The depres- 
sions are often filled with gravel in which the water stands and 
is easily reached by driven wells. Some of these iron pipes 
afford a flow of water without the aid of a pump, as witness 
the well at No. 205 Thirteenth street, and at Colonel Ileff's, 
No. 102 Fourteenth street. 

Of the great number of fossils* of this county we mention 
no names. As they are known and familiar in the cabinets 
of all enlightened countries, it is important that the name of 
each should be the same in English, French, German, etc., 
therefore the names were formed from the Latin and Greek 

*One of the finest and most valuable collections of fossils west of the 
Allegheny Mountains has been made by Mrs. ]\Iary P. Haines, of Rich- 
mond. She has in her cabinet 130 species of life from the blue limestone 


Students of the county who are desirous of making the ao 
quaintance of these mute historians of the unmeasiirable past 
are referred to the " Analytical Key to the Richmond Fos- 
sils," published by Prof. David Dennis, formerly of the Rich- 
mond High School, in which 109 species are indexed and 
arranged so that any one may be identified and an accurate 
description of it obtained. 

Speaking of strata near Richmond, Prof. Dennis says: 

" The conditions of the sea in this vicinity during the time 
the layers were being spread out must not go entirely unno- 
ticed. Leptena and Strophomena flags may be found near 
Mering's mill, at the lowest horizon exposed at that place, in 
which the shells are evenly distributed and nearly all are 
lying the same side up." "I have never seen a flag from that 
horizon and losality in which any of the shells stand on edge; 
but at many other localities and horizons it is not at all un- 
common to find these same shells standing at all possible 
angles in the layers and bearing in other respects the marks 
of a turbulent sea. Moreover, the rule in the locality and 
horizon spoken of is, thvt the two pieces of bivalvular shells 
are united, while at Test's mills the rule is that they are sepa- 
rated." "From these and other things it is clear that the lower 
stratum at Mering's mill was spread out in a comparatively 
dtep and quiet sea; whilst at Test's mills, at about the middle 
horizon, the sea was suffioicntiy shallow to wear the shells or 
grind them to pieces as would be done on a beach." 

Beneath the blue comes the Potsdam or primordial stata 
which has never been seen here. They can be studied at 
Knoxville, Tenn., Minneapolis, Minn., and on the Saint Law- 
rence River, which is the oldest stream of water in the world, 
and flows for hundreds of miles over rocks which were elevated 
above the sea apparently before animal life of any kind ap- 
peared on our earth. The Eastern Continent has falsely 
borne the name of the " Old World." Its mountains are new, 
with sharp outlines that cleave the sky with well defined peaks 
while ours are rounded by the corroding action of frost water 
and Hge, and the oxydizing influence of the air. This is the 
old world, and our Whitewater was' nearly in its present con- 
dition long before the Nile River, where the pyramids ,of 


Egypt stand, found its newly made cliannel in its delta in the 
Mediterranean Sea. 

The theory cannot be for a moment maintained that our 
Silurian age was contemporaneous with that of Europe. 
Their coal age may have come millions of years later than 
ours. Indeed, if a new continent should now form in the Pa- 
ciiie Ocean, it would have at first a Silurian age, similar to that 
which our blue limestones portray, and then would come the 
later ages. At first it would have no mountain ranges; they 
would be heaved up as ours have been after the marine strata 
had been nearly all laid down. At the proper time its bogs 
and extensive fern flats would accumulate coal strata and so 
on up to later rocks. The idea of the synchronism of the dif- 
ferent continents is thoroughly exploded. 


are named for the great American cataract, because they form 
the falls of the Niagara River, precisely in the same manner 
that they do the falls of Elkhorn, in .section 22, and the falls 
of Short Croek, at Elliott's Mills, in section 11. Here in 
Wayne County the upper member of the blue is a bed of marl, 
. which at Elkhorn Falls and at Elliott's Mills is ten feet rJiick. 
This readily dissolves and washes away, leaving a shelving rock 
projecting westward, in each case, over wliicli the falls flow. 

At Niagara the upper part of the Cincinnati group is a soft 
shale that behaves in the same manner. 

This gray^ limestone is exposed close to Richmond. There 
are outliers of it across the river near the railroad bridge, 
on the blnfl" east of Earlham, near the Lutheran cemetery, 
on the Liberty pike, and other places. They furnish the Mid- 
dleboro and New Paris lime and paving-flags. A layer at 
Middleboro is made up of the large brachiopod fossil, Pentam- 
erim oblongas. A magnificent slab of this was a few years 
ago exhibited in Richmond and labeled "A Middleboro clam- 
bake." If one were to go up the East Fork through section 
26 he would find high up the bluffs large fragments of this 
formation projecting out, and others that had been broken oflf 
and lying below. An exploration of Short Creek and Elkhorn 
below the falls will show the same. 


At Dayton, Ohio, the superior building material bearing 
the name of that city is of this age; and just below St. Paul, 
or " Paultown," in Decatur Count}-, the very same layer ap- 
pears so nearly identical that " Dayton stone " and " Greens- 
burg stone " cannot be told apart in the yards of Indianapo 
lis. This exact lithological similarity is strong evidence that 
the ancient Niagara sea was continuous at least from Dayton 
to Greensburg. This valuable member of the Niagara may 
exist in Wayne County, but it has not yet been discovered. 
The other layers are not valuable for building purposes. 
They abound in vertical cleavage cracks, which, when fallen 
apart, give tliis formation the name of " cl iff limestone" in 
many localities. Its tendency to wear away by the action of 
water has caused many sink-holes in various parts of the 
country. Four of them are pointed out between Richmond 
and Connersville. The surface-water finding-a passage down 
through the fissures wears it larger and larger, carrying soil 
with it through the subterranean passage. Some of these de- 
pressions now hold water, possibly because the passage may 
have become closed by a precipitate of lime from the water. 
At Fountain City there is an underground lake that I be- 
lieve to have been formed in this way. Its waters are reached 
by driven pipes and they rise with a slight force. This fact 
has given Newport the name of Fountain City. 

Newer Strata.— The Niagara or Upper Silurian are the 
newest bed-rock found in Wayne. The next period, or De- 
vonian, has either been planed off by glacial ice, or else this 
county was lifted above the Devonian sea and received no 
marine deposits daring the age and all subsequent ages. Tiie 
absurdity of expecting to find coal at New Paris is only 
equaled by the demented old man who gropes around for his 
glasses while they rest securely upon his head. He who 
would bore for coal or oil at New Paris should bore npiaard, 
for the strata that bear these carboniferous products belongs 
2000 feet above us. 

The most important period to our county was the glacial 
epoch, that great winter of the ages whose vast ice energies 
planed off the rocky crust and ground it into soil. This ac- 
tion of the ice was to Wayne County what mastication is to 


food, and without it this region might have been as barren, 
bare and worthless as the "bad lands" of the West. It 
made soil for our crops, gravel for our roads, boulders for our 
streets and sand for our buildings. It furnished beds foronr 
streams and incomparable natural drainage for most of our 

Wajne County is situated wholly in the great Miami Val- 
ley. But this was not always so. Our "Whitewater once 
had a mouth of its own in the Ohio River below Lawrence- 
burg. A great glacier pushed before it avast moraine of clay 
gravel and boulders; and when it retreated during the sliort 
summer of those frigid times, the dam formed across the 
river's bed caused the water to flow around to the left and 
find a mouth where the east line of Indiana reaches the Ohio 

The Big Miami then entered the Ohio where Cincinnati 
now .stands through the valley of Mill Creek, which valley is 
a widi'r and deeper cut in tiie limestone than the one the Ohio 
River flows through. A. well bored at Cumminsville reached 
a point much lower than the bottoin,of the Ohio River and it 
did not strike the bed-rock. 

President Harrison stated in his life-time that the Great 
Miami had formerly occupied Mill Creek Valley. The fact 
then received no attention, for Harrison was a man far ahead 
of his age. But now the old beds of the Little and Great 
Miamis are so laid out on the geological maps of Ohio. Later 
the bed of the Big Miami was stopped up by a glacial moraine 
at Stone Station on the present C. H. & D. R. R., and flowing 
over westward it usurped the bed of Whitewater at Valley 
Junction, on the Whitevv.iter Valley Railroad, and our waters 
became tributary to it. 

The astronomical position of Richmond, Wayne County, is 
latitude 39° 40' north, and longitude 84° 47' west. The 
fortieth parallel passes through the northern tier of townships, 
and the meridian of 85° west fri)m Greenwich through the 
west, crossing in section 33, one-half mile south of Economy. 
Richmond is 969 feet above the level of the sea by a baro- 
metrical measurement. The highest point in the county is 
in the northeastern part, in section 2, North Franklin Town- 


ship, or section 23, New Garden, which points are about 1,212 
feet above the sea. The lowest is the bed of the west branch of 
Whitewater where it leaves the county in section 30, 876 feet 
above the sea, a difference in heisjht of 336 feet. Tlie highest 
point on the road-bed of the C, St. L. & P. R. R. between 
Columbus, Ohio, and Indianapolis is at Jackson's Hill, west of 

Every fanner in this county is indebted to the blue and 
gray limestone for the fertility of his lands, and should not 
slight an acquaintance with that from which he inherits his 
wealth, and which has furnished him and must furnish liis 
descendants with bread. This lime, so grateful to the soil, 
makes the water of the county excessively hard, so that it is 
injurious to steam boilers. 

Rain-water takes into its composition a large proportion ot 
lime when it gives out its carbonic acid. It then parts with 
this lime again. This process in caves forms stalactite and 
stalagmite. Large masses of this material are on Elkhorn. 
The "big rock" on Little Elkhorn is wholly composed of 
it. This concretion has been mistaken for igneous rock, but 
there are positively no marks of heat on any rocks in Ohio or 
Indiana. This deposit is successfully manufactured into ce- 
ment at Clermont County, Ohio, and elsewhere. The avidity 
of rain-water for lime has robbed our soil in many places of 
this essentia] ingredient. Although largely composed ot 
carbonate of lime originally, many specimens will not now in 
an analysis show a trace of it. 

The wholesale destruction of the forests is having a dele- 
terious effect upon our climate and soil. It may be stated 
without fear of contradiction that the trees destroyed in 
Wayne County would to-day be worth more than the net value 
of all the crops that have been taken from the land. It is 
estimated that the walnut trees alone that stood herein pioneer 
times would be worth more now than all the improvements 
in the county. We may well be alarmed at the possibility that 
the fertile fields about us may become sterile. That those lands 
that have yielded so abundantly to the fathers may fail to re- 
spond to the efforts of the grandchildren. Wlien our grand- 
fathers settled in North Carolina, they found -the land 


exceedingly fertile. It became a proverb that " they had 
only to tickle it with a hoe and it would laugh with a 
harvest." But the cliihl who moved from Nantucket to North 
Carolina lived to see the soil worn out and in old age left it 
for Wayne County. 

Is there no way to induce this fertility, which is the bread 
of our future descendants, to stay with us? It is going down 
with every flood tu feed the insatiable delta of the Missis- 
sippi. Most assuredly the soil can be maintained. In Eng- 
land heavy penalties are visited on those who deteriorate 
their lands. The late James Endsley stated that his four 
farms are more fertile now than at tirst and yield better crops 
of everything. The lands around the Mediterranean Sea in 
ancient times supported 70,000,000 more people than they will 
now. Large tracts of the once fertile land there have become 
sandy deserts. Only the cereal grains were raised, and these 
being shorn from the land in early summer left the ground 
stark and bare during the dry season. Luckily our descend- 
ants will escape the extreme penalty of our crimes against 
the forests and against the soil. The corn plant, of which we 
cultivate so great an area; remains green and succulent until 
the fall rains set in. and gives out almost as much moisture as 
the primeval forests did; and the despised rag-weed tries to 
clothe the stubble with green and often shelters the ground 
from the scorching sun of August and September. 



Organization of Wayne County. — First Co untyOffickrs. — 
Location of County Seat at Salisbury. — The Early 
Courts. — The First County Seat Embeoglio. — The Act of 
THE Legislature. — Removing the County Seat to Centrk- 
ville. — The Long Struggle. — The Death of Salisbury. — 
The Lost Records. — New Townships. — Justices and Elec- 
tions. — Tavern Charges. — Reducing the County's Size. — 
Taxation. — Jail. — -Centre and Green Townships, Forma- 
tion. — Defalcation. — Educational. — Clay and Jefferson 
Townships. — Franklin, Boston and Abingdon Town- 
ships. — Dalton and Webster. — Removal of the County 
Seat from Centreville to Richmond. — The Petition. — 
The Controversy. — And the Result. 

organization of WAYNE COUNTY. 

Wayne County was organized in 1810, and was taken from 
Dearborn County. Its extent of territory at its formation was 
somewhat larger than at present, extending further sontii, 
taking in a portion of both Union and Fayette counties, and 
north, a part of Randolpii County. Franklin County bounded 
Wayne on the south trom the year 1811 when that county 
was formed, its description being all north of Dearborn 
County to Wayne, east of the Ohio State line, and Rush being 
also included in it and under its jurisdiction until it was or- 
ganized in 1822. Fayette County was formed from Wayne and 
Franklin, Jan. 1, 1819, and Union was also termed from the 
tame counties, i Harrison Township, now in Union County, 
was taken from Wayne County. Randolph County was taken 
from Wayne and Delaware. The surface of the territory is 




mostly rolling, with some slight hills in the southeastern por- 
tion. The two forks of Whitewater, fed by numerous brandies, 
pass through the whole county, from north to south, and sup- 
ply abundant water-power to every part of it. Between these 
streams — usually from one to four miles apart — the land 
swells gradually, so that from the summits, in each direction, 
the most delightful prospects are everywhere presented. Tiie 
forests have disappeared, except such as have been reserved 
for timber, and more than three-liftlis of the county is under 
profitable cultivation. The soil is principally a rich loam, 
bedded on clay, with a light mixture of sand and limestone. 
The soil is well adapted to wheat, corn, grass, etc. 

Wayne County lies on the eastern central border of the 
State, with -Richmond as its county seat and principal commer- 
cial emporium, some seventy-five miles north of Cincinnati, 
Ohio. It is bounded on the north by Randolph County; on 
the east by the Ohio State line, which separates it from Darke 
and Preble counties; south by Union and Fayette counties, 
and on the west by Henry and Fayette. It has aii area of 
251,821, acres of land. The principal streams are the East 
Fork, Middle Fork and West Fork of Whitewater River; 
Noland's Forks, Elkhorn Creek, Short Creek, Lick Creek, 
Green's Fork, Martindale's Creek and Nettle Creek. Nearly 
all have good milling privileges. 


On the organization of the county, the act which gave it 
independence also designated John Cox, John Addington 
and George Holman as commissioners to locate the county 
seat, on or before the first Monday of the following May, and 
the house of Richard Rue, as the place for holding courts 
until a court-house was completed. 

The County Judges were Peter Fleming, Aaron Martin, 
and Jeremiah Meek. George Hunt was Clerk; John Turner, 
Sheriff; and James Noble, Prosecuting Attorney. 

The first court was held Feb. 25, 1811, at tiie house of 
Richard Rue, three miles south of Richmond. At this ses- 
sion the county was divided into two townships, Wayne being 
one and Harrison supposed to have been the other, the county 


remaining so divided until the session of the County Court, 
Feb. 10, 1817. For Wayne Township, David Railsback and 
John Shaw were appointed Overseers of the Poor;}Abrahani 
Gaar, Jolin Collins, and Lewis Little, Fence Viewers. For 
Harrison, David Galbraith and George Smith, Overseers of 
the Poor; Wm. Fonts, JS'athaniel McClure, and Robert Hill, 
Fence Viewers. A committee was also appointed to adjust the 
accounts of tlie overseers of the poor, viz. : David Carson, 
Timothy Hunt, Samuel Jobs, Jacob Meek, Elijah Fisher and 
George Hoi man. 

The next session of the court was held at the same place, 
the next month. A grand jury was for the first time im- 
paneled in the county. The names of the jurors were: Jesse 
Davenport, David Fonts, Joseph Cox, Charles Wright, John 
Burk, Wriglit Lancaster, Robert Galbraith, Isaac Williams, 
John Smith, Benj. Small, John Townsend, John Burgess, 
Wm. Blunt, Michael Snider, Peter Weaver, Benj. Harvey, 
Joshua Meek, John Beard, Benj. Jarvis, James Gordon, 
Harvey Miller, Lewis Little, Wm. Graham. The court con- 
sisted of Jesse L. Holman, Circuit Judge; Peter Fleming and 
Aaron Martin, Associates. Tiie court was held in the woods, 
and the seats consisted of family chairs and logs; and tlie 
jurors retired for deliberation to logs at a suitable distance. 

The County Court, so-called, was not a court in reality, 
but the business managers of the county's business affairs. 

The names of the jurors who sat on first petit jury trial 
are: John Benton, John Drake, John Armstrong, Natiianiel 
Scire, Thomas Bulla, Samuel Hunt, Harvey Druley, David 
F. Sacket, Joel Ferguson, Benj. Smith, Jesse Davenport. 

At the June term, 1811, Jno. B. Stitt states that the com- 
missioners appointed by the act of the Legislature, having 
failed to discharge their duty according to law, in selecting a 
seat of justice for the county, the court declared their duties 
ended, and appointed in their stead Samuel Walker, Richard 
Maxwell, and Benj. Harris. 

In Young's history the following explanation is given of 
this change of commissioners: 

" Richard Rue and David Overman were members of the 
Territorial Legislature of 1810, from the county of Dear- 


born, of wliicli tlie present county of Wayne formed a part. 
There were then but three counties in the Territory — Knox, 
Clark and Dearborn. Eesiding within the limits of the 
present county of Waj'ne, these gentlemen were active in 
support of the act authorizing its organization. The commis- 
sionei'S were as named above. The law prescribing their 
duties, fixing the time and the place of their meeting, did not 
reach the court, then held at Eue's, until about a month after 
its publication. On its reception, the commissioners were 
promptly notified to meet. Thej appeared and were qualified 
and proceeded to the discharge of their duties. 

Instructed by the act to fix the county seat near the geographi- 
cal center^ Addington and Holman designated a quarter sec- 
tion about thrce-fonrths of a mile north of the present town 
of Centreville. ('ux dissented, alleging that they were not 
authorized to select land not yet sold by the Government, 
though it iiad heen advertised for sale in the coming October. 
The court sustained the views of the minority, refused to re- 
ceive the re])iirt, atid appointed three other commissioners, as 
above stated, wiio reported, "That the permanent seat of jus- 
tice is and shall be on the donation of Samuel Woods of 
sixtj'-tive acres in the 13th township, range 3, with a small 
reserve." And the cf)urt ordered, '"That the town in Wayne, 
or the seat of justice, shall be called Salisbury." Smith Hunt, 
Samuel Woods and James Brown were appointed Trustees to 
lay off the lots, and Andrew Woods and John Meek, Sr., to 
superintend the building of a jail and an estray pen. 

This action of the court was denounced by tiie friends of 
the central location. The land being within the bounds of 
the county as fixed by the law of the State, they regarded the 
objection that the unsold lands were out of the jurisdiction of 
the court as utterly invalid, and the decision as a flagrant 
outrage. A paper was circulated to take the sense of the citi- 
zens in respect to the legality of the action of the court, de- 
signed to be presented t.> tlie cniirt. The result showed 330 
in favor of the repmi of the le-islative committee, and 150 ap- 
proving the action nf the cMurt. 

A log court-house for temporary use, and a jail of hewed, 
square logs, were built by Wm. Commons, who also erected 


the court-house and jail at Centreville, and were soon followed 
by a brick court-house. 

Salisbury at once took a start, and, being the oldest town 
and the count}' seat, it was at one time not only the most 
flourishing town in the county, but of the State. 


Additional facts regarding early courts in Wayne County 
are given in a series of articles communicated to the True 
Republican^ by Hon. Jacob B. Julian, in 1865 and 1866, from 
which the following account is gathered: 

"While Indiana was aTerritorytliere was held in each county 
a court having both criminal and civil jurisdiction. One of 
the first terms held in Wayne County convened at the house 
of Richard Eue, a few miles south of the present site of Eich- 
mond, on the 17th day of June, 1811. The record of the 
proceedings (made on a single sheet of foolscap) contained 
the following: 

"At a court of Nisi Prius, Oyer and Terminer and Gen- 
eral Jail Delivery, held at the house of Richard Rue, Esq., 
in and for said county of Wayne, on the 17th day of June, 
1811. Present, the Hon. Benj. Parke, Judge." 

The absurdity of styling the court one of " general jail de- 
livery " is readly apparent, as the county had no such institu- 
tion as a jail. According to authentic testimony, the court 
adjourned from " the house of Richard Rue, Esq.," to a large 
log in the edge of the wood, and there the session was held, 
the grand and traverse juries retiring in opposite dii-ections 
to deliberate. 

The grand jury empaneled at this term was as follows: 
Joseph Cox, Foreman; Isaac Williams, Wm. Townsend, Sam- 
uel Job, John Starr, Timothy F. Hunt, Shadrach Henderson, 
John Meek, Sr., Thomas Addington, John Pool, Benjamin 
Modlin, Nathan Pierson, David Bailey, John Morrow, Jasper 
Koutz, John Hawkins, Sr., David Bales, John Clark, Amos 
Hawkins, Wm. Bulla and Wm. Price. 

There was also a traverse jury empaneled, as follows: Henry 
Hoover, James Morrison, Jacob Griftin, James Jacobs, John 
Ireland, John Stephens, Andrew Endsley, John Hunt and 


Abraham Endsley. The only case for trial was that of the 
" United States vs. James Pettit." The defendant was a boy 
living in the family of Henry Bryan, a prominent citizen of 
the county. He was charged with stealing a knife from John 
Smith, the Richmond merchant. He was found guilty, and 
the court adjudged that he should pay to Smith 12^ cents, the 
value of the knife, and to tb.e Territory 25 cents and costs, all 
of which seems to have been promptly paid. The prosecutor, 
James Dill, who had drawn the indictment, was not present, 
and so Henry Hoover, one of the jury, was called npon to 
read it. The document was in the verbose and ancient form 
and alleged that " the said James Pettit, not having the fear 
of God before his eyes, and being moved and instigated there- 
unto by His Satanic Majesty, the Devil, did then and there 
wickedly, unlawfully and feloniously steal, take and carry 
away the knife," — wibh much more to the same effect. The 
indictment was read in an impressive manner, and proof 
was brought establishing the guilt of the boy. One of the 
jury reluctantly agreed to the verdict, maintaining that he 
thought the boy stole the knife, but did not think the ofiense 
as bad as was charged in the indictment. 

Most notable of all the early terms of court was that of 
March, 1816. At this term was tried the case of the " United 
States vs. Henry Chryst," for murder. [An account of this 
mui'der is elsewhere given.] Judge Jesse L. Holman jDi-e- 
sided, and Associate Judges Hoover and Fleming were pres- 
ent. Hon. John Test assisted the prosecuting attorney. The 
defense was conducted by James Noble and perhaps others. 
The jurors who served during this first murder trial were 
Richard Lewis, David ISToland, John Brattan, John Patter- 
son, Caleb Harvey, Jacob Meek, John Stewart, Lewis Hosier, 
Michael Neiss, William Clawson, John Small and Bladen 


When the State of Indiana was organized in 1816, the little 
liamlet of Centreviile succeeded in wresting the county seat 
from her, and claimed it as its own. From that day Salis- 
bury began to droop, and ten years later boasted of only ten 


families, two taverns, one cabinet-maker and one baker. A 
few years later the plow had done its work, and there is not a 
stone to mark the spot, as a memento of the past. Tlie effort 
on the part of Centreville to get the county seat commenced 
two years or more before the State organization, but she 
effected nothing with the Territorial Legislature. The first 
session of the State Legislature, however, passed the following 
act, which was the death warrant of Salisbury and a half-cent- 
ury revival for its successful competitor. 

'■'An Act to remove the seat of justice from the town of 
Salisbury in the county of Wayne to the town of Centre- 
ville in said county. 

"Whereas, It has been represented to the General As- 
sembly of the State of Indiana, by sundry affidavits and the 
petition of a very large majority of the citizens of said county 
of Wayne, that great injustice has been done to the inhabit- 
ants of said county by the seat of justice having been fixed 
at the town of Salisbury contrary to the wishes and interests 

' ' Section 1. Therefore, be it enacted by the General As- 
sembly of the State of Indiana, That from and afcer the first 
day of August the seat of justice in and for the county of 
Wayne shall bs, and the same is, hereby removed to and per- 
manently fixed in the town of Centreville in said county; and 
that the trustees of the town of Centreville shall be and are 
hereby authorized and required to transfer by proper and lawful 
deeds of conveyance and assignment all property, both real and 
personal, together with all bonds, notes, bills, or receipts for 
payment of any money or other things which may, or shall, be 
held by such trustees in trust for said town to such person or 
persons as shall be authorized by law to do and transact county 
business for the said county, and erect, or cause to be erected, 
public buildings, which property, money, or other thing so 
transferred from such trustees to the authority aforesaid sliall 
be appropriated by the said authority to the sole purpose of 
erecting a court-house, jail and estray-pen, all of which shall 
be erected and completed as soon as the same can be per_ 


formed with convenience; and that the trustees of the said 
town of Centreville shall, if required by the person? author- 
ized to do county business, give bond and security in a pen- 
alty in the discretion of said authority, payable to the said 
person or persons so authorized to do and transact county busi- 
ness, with a condition that if the property, real or personal, so 
transferred by the trustees of said town of Centreville for the 
purposes aforesaid shall not be sufficient to defray the neces- 
sary expenses of erecting the said public buildings in the said 
town of Centreville, which shall be equal in point of conven- 
ience and value to those already erected and built in the town 
of Salisbury, that they will make up such deficiency, and that 
they will provide and furnish at tlieir own expense a suitable 
and convenient house for the holding of courts, and tiie doing 
of all public business necessary to have and be performed in 
and at the court-house of said county, and also a suitable and 
secure jail and estray-pen for the use of said county until 
8uch public buildings shall be erected by the proper authority. 

'• Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That all process- writs 
and other proceedings that now are, or hereafter shall be de- 
pending in any court in the county of Wayne, returnable at 
the court-house in the town of Salisbury at the time this law 
shall take eifect and be in force, shall be, and the same is, 
hereby ordered to be returned to the court to be held at the 
court-house in the said town of Centreville, and there tried 
in all respects as if the same had been made returnable to the 
same court in the first instance. 

" Seo. 3. That all officers whose duty it shall be to keep 
their said offices at the seat of justice in the said county ot 
Wayne shall be and are hereby required to remove to or 
keep their said offices at the town of Centreville within six 
months after this act sliall take effect. That from and after 
the first day of August, one thousand eight hundred and 
seventeen, all public business which shall be required by law 
to be transacted at the seat of justice in the said county ot 
Wayne shall be held, performed and transacted at the court- 
house or at the building assigned for that purpose in the town 
of Centreville. 


"Sec. i. That all public buildings that now are, or at the 
time this law shall be in force, in the town of Salisbury shall 
be disposed of in such manner as the person or persons who 
shall or may be authorized to do and transact county business 
shall deem most to the advantage of the said county of Wayne, 
and particularly to the interest of the town of Salisbury; 
Provided, however, that nothing in this act shall be so con- 
strued as to remove the seat of justice from the town of Salis- 
bury to the town of Centreville in the said county of Wayne 
at any time, should the said trustees of the town of Centre- 
ville fail and refuse to comply with any of the provisions con- 
tained in the iirst section of this act on or before the first day 
of August, one thousand eight hundred and seventeen. 

"This act shall be in force from and after the first day of 
June next. 

•* Isaac Blackford, 

"■Speaker of the House of Rep. 
" Christopher Harrison, 

'■'■Pres. of the Senate. 

''Dec. 21, 1816, Approved, 

"Jonathan Jennings." 

After the removal of the county seat, Salisbury was rapidly 
deserted. The new frame and brick buildings were taken 
dawn, and some of them moved to Richmond. The bricks in 
the building on the southeast corner of Main and Pearl streets, 
known as Ham's Corner, were formerly in the court-house at 
Salisbury. There remains nothing on the site indicating that 
a town was ever there. The ground on which it stood is now 
a part of the farm of Enoch Railsback. 

It was not until 1818 that the seat of justice was removed 
to Centreville, the county commissioners holding their last 
session at Salisbury in August, 1817. 

doings of the commissioners. 

The county records having been lost or destroyed, the first 
commissioners' records found are of date June 22, 1812. At 
h date is a statement of a settlement with the county 
treasurer, which shows to his credit the sum of $31:1. 54 
brought forward from the record to date. Wolf scalps were 
paid for at the rate of $1 each. 


The receipts into the treasury in 1815 were as follows: For 
town lots, $34.68. Store licenses, 88G.S6. Tax on iiorses, 
$7.39. Slaves, $20. Men of oh n-, si:,. First rate lands, 
$23.59; second rate, $292.63; thir.l vMv. s.-,:;.31. Total, 
$1,265.10, notinoluding fines for hreaches uf the peace, assault 
and hatterv. swraiiiiu-. etc., which were lodged in the hands of 
the shei-iliaini clnk. In 1816, wolf claims amounted to $84. 

The rcfripts for wolf scalps in 1812-13 amounted to $25. 
The first session of tiie commissioners in 1817 was on Feb. 
10. As this was the first meeting after Indiana had been 
declared a State, it was the duty of the commissioners to di- 
vide the county into smaller municipal divisions. The Com- 
missioners were: Thomas Beard, for one jenv; James Odell, 
for two years, and Thomas J. Warman, for three years. A 
new commissioner was to be elected each year thereafter for a 
term of three years. Their first business was the formation of 
the county into townships, and the following names were 
selected and their boundaries as given: Washington, Har- 
rison, Jackson, Wayne, Ferry and New Garden. 

Washington. — The boundary began at a lake one mile east 
of the range lino dividing ranges 12 and 13, east of the prin- 
cipal meridian, on the county line between the counties of 
Wayne and Franklin; running thence north seven miles to 
the corner between sections 7 and IS; thence west to the In- 
dian boundary; thence with same to the corner of Franklin 
County, and thence to tiie beginning. Election to be held at 

Harrison Township's boundary began at the beginning 
corner of Washington Township, and turning with the line of 
that township to the corner of the same; thence east to the 
State line; thence south to the corner of Franklin County; 
thence west to the beginning. 

Jackson Township began at the north corner of Washing- 
ton Township; thence west with the line of the same to the 
Indian boundary; thence with said line northwardly ten miles 
to the corner dividing fractional sections 23 and 26; thence 
east along the section line to the corner of sections 29, 30, 31 
and 32, and thence to the place of beginning. Election to be 
held at Jaeksonburg. 


Wayne Township boundary began at the corner between tlie 
townships of Washington, Harrison and Jackson; running 
thence north ten miles to the northeast corner of Jackson 
Township; thence east to the State line; thence south with said 
line to the corner of Harrison Township, and thence west with 
the line of said township to the place of beginning. Election 
to be held at Salisbury. 

New Garden Township began at the corner of Jackson and 
Wayne townships on the Perry Township line; running thence 
east with the line of Wayne Township to the State line; thence 
north to the extrenae settlements of Wayne County; thence 
west to the northeast corner of Perry Township; thence with 
the line of the same to the place of beginning. Election to 
be held at the house of Benjamin Harris. 

Perry Township began with the northwest corner of Wayne 
Township running two miles east to the corner between sec- 
tions 21 and 28; thence north to the extreme settlements in 
Wayne County; thence west to the Indian boundary; thence 
south with said boundary to the corner of Jackson Township, 
and thence east to the place of beginning. Election to be 
held at the house of Thomas Lamb. 

The commissioners then decided that the number of jus- 
tices of the peace should be as follows: Washington, three; 
Harrison, two ; Jackson, three ; Wayne, three ; Perry, 
three, and New Garden, two. They also appointed the fol- 
lowing Inspectors of Elections: Train Caldwell, Washing- 
ington; Kene Julian, Jackson; Abraham Elliott, Perry; Benj. 
Harris, New Garden ; John Stewart, Wayne ; Joseph Cos, 
Harrison. Constables: Reason Davis, AVashington; Samuel 
D. Lothian, Jackson; John Bailey, son of Hugh, Perry; 
John Whitehead, Harrison ; Thomas T. Lewis, Wayne; Tense 
Massey, New Garden. Listers: Stephen GrifHtb, Washing- 
ton ; Ma,jor Dodson, Harrison ; Ezekiel Leavel, Jackson ; 
Henry Hoover, Wayne ; Pleasant Harris, New Garden. 
County Treasurer: John Beard. This was all the business o 
importance transacted at this session. 

The May session ordered an election in the several town- 
ships within the county. Washington Township election was 
to be held at Waterloo, which is now in Fayette County; 


Harrison Township, at the house of John Williams; Jackson 
Township, at Jacksonburg; Wayne, at tliehouseof John Lamb; 
and those in Perry and New Garden, at the most convenient 
place for the citizens to assemble. The following were then 
appointed School Trnstees for the several school sections in 
the county, viz.: Lewis Johnson, Archibald Reed, John Spahr, 
John Shaw, Ezekiel Leavel, Isaac Shelby, Samuel Carr, 
Richard Lewis, Josiah Bradbury, tTonathan Hunt, William 
Scarce, Henry Hoover, Benjamin Harris. Taverns were 
licensed and the following fixed rates were made a matter of 
record, by which the tavern-keepers were to be guided: For a 
meal, 25 cents ; lodging, 6j ; Cognac brandy, rum or wine, 
one-half pint, 50; whisky, one-half pint, 12|; cider, quart, 12^; 
strong beer, quart, 25; horse, night, hay and grain, 50; hay 
only, 25 ; single feed, 12^. These rates were altered from 
time to time. In 1820 lodging was judged worth 12^ cents. 
Peach brandy was added to the liquor list at 25 cents the one- 
half pint, just one-half the price of the imported liquors. And 
in 1822 the price of a meal had fallen to ISJ cents; whisky to 
6J cents, and peach brandy to 12^ cents the one-half pint. 

The commissioners met in special session July 21, 1817, 
evidently in relation to the removing of the county seat from 
Salisbury to Centreville. Thomas J. Warman, one of the 
commissioners, presented himself, but objected to the meet- 
ing because he considered it not legal to sit at any other time 
than that authorized by law, and refused to sit. The other 
two commissioners proceeded to hold the session, and were 
confronted by John Maxwell, William Sumner, Jeremiah 
Meek and James Jenkins, Trustees of the town of Centreville, 
who produced the deeds, bonds and papers which they held 
in trust for the said town, and which they presented to the 
Board of Commissioners. .The bond which bound the signers 
in the sum of $10,000 to produce in Centreville a court-house 
equal in point of value and convenience with the old one, 
according to the true intent and meaning of act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly on the subject, was signed by the following 
persons, to wit: James Jenkins, John Maxwell, William 
Sumner, Job Huddlestone, Levi Jones, Isaac Julian, Patrick 
Beard, William Crawford, Sr., William Common and Josiah 


At the next meeting, on Aug. 11, 1817, it was ordered 
by James Odell and Tiioraas Beard that the board now 
adjourn from the town of Salisbury to the town of Centreville, 
to meet there at four o'clock p. m. Thomas J. Warman, the 
third commissioner who was present, objected to this action 
and demanded an examination of the papers which had been 
assigned to the commissioners by the trustees of the town of 
Centreville. He then maintained that the papers on file did 
not comply with the requirements of the legislative act 
entitled "An act to remove the seat of justice of Wayne 
County from Salisbury to Centreville," and since in this the 
condition of the law was not complied with, he dissented 
from the action of his colleagues and refused to adjourn to 

At the meeting of Odell and Beard at Centreville, a new bond 
was executed, signed by twenty-one citizens, binding them- 
selves to furnish the county a court-house equal in value and 
convenience to the one then at Salisbury. Their names were: 
Joseph Holman, William Sumner, Isaac Julian, Levi Jones, 
John Maxwell, Lewis Thomas, Nathan Overman, Patrick 
Beard, James Jenkins, Larkin Reynolds, William Harvey, 
William Hosier, Greenbury Cornelius, John Harvej', Francis 
Culbertson, Jacob N. Booker, Shubael Julian, Thomas Jones, 
Jeremiah Meek, David Galbraith, Robert Culbertson, Jacob 
Griffin, Jesse Ross, David ^J. Wood, Samuel King. [Robert 
Galbraith's name does not appear among the signatures.] 

In the spring of 1818 the court was held at Centreville. 
The next year the question was brought before the court 
whether Salisbury or Centreville was the county seat. Says 
Dr. Plummer: " The Presiding Judge, John Watts, was absent. 
The Associate Judges, William McLane and Jesse Davenport, 
were of the opposite opinion in this matter. Their decision 
was ' that the seat of justice was permanently at Salisbury; 
that the act of Dec. 21, 1816, not having a sufficient repealing 
clause, has not removed it ; but that the act of Jan. 28, 
1816, authorized the court to hold their pro tempore session 
in the town of Centreville, until the Legislature should other- 
wise direct.' " As the Legislature has never otherwise directed, 
the legal county seat, according to the decision of these 
judges, must still be at Salisbury. 


Centre Township. — In August, 1817, the commissioners 
were petitioned by Jacob Booker and others for a new town- 
ship which should have Centreville near its center for a 
voting-place. The commissioners being satisfied that the 
proposed measure had been advertised tlie required length of 
time, viz., thirty days, ordered that a new township, by the 
name of Centre^ be established, with the following boundaries, 
to wit: Beginning at the southeast corner of fractional section 
No. 26, township 13, range 2; running thence north ten miles 
to the northeast corner of section 27. township 17, range 14; 
thence west six miles to the northwest corner of section 26, 
township 17, range 13; thence south ten miles to the south- 
west corner of section 11, township 15, range 13; thence 
east six miles to. the beginning. 

An election was ordered to be held at Centreville on the 
third Monday of September following, for the purpose of 
electing three justices of the peace and three constables. 
John Harvey was appointed Inspector of Election. 

At the May session of the Board of Commissioners, 1818. it 
was ordered by James Odell and Thomas Beard that, in pur- 
suance of an act of the General Assembly, the public 
property in the town of Salisbury be sold at public sale, on 
the third da}' of the following July, after proper advertise- 
ment. Thomas J. Warman objected to the sale and left his 

The organization of Fayette County in 1819 caused the 
boundary line of Washington Township to be changed, as 
that county in its formation took a portion of its territory 
from Wayne County. This gave Wasliington Township the 
following new boundary, viz.: Beginning at the southeast 
corner of section 30, thence north three miles to the north- 
east corner of section 18; thence west three miles to the north- 
east corner of section 15; thence north three miles to the 
northeast corner of section 34; thence west to the boundary 
between sections 27 and 34; thence southerly to the corner o 
Fayette County; thence to the beginning. John Wallace ap- 
pointed Inspector of Election, the election to be held at the 
liouse of Levi Willetts. 

It seems that after the election of Enos Graves to the 


Board of Commissioners, their sessions were held again at 
SalisbniT. When Isaac Julian entered upon his office as 
Commissioner in August, 1819, he at once moved the board 
that it adjourn to Centreville, for the''- following reasons, viz.: 
That the Legislature by their act of Dec. 21, 1816, did remove 
the seat of justice from Salisbury to Centreville, with certain 
conditions to be complied with by the trustees, which con- 
ditions have been fully complied witli by said trustees as will 
appear evident by the act of the Legislature of Jan. 28, 1818, 
which act declares the courts shall be held in Centreville and 
lastly the decision of the court was that courts shall be held 
in Centreville until altered by law. And also Judge Watts 
did advise the clerk of said county against removing his 
office from Centreville, notwithstanding the. office has been 
removed contrary to law. His motion being overruled by 
the other members of the board, Julian refuses to take his 
seat in Salisbury since in his opinion it is contrary to law. 
He did not sit with the board until February, 1820, secon 
day of session. 

In the county records of August, 1819, the following ap- 
pears: Daniel Fraley is appointed to take charge of the new 
court-house in the town of Salisbury and see that the doors 
and windows are kept in repair. 

On meeting for the August term, 1820, Benj. Harris took 
the place of AVarman in the board, and he being a "Centre- 
ville man,'" he and Julian at once ordered an adjournment 
to Centreville for the same day at 2 o'clock. This was Aug. 
14, 1820. Graves refused to concur aiid entered his protest 
which was in substance as follows: " That the first section of 
the act of Dec. 21, 1816, authorizing the removal of the seat 
of justice to Centreville on certain conditions, had never been 
complied with ; that the decision of the Circuit Court of Wayne 
County was against removal, and that the action of Isaac 
Julian, in finally consenting to sit with the board at Salis- 
bury after that had been decided the county seat by a com- 
mittee of disinterested men, thus virtually conceding that to 
be the rightful seat of justice, should render this action to the 
contrary now void, and for these reasons he protests against 
the decision for said removal." 

He refused to sit at Centreville. 


At this session Wm. Sumner produced a deed for tlie public 
square in Centreville, which was already recorded in Book 
B, p. 140, and wliich was accepted by the board. The board, 
consisting of Isaac Julian and Benjamin Harris, consider that 
the requisitions of the removal act of 1816 have been fully 
complied with by the Trustees of Centreville, and that the 
undertakers of the court-house in said town, having in good 
faith fulfilled their obligation according to contract, they are 
hereby discharged. 

John Rolston is appointed to take charge of the court-house 
in the town of Centreville. These cominissioners also, before 
the close of this August term, 1820, insert in their minutes 
that the protest of Enos Graves having been recorded by him- 
self out of session, the same is not subscribed to by them. 

This was the last of the struggle, and Salisbury accepted 
her doom. Mr. Enos Graves took his seat at the session 
beginning Nov. 14, 1820. 

The township of Centre not being considered large enough 
to sustain itself and the new county seat, the Board of Com- 
missioners ordered at the same session the following addi- 
tion to its territor}', viz. : " Beginning at the northwest corner 
of fractional section 26; running thence east to the old boun- 
dary; thence south to the range line; thence down said line 
to the southeast corner oF section 25, town 14, range 1; thence 
west to the old boundary; thence south to the south line of 
Centre Township." 

The Jail. — A jail was oi-dered built at Centreville, in May ^ 
1821, and the contract was taken by Thos. Commons for 
$2,000 as the lowest bidder. The letting was advertised in 
the Brookville Engineer. 

Green Township. — Upon the petition of numerous citizens 
of that part of Perry Township for a new independent organiza- 
ion, the petition was received and granted by the Com- 
missioners at the November session of 1821. It was " ordered 
that a new township, to be known by the name of Green, be 
formed with the following bounds: On the east by New 
Garden Township; north by Randolph County; south by the 
line of Centre and Jackson townships, and on the west by the 
line dividing sections 20 and 21, which is to be the dividing line 


between Perry and Green townships, the place for holding 
elections for said new townships to be in the houses of Seth 
May in Green Township and Ebenezer Reynolds in Perry 

This township was taken wholly from Perry Township, ex- 
cept one range of sections on the east side which was taken 
roni New Garden. 

There was little of interest for the next three years. N"o 
more townships were formed, and the commissioners only 
performed their routine work until 1824. when the law 
changed the Board of Commissioners to a Board of Justices, 
who were then appointed as the custodians of the county's 
business affairs. 

The first meeting of the justices was on Sept. 6, 1824, and 
the following are the names of those who were present: 
"Joseph Flint, Samuel Taylor, Joseph Ladd, Abel Thomberry, 
Edward Starbuck, Baniabus McManus, Wm. Peelle, 
Hugh Cull, Levi Jarrot, Samuel Henderson, Asa M.Sher- 
man, Eli Wright, Jonathan Platts and Daniel Clark. Baniabus 
McManns was elected President." 

The first defalcation of record was that ot Abraham Elliott, 
who when his career as Sheriff was closed was indebted to 
the county $281, and the 'Board of Justices ordered the 
County Treasurer, W. Pugh, to commence suit to recover the 
amount claimed. The case was finally settled. 

There had been much said on the subject of education for 
several years, and after the final settlement of the county-sea 
question the cause took a new start. A px'ivate and a public 
school had at this time been underway. in Centreville, and 
the Board of Justices bad appointed agents or trustees to 
look up a site and purchase it to establish a seminar}' in the 
town or village of Centreville. These trustees were David 
Jenkins and Lot Bloomtield, and July 2, 1827, they reported 
to the Board of Justices that Wm. Sumner had donated to 
the county two lots in the town of Centreville, Nos. 100 and 
101, covering one acre of ground for the purpose proposed. 
The question of acceptance was placed before the full board 
of twenty-two justices and carried by a vote of thirteen in its 
favor to nine against. This being carried a contract was let 


on April 28, 1828, to Jesse Neil, to put up a building for 
the sum of $775. 

Five years the Board of Justices carried forward the 
business of the county, when, in 1829, it was again changed to 
that of County Commissioners, the first under tlie change 
being Jonathan Piatt, Daniel Eeid and Jesse Willet. This 
continued until 1831, the commissioners being voted for at 
large. In the latter year the county was divided into com- 
missioners' districts as follows: Wajme and New Garden 
townships forming District No. 1 ; Green, Perry and Jackson, 
No. 2, and Centre and Washington townships. No. 3. 

After a decade had passed the subject of new townslii 
again came up and a call made for. 

Clay Township. — On petition of Thomas Hatfield and 
others the Board of Commissioners ordered "tiie erection of a 
new township b}' tlie name of Cl<nj, to be bounded as follows: 
Beginning at the lialf mile stake in the south line of section 
18, town 17, range 14; thence west four miles to the half 
mile stake of section 16, town 17, range 13; thence south 
through the center of sections 21, 28 and 33 to the lialf mile 
stake of section 33 on the township line dividing tLiwn^liijis 
16 and 17; thence east four miles on said township line to the 
half mile stake on the south line of section 31, town 17, range 
14; thence nortli through the center of sections 31, 3U and 19 
to the place of beginning. Election to be held at the house 
of Thomas Hatfield in the town of Washington." 

May, 1831. 

Nothing further was done for the next three years, and the 
county moved along with some eight townships. Then 
another petition was presented at the March term of 1834, 
praying for another new township, which was granted by the 

Jefferson Townsuip. — The order read as fallows : ' ' Ordered 
that a new township to be called Jefferson be laid off" as fol- 
lows, to wit: Beginning at the northeast corner of section 8, 
town 17 of range 13; thence running west on the section line 
to the northwest corner of section 9, towm 17 of range 12; 
thence south with the Henry County lirie to the southwest 
corner of section 33, town 17 of range 12; thence east along 


the line dividing townships 16 and 17 to the soutlieast corner 
of section 32, town 17, range 13; thence north with tlie sec- 
tion line to the place of beginning. Elections ordered to be 
held at the town of Hagarstown. Jefferson added to com- 
missioners' district, No. 3." 

Fkanklin Township. — On the petition of Thomas Morton 
and others it is ordered (MayJ session, 1831,) by the com- 
missioners that a new township, to be called " Franklin," be 
laid off as follows, viz. : Beginning at the northeast corner of 
Wayne County and running west on the line of said county 
to tlie road leading from Richmond to Fort "Wayne; thence 
south with said road to the Wayne Township line; thence 
east with said line to the State line; thence north with said 
State line to the place of beginning. Elections ordered to 
be held at the town of Hillsborough. 

In February, 1835, another petition came in to be taken off 
of Wayne. This was 

Boston Township. — Ordered by tlie Board of Commis- 
sioners at their session in February, 1835, that a new town- 
ship, to be called Boston Township, be formed with the fol- 
lowing boundaries : Beginning on the Ohio State line at the 
northeast corner of section 25, town 13, range 1 west; run- 
ning thence six miles west to the Centre Township line; thence 
south three miles to the Union County line; thence east 
along said line to the Ohio State line; thence north along 
the State line to the place of beginning. The township to be 
added to commissioners' district, No. 1. The election to be 
held at the town of New Boston. 

Abington Township. — At their session in February, 1837, 
the Board of Commissioners ordered the establishment of a 
new township to be known by the name of Abington, and 
bounded as follows : Beginning at the southeast corner of 
section 1, town 12, range 2 west; running thence north three 
miles to the northeast corner of section 25, town 13, range 2 
west; thence west along the section lines to the northwest 
corner of section 11, town 15, range 14 east; thence south to 
the lineMividing Wayne and Fayette counties; thence east 
with said line one mile; thence north one mile; thence east 
with the line dividing Fayette, Union and Wayne counties to 


the place of beginning. The said new township to be at- 
tached to the third commissioners' district. Elections ordered 
to be held at the town of Abington. 

Perey, Clay, Jefferson and Green. — Ordered by the 
board at their January session (1839) that section 15 of 
Green Township be attached to Clav; section 16 of Perry be 
attached to Clay; section 8 of Jefferson be attached to Perry; 
sections 17,20, 29 and 32 of Jefferson be attached to Clay. 

Dalton. — At the June term, 1847, the Board of Commis- 
sioners was petitioned by Caswell Harst and other citizens of 
Perry Township, that a new township be stricken off of 
the western part of Perry Township and be called Dalton 
Township. The said new township was established with the 
following boundaries, viz.: Commencing at the northwest 
corner of Wayne County; thence east to the range line be- 
tween townships 12 and 13; thence south with said range 
line to the north line of Jefferson Township; thence west to 
the county line; thence north to the place of beginning. 

This ended the township organizations for some twenty- 
three years, when the last township, "Webster," was formed 
in 1870. This made fifteen townships in Wayne County. 
The organization of this last township and the remonstrance 
against is mentioned below, the latter being overruled and 
the township formed. 

Webster Township. — Dec. 5, 1870, the Board of Commis- 
sioners was petitioned by Levi Bon and 127 others residing 
in the adjacent corners of Centre, Wayne, Green and New 
Garden townships, praying for a new township to be formed 
from the adjacent corners of the above named townships, and 
bounded as follows, to-wit : Beginning at the northwest 
corner of the southwest quarter of section 17, town 17, range 
14, east, in Green Township; running thence south on the 
section line to the southwest corner of section 32, town 17, 
range 14 cast in Centre Townshi]j; thence east on the section 
line to the southeast corner of the southwest quarter of section 
18, town 14, range 1 west in Wayne Township; thence north 
to the half section line dividing section 13, town 17, range 14 
east in New Garden Township; thence west to the place of 
beginning in Green Township. 


At the same time a remonstrance was presented by Ezekiel 
H. Johnson and 118 others, residents of Green Township, 
against the formation of said new township, and especially 
praying that no part of Green Township be taken to form such 
a township. The remonstrance was overruled, and the town- 
ship was granted as petitioned for and named Webster Town- 
ship. The new township was assigned to the second or 
middle commissioners' district of Wayne County. 


The county very early in its existence began making pro- 
vision for the support and care of its poor. Thenceforth un- 
til the present, great attention has been given this matter. 
Although there have been instances of mismanagement, in 
general, the paupers of the county have been well cared for 
and humanely treated. The present county asylum is a well- 
managed institution, which will compare favorably with oth- 
ers of like character anywhere in the State. 

At this time it is impossible to ascertain when tiie first 
county farm was purchased. Quite early, however, a farm 
was bought in Jefferson Township which remained in posses- 
sion of tlie county until 1848. It was managed by a superin- 
tendent, selected by the county commissioners. The firm 
was leased to the superintendent, and he was paid a certain 
amount per capita for the support of the paupers. The sys- 
tem worked unfavorably; abuses crept in, and a change was 

At the meeting of the Board of Commissioners, June 
term, 1845, the following order was placed upon record : 

" Whereas, In our opinion, the system by which the Poor 
House in this county has hitherto been conducted is miser- 
ably deficient, and falls far short of the benevolent design 
originally intended by its institution and constructicar, there- 
fore, ordered by the Ijoard, That .lam.'s 1\mtv. Samuel Han- 
nah and Samuel K. Hoshour ho a|i|i iinUil tu inc|uii-e into tlie 
expediency of clianging the Incation thei'c.if, and wliether any 
good would result therefrom, and wliat would be the expense 
incurred thereby', and report to this board at fulllengtli; and, 
also, to inquire into and report at length what changes could 


be introduced into the system of conducting the Poor House 
with advantage to the comfort of the paupers witiiout incur- 
ring additional expense, and generally to mature and suggest 
any general reform in the present plan." 

What the committee reported is not to be ascertained, as 
no record of the same can be found. But it was soon decided 
to abandon the old farm and the old system. In 1846 a farm 
of 157 acres, located near Centreville, was purchased by 
the commissioners from William S. T. Morton for about 
$5,000. In April, 1846, the commissioners contracted with 
Jason Ham to build an asylum for the sum of $3,730, the 
building to be of brick, two stories high and forty-five feet 
square. In June, 1847, the board ordered that the farm in 
Jeflferson Township be sold at public auction. This was not 
done, but in 1848 the board disposed of it to William Con- 
way for $3,500. 

The original plan for the asylum was changed, and a wing 
was added to the above specifications. The cost of the addi- 
tion was $2,000. Jan. 6, 1S4S, the board ordered "That 
John Cram, Superintendent of the Wayne County Asylum, 
be, and is hereby, authorized to attend to the removal of 
the paupers from the Poor House to said asylum, as soon as 
he can make arrangements." 

The new system, adopted on completion of the asylum, 
provided for paying the superintendent a salary, while the 
products of the farm were to be used for the support of the 
poor, the deficiency, if any, to be made up by the board. 
On this plan the asylum has since been conducted. The 
buildings have from time to time been enlarged and im- 
proved, and the size of the larm was doubled a few years ago 
by the purchase, from Joseph W. Jackson, of 160 acres of 
land at a cost of about $18,000. 


After the four years' quarrel between Salisbury and Centre- 
ville, over the location of tlie county seat, which was finally 
settled in 1820, over halfa century elapsed before another 
change was demanded. In 1872 Richmond entered the field 
aspiring for the prize which Centreville had so long possessed. 


The contest was short, sharp and decisive. Acting under a 
law passed Feb. 24, 1869, Riclnnond was soon victorious. 
The law mentioned is entitled, " An act amendatory to an act 
of 1855," and contains the following provisions: 

" That whenever 55 per cent of the legal voters of any 
county in this State shall by written petition request th 
Board of Commissioners of their county to re-locate the 
county seat of such county, designating in sucli petition the 
site where such re-location is desired, and shall procure the con- 
veyance to such board by deed conveying good title to two lots 
of ground, one containing not less than two acres as a site for 
the court-house, and the other containing not less than one- 
fourth of an acre as a site for the county jail, to be held b 
such board for that purpose, and shall deposit with such board 
the sum of $100 to pay an architect, and $150 to pay com- 
missioners to assess damages; then such board shall proceed 
to have new county buildings erected thereon and the county 
seat removed thereto, in the manner and upon the conditions 
set forth in the following section : Provided^ That no such 
re-location of a county seat shall be made unless it shall be 
moved at least three miles. 

" Se'ition 2. — That said section 3 of the said act above recited, 
approved March 2, 1855, be, and the same is, hereby amended 
so as to read as follows : If such petitioners, or some of them, 
shall, within three months after such estimates and plans are 
presented, cause to be paid into the count}' treasury, or the 
payment thereof secured to such board to their satisfaction, a 
sum equal to the value of the real property belonging to the 
county at the then county seat, then such board shall at once 
cause t!ie auditor to advertise immediately in the newspapers 
of such county if any there be, or if none, then in the nearest 
newspaper of general circulation and by posting in six public 
places in said county, for sealed proposals for tlie erection of 
such buildings according to said plans and specifications, 
such proposals to be presented to the board at its next regular 

It ■yas not to be supposed that Centreville would remain 
inactive while being despoiled, and she did not; she made a 
bitter and unrelenting fight from the beginning until she lost 


her prize, which was wrested from her by main force by her 
more powerful sister. Undoubtedly the question is now per- 
manently settled, for a more powerful rival is not likely to 
rise and change the present location. How it was done is 
here added. 

On the 3d day of June, 1872, a petition was drawn up and 
signed by 4,937 persons, and presented to the Board of Com- 
missioners of Wayne County, asking for the removal of the 
county seat from Centreville to Richmond. On June 5, 
"William A. Peelle filed a remonstrance against such action, 
setting forth his reasons, and asking a continuance of the 
case. This was refused by a majority of the board, A. S. Wig- 
gins and William Brooks, opposing, and O. T. Jones, the other 
member of the board, favoring the action of Mr. Peelle; and 
on the 11th of June, by the same majority of the board, it 
was decided that, as out of 6,842, the whole number of legal 
voters in the county, a majority of them had asked for the re- 
location of the county seat, it should be removed, and a new 
building erected, provided the petitioners, or some of them, 
shall, within three months after estimates and plans are pre- 
sented, cause to be paid in the county treasury a sum equal 
to the value of the real property belonging to the county at 
the present seat. On Oct. 30 Asahel Stone, William Wallace 
and Simon Stansifer were appointed, by Governor Baker, 
Commissioners to appraise tiie real estate and improvements 
in Centreville belonging to the county. Their appraisement 
was SSO,OuO. (Jn Nov. 6, George W. Barnes, in his 
own behalf and of others of the petitioners for the relocating 
of the county seat, deposited with the Board of Commissioners 
$80,000 in Eichmond City bonds as security for the payment 
of the assessed value of the above property, which was ac- 
cepted by the board, Oliver T. Jones protesting. On Dec. 
4, 1873, these bonds were withdrawn, and another substituted, 
providing for the payment of the above amount in one year. 
The auditor was ordered to advertise for bids for the building 
of a new court-house and jail. George Hoover was the 
architect, and Thomas W. Roberts got the contract for the 
building, complete, at $22,700. Aug. 4 the building was 
completed and accepted, and the Board of Commissioners 


ordered that all the books, papers, furniture, and the occu- 
pants of the county prison be removed to said new buildings. 
On the 15th of August, 1873, this was carried into effect, 
and the city of Richmond declared to be. From and after that 
date, the seat of justice of "Wayne County. Thus ended a 
strife which will not be forgotten by the participants or their 
descendants for many years to come — a strife very natural on 
the part of the Centreville people, and at one time so sharp 
as to cause apprehensions of very serious trouble. 

The grounds in the city of Richmond are worthy of a line 
court-house, and it is likely that but a few years will elapse 
before a structure will be erected upon them that will be a 
pride to the people and an oruamint to tho city. 


Inteoddctort. — Agricultitral. — Wayne County Agricult- 
ural Society. — When Organized. — Stock Company. — 
District Society. — Officials. — Farms, 1870 to 1880. — 
Manufactures. — Valuation of Real and Personal 
Property by Townships. — Products of 1874. — Of 1879. 
— Wild-Cat Times and Currency. — Valuation and Debt 
OF 1883. — Valuation of Property from 1842 to 1882, 
Inclusive. — Population, 1820 to 1880. — Official Rec- 
ord. — County Officers 'and Legislators from 1816 to 
1884. — Internal Ijiproyements. — Canals, Turnpikes 
and Railroads. 


The resources of Wayne County are varied, and their full 
development brings wealth, contentment, health and happi- 
ness. The soil in the valleys is of exceeding richness, its 
alluvial qualities reaching several feet below the surface, 
while in other places the eroding of the hills forming gulches 
finds the soil of the valley enriched by these washings. 
Streams of running water and timber of almost every variety, 
yet somewhat limited in supply, lands undulating here and 
there, and again hill}', making vast ranges for stock; all 
these things make tlie resources of Wayne County a fruitful 
theme, which, to but give it partial justice, would fill many 
pages of history. It is the home of the succulent grasses; 
cereals and vegetables are everj^where productive, and with 
them as a ground work of solid ingredients, it gives it a 
prominence as a stock-raising and dairy country. The latter 
would certainly flourish here, the equal of any county in the 
State or country. 

428 msTOKT OF watne county. 

There are few States in the Union that have so great a 
variety of soil, so salubrious a climate, are so rich in agri- 
cultural resources, as well adapted to stock, or as healthy a 
climate for man as Indiana. 

In all that constitutes wealth, refinement and culture, in 
the luxuries of life and in her schools and churches, she has 
no superior. It is her great educational facilities and her 
numerous railroads and waterways, which give her a pre- 
eminent stand over both Eastern and Western neighbors. 
She equals the East in all the luxuries of life, of social ties 
and advancements, and living at less than two-thirds the cost. 
She surpasses the West and the borders of civilization in 
everything that constitutes a comfortable home, the neces- 
saries and luxuries of life, and all this without going into the 
confines of savage life, and enduring the hardships and pri- 
vations of pioneer life. One and all of these advantages may 
be found in Wayne County, and it is these inducements of 
wealth, happiness and prosperity which give the people faith 
in its future. 


Who stands in so enviable a position as the owners of soil 
and the producers of bread ? They feed the teeming millions 
of our population ; they supply their most pressing wants. 
Agriculture is the basis of all our material relations. More 
than one-half of the population of our country is engaged in 
tilling the soil, and over three-fifths of the permanent wealth 
of the country is in their hands. The prosperity of the 
country is based upon the prosperity 'of the owners and till- 
ers of the soil. Truly, then, is agriculture the mother of all 
arts, the foundation and basis of every other calling. 

Agriculture, like every other art, must be educated. We 
educate for the law, we educate for medicine, we educate for 
war — for war upon the land and war upon the sea. We edu- 
cate for all arts and sciences save, but in a limited degree, 
that art or science which is the noblest of them all, and upon 
which all other arts and sciences depend. 

The cultivation of the soil was the first aud is the most en- 
nobling of all callings. When the first happy pair were 


created they were placed in a garden, the most delightfalspot 
upon earth; their physical employment was its cultivation, 
their mental exercise to admire and adorn the wisdom and 
goodness of God, that appeared in every shrub and plant 
that flourished throughout the garden. In this department 
of labor tlie whole realm of truth is spread out before us, and 
invites our inquiry and investigation. The composition of 
soils, the laws that govern vegetable life, are wide and pleas- 
ant fields for the exercise of the mind, and while contem- 
plating and studying iture's laws, the mind takes a pleasing 
transit from Xatur works up o Nature's God. 

The principal crops grown in the county are wheat, corn 
and hay. In stock hogs rank first; then cattle, sheep, horses 
and mules, in the order named. As a sheep county, Wayne 
ought to rank high, but does not, in numbers; in fact, the 
sheep industry has not grown much in the favur of the 
farmers of the county. 

Early agricultural statistics are not so valuable, as the crops 
at first raised were but little beyond the wants of the people. 
Small towns consumed but little, and transportation was con- 
fined to wagons on land and flat-boats on the Whitewater 
and Ohio, but the price for grain in early days did not war- 
rant extensive crops. 

While not having any record to go upon in regard to the 
amount of cereals raised in Wayne County in the infancy of 
its settlement, yet that agriculture and its improvement had a 
strong hold upon the farming community was shown in the 
early move for an agricultural society. These societies are 
what quicken the pulse of progress and advance the knowl- 
edge, ambition and pride of the cultivators of the soil. 


The second agricultural society was organized in 1833 
with the above name. Just who its olticers were of that year 
was not found, but the following notice was published in the 
Western Times: 

"Agricultural Notice. — The members of the Agricultural 
Society of Wayne County are requested generally to be 
punctual in attendance at their quarterly meeting, which will 


be held at Centreville, on the second Saturday (8th) of March 
next, when and wliere an election will be held for officers of 
said society, for the ensuing year. 

"J. FiNLEY, Secretary. 

"Feb. 22, 1834." 

The meeting was held as advertised and the Western Times 
gives this local item: 

" Agricultural Meeting. — xlt a regular quarterly meeting of 
the Waj'ne County Agricultural Society, held in Centreville 
on the 8tli instant, the following gentlemen were elected of- 
ficers of the society for the ensuing year: 

"President, Isaac Willits; Vice President, Daniel Clark; 
Secretarj', Samuel Hannah; Treasurer, Lot Bloomfield; Direc- 
tors, William Russey, Cornelius Eatliff, John D. Morrison, 
David Commons, Solomon Meredith, Joel Hiatt and Nelson 

"On motion of William Polton, it was unanimously 

" Resolved, That the tax for the ensuing year be fixed at 
one dollar, each member. 

" The meeting then adjourned. " 

It seems that the society the next year went the way of a 
former one. When the first was organized, unless files of 
papers could be found previous to 1830, cannot be told. The 
papers of that day took a great interest, and encouraged these 
societies. The failure of this second attempt is thus spoken 
of in the Palladlam of October, 1835: 

'•That' Old Wayne' seems determined to take it ' in the 
natural way. ' She has made two abortive attempts at form- 
ing such a society, and we presume will not again attempt it 
until shame or necessity shall compel her. We would hope^ 
however, that the return of spring and the animating example 
of some other parts of the State may arouse her latent ener- 
gies, and that she may be induced to exhibit her strength 
'like a giant refreshed with wine.' " 

There may have been other attempts made to organize a 
county agricultural society between 1835 and 1850; if so 
the records have not come to hand, but the latter year another 
one was formed as here given. 



This society was formed Oct. 29, 1850, Daniel Clark, Pres- 
ident; A. M. Bradbury and Joshua Eliasou, Vice-Presidents; 
Archilles AVilliams, Treasurer; William T. Dennis, Secretary, 
and D. P. Holloway and others. Directors. The first fair was 
held in Richmond, Oct. 7, 8 and 9, 1851. 

From one of the vice-presidents the following account of 
the organization of the -society is given, taken from Young's 

" I called a meeting at Centreville for the ])urpose of se- 
curing an organization. Wm. T. Dennis and myself went 
over to the 'hub' of the county; but few attended — at most 
not exceeding half a dozen. We adjourned to meet at Eich" 
mond on the following Saturday. But two practical farmers 
were present. The mechanics took no interest in it. We ad- 
journed to next morning, Sunday as it was. 1 sent for Dennis 
to come to my office. I proposed that he and I organize the 
society to give character to it. We elected Daniel Clark, an 
enterprising farmer. President of the board, and myself Vice- 
President, and Dennis, Secretary. We then appointed one 
citizen from each township on the Board of Directors. We got 
up a premium list, and published it, appearing as the work 
of the directors. We subsequently rented about two acres of 
ground of Jonathan Roberts, and had it inclosed with a tight 
board fence, and held the fair that year all on our own per- 
sonal responsibility. From the receipts we paid ail expenses, 
except for our services and individual expenditures, and had 
a surplus of several hundred dollars. In the following winter 
or spring we called a county meeting at Centreville, which 
was largely attended, and handed over to the treasurer the 
profits of the first fair. This was the beginning of our in- 
stitution which subsequently reflected great honor on Wayne 
County. " 


As Wayne County stands. second in wealth in the State, al- 
though fifth in population, it is not hard to believe that this 
advancement in wealth has been due to her great agricultural 
resources, and her improvement in stock, and that these have 


been accomplished to a great extent in the rivalry and pride 
brought out in agricultural, stock and horticultural societies 
Her farmers and stockmen have taken a pride in their calling, 
and instead of taking their money and investing away from 
home, have given their time, talents and money in adding to 
the wealth and developing the resources of their own county. 

Thus can be summed up, that while inferior in population, 
she has the greatest wealth; for, taking out the manufacturing 
interests of Marion County, in agricultural wealth Wayne 
leads Marion and every other county in the State. 

Ill agricultural wealth she ranks first; aggregate wealth, 
second; manufactures, fifth; population, fifth. 

There is something to be proud of in the above. She al- 
ready ranks in manufactures even according to her population, 
while she is far ahead in holding the first and second rank. 
Her manufacturing interests are increasing rapidly and she is 
destined ere the present decade is ended to still further im- 
prove her standing in this respect. 

The progress of Wayne County, which has been of a marked 
degree, is the result of an energetic and at the same time an 
educated and cultured people. Ignorance and progress do 
not go together, neither does wealth, weighed down by indo- 
lence and want of ambition, tend to the material prosperity 
of the country. These last have had no foothold in Wayne 
County, but the former has marked the progress of the county 
since the day of its organization. Of the result of thi 
energy of character and the progressive spirit of her people, 
a fair illustration may be gathered froin the award of the 
State Fair at Indianapolis in 1855. It is worthy of record. 

STATE FAIR, 1855. 

Stallion, four years old, W. F. Spinning & Co., silver 
pitcher, $30. 

Gelding, four years old, Sol. Meredith, $o. 

Mare, four years old, A. Boyd, $5. 

Trotting stallion, " Morgan Hector," W. T. Dennis, silver 
cup, $20. 

Gelding, three years old, Sanford Lackey, silver cup, $10. 

Mare, three years old, C. B. Jackson, $5. 
Matched horses, John A. Bridgeland, silver cup, $20. 
Matched horses, Sol. Meredith, silver cup, $10. 
Jack, two years old, C. B. Jackson, $5. 
Jennet, two years old, David Commons, silver cup, $10. 
Plow for Indiana, Beard & Sinex, silver cup, $25. 
Thrasher and separator, A. Gaar & Co., silver cup, $20. 
Horse-plower, A. Gaar & Co., silver cup, $25. 
Corn-sheller, Beard & Sinex, silver cup, $35. 
Harrow and cultivator, Beard & Sinex, silver cup, $25. 
Straw-cutter, Beard & Sinex, silver cup, $25. 
Set of horse-shoes and nails, with specimen of shoeing, 
Wilson & Horner, silver cup, $25. 

Farm implements, Beard & Sinex, silver cup, $25. 
Bull, two years old, first premium, Milton Thornburg, silver 
cup, $20; second premium, J. M. Maxwell, silver cup, $10. 
Bull, one year old, second premium, Sol. Meredith, $5. 
Cow, three years or over, first premium. Sol. Meredith, silver 
cup, $20 ; second premium, Sol. Meredith, silver cup, $10. 

Heifer, two years old, first premium, Levi Druley, silver 
cup, $10 ; second premium, George Davidson, $5. 

Heifer, one year old, first premium, Sol. Meredith, silver 
cup, $10. 

Heifer calf, first premium, Sol. Meredith, $5. 
at bullock, first premium, George Davidson, silver cup 

Fat cow, first premium, George Davidson, silver cup, $20; 
econd premium, Sol. Meredith, silver cup, $10. 

Fat steers, second premium, George Davidson, silver cup, 

Steer, two years old, first premium, George Davidson, 
i ver cup, $10. 
Pair of yearlings, first premium, David Commons, silver 
cup, $10. 

Best boar over two years old, first premium, Irve Smith, $5. 
Boar, over one year old, second premium, Irve Smith, $5. 
Best pair shoats under ten months old, first premium, Irve 
Smith, silver cup, $10 ; second premium for do, Irve Smith, $5. 
Sweepstakes. — Cow of any age, Levi Druley, silver cup, $20. 
Best buck, first premium, James Hammond, silver cup, $20. 


Best ewe, first premium, Sol. Meredith, silver cup, $20. 

Best boar, first premium, Irve Smith, silver cup, $20. 

Best pair of Chittagono-s, A. H. & J. W. Vestal, $3. 

Best pair of Polands, Joshua Dye, $3. 

Best pair of Seabright bantams, A. II. & J. W. Vestal, $3. 

Best pair of China geese, J. Dye, $3. 

Plow for clay soils, lirst premium, S. Horney & Co., silver 
cup, $10. 

Plow for liglit sand soils, S. Horney & Co., silver cup, $10. 

Prairie plow. Beard & Siuex, silver cup, $10. 

Subsoil plow, Beard & Sinex, silver cup, $10. 

Horse-rake, Beard & Sinex, silver cup, $10. 

Grain cradle. Beard & Sinex, diploma. 

Hay-fork, Beard & Sinex, diploma. 

Manure forks. Beard & Sinex, diploma. 

Bryer scythe, Beard & Sinex, diploma. 

Hoes, Beard & Sinex, diploma. 

Scythe snaths, Beard & Sinex, diploma. 

Spades, Beard & Sinex, diploma. 

Grain-scoops, Beard & Siuex, diploma. 

Post-digger, Beard & Sinex, diploma. 

Display of farm implements. Beard & Sinex, silver cup, $10. 

Satin bonnet, Mrs. Anna D. Woolman, diploma. 

Straw bonnet, Mrs. Anna D. Woolman, diploma. 

Blue Grada Afric bonnet, Mrs. Anna D. Woodman, diploma. 

Collection of different varieties of seed corn, L. T. Van- 
schoick, silver cup, $10. 

Cabbage, A. H & J. W. Vestal, Practical Farmer and $2. 

Half bushel sweet potatoes, A. 11. & J. W. Vestal, Farmer 
and $2. 

Knives and forks, Henry Hunter, $3 and diploma. 

Butcher knives, Henry Hunter, $2 and diploma. 

Fine cutlery, Henry Hunter, diploma. 

Flour, L. B. Morrison, $2 and diploma. 

Washing-machine, John Cockefair, $5 and diploma. 

Ten pounds of honey, first premium, C. J. Gould, set ea- 

Pickles, second premium, Miss Mary A. Hammond, $3 and 

urrant jelly. Miss Mary A. Hammond, $1 and diploma. 



The Wayne County Stock Company was iirst organized in 
the winter of ISSS-'Sl, tlie date not exactly ascertained. It 
did not, however, survive but a few years. They offered 
premiums at the spring meeting of $7.50 for tlie best spring 
colt of that year, to be paid July 4, 1835; $5.00 for the 
second best, and $2.50 for the third best. The stiowcame off 
and the premiums were paid July i, as advertised. The same 
fall tiiey held a stock or horse show, the premiums being 
$20.00 for the best brood mare, and a $15.00 saddle to the 
owner of the best saddle horse. The society gradually fell 

Nothing of interest was then done as a separate society for 
many years, but there was no cessation on the part of the 
breeders of stock to advance their grades. 


In August, 1867, the "Wayne County Joint Stock Agricult- 
ural Society was formed, Rankin Baldridge being made 
President; Henry B. Rupe, Treasurer; Sylvester Johnson, 
Secretary, and Daniel S. Brown, Superintendent. 


The Cambridge City District Agricultural Society was or- 
ganized June 18, 1870. It compiises Union, Fayette, Frank- 
lin, Rush, Shelby, Hancock, Henry, Delaware, Randolph and 
Wayne counties. 

It owns sixty acres of land adjoining Cambridge Citj-, 
purchased at a cost of $12, 000,' while the improvements, in- 
cluding buildings, fences and race-track, added another $12,- 
000 to its cost, or with incidental expenses the round sum of 
$25,000; psrhaps there are few grounds in the State with a 
better or more beautiful location, or better adapted for the 
purposes for which it is designed. Of the race-track, the 
character of the soil, firm yet springy, makes it the equal of 
any in the United States, while it has not its equal in the 
AVest. The track is of an oval form, with a splendid view 
from the grand stand. 

The officers chosen at the organization were the following : 


President, Greneral Solomon Meredith; Vice-President, Cap- 
tain John Colter; Secretary, John I. Underwood; Treasurer, 
Thomas Newby; Superintendent, Sanford Lackey; Assistant 
Superintendent, Robert A. Patterson; Board of Directors, 
Wayne County, General S. Meredith, John Calloway, Charles 
Boughner, Henry Shinier, Wilson Jones, John I. Underwood, 
John W. Jackson, Jonah Riesor, James W. Carpenter, 
Sanford Lackey, Jolin Colter, Nathan S. Hawkins, Charles 
W.Routh, Robert A. Patterson, Nathan Raymond, Cleophas 
Straub, Josepli Morrey; Fayette County, A. B. Claypool; 
Union County, R. M. Haworth; Franklin County, Hon. John 
Beggs; Rush County, Isaac B. Loder; Shelby County, W. 
S. WiUon; Hancock County, Dr. N. P. Howard; Henry 
County, Simon T.Powell; Delaware County, Volney Wilson; 
Randolph County, Colonel H. H. Neflf. 


In 1870 there were in Wayne County 1,989 farms of all 
sizes; 564 of these were over 100 acres in size and less than 
500, while there were but si.x over 500 acres and less than 
1,000, the remainder being all less than 100 acres each. 

In 1880 there were 2,672 fixrms of all sizes, the increase in 
the decade being 583. The State of Indiana had in 1870 
161,289 farms of all sizes, and in 1880, 194,013, showing also 
a handsome increase, but not by as great a per cent, as 
Wayne County, the latter's increase being a little more than 
25 per cent., and the State a trifle over 20 percent. 


The census of 1880 gives the following exhibit of the man- 
ufacturing interests of Wayne County for that year. It was 
as follows: Number of manufacturing establishments, 332; 
number of persons employed, 2,938; capital invested, $2,- 
963,535; material purchased, $4,400,503; amount paid for 
labor, $1,087,391; amount of product, $6,805,259. From the 
above figures it appears that the value of the manufactured 
products exceeds the cost of material and labor by a little 
more than twenty-four per cent. This certainly is a satis- 
factory showing. 


IN 1874. 








$ 472,650 





$ 149,500 
204 230 



$ 622,150 



Franklin . ... 



958 280 







1,852 380 




Total Wayne County 

Add appraised value of railroads in 




Add appraised value of telegraphs in 


Add appraised value of turnpikes in 


Grand total 


The principal products in 1874 were ;i8 follows : 
Corn, bushels 1,829,625 

Wheat, ' 
Potatoes, ' 



Kje, " 

Barley, " 

Grain and clover seed, bushels ... 1,623 

Flax seed, bushels 6,341 

Fruits, bushels 45,855 

Hay, tons 17,035 

Bacon, pounds 1,561,750 

Lard, " 391,840 

Wool, " 31,280 

Tobacco, " 385,006 

Maple sugar, pounds „, 11,270 


Cider, gallons 4i,785 

Vinegar," 14,350 

Sjrghuin molasses, gallons 7,740 

Maple " " 7,85S 

The number of acres of wheat sown in 1S74 was. . 42,710 

" corn >' '• 61,365 

" " in meadow 15,555 

Of live-stock there were 

Horses 9,402 

Mules 482 

Cattle 19,591 

Sheep ., 15,698 

Hogs 85,598 


There are but fesv vineyards in Wayne County, and the 
cultivation of the grape lias not become general. The soil is 
very well adapted to grape culture, and almost all varieties 
can be grown. The Concord has generally taken precedent, 
being considered the hardiest and less liable to mildew. The 
Alvira is but little grown, and really but little known, but for 
wine it is considered superior to Norton's Virginia Seedling 
or the Martha. The Catawba is a grape that was cultivated 
many years, but it is light in yield and light in body and 
in the quality of its wine. 

The Concord for light wine is the superior of any grown, 
when yield and quality is considered. This is meant in the 
nature of a common wine. The Herbemont is also cultivated 
to some extent, and has yielded a very iieavy crop, about 
800 gallons to the acre. Among the varieties ])roinising well, 
but which are not as yet extensively cultivated, are the Cun- 
ningham, Clinton, Hartford Prolific, Taylor, Cynthiana, Mar- 
tha, North Carolina Seedling, Roger's Hybrid, No. 1, and the 

There is no doubt but the grape finds here its natural home, 
and will produce unrivaled yields, and while at this time the 
Concord is the favorite, from its hardy nature and sure i-e- 
tnrns, other varieties will doubtless find favor as vineyards 
increase and a taste for superior vintage becomes more wide- 
.spread and desirable. 



Wayne County is a natural county for fruit of all kinds 
and of berries. Apples, peaches and pears grow luxuriantly. 
The pluin is not cultivated, but the climate is suited for it. 
Apples are plentiful, and there are many extensive orchards 
in the county. Peaches are not so certain a crop, yet they 
do well, and wlien the seasons are favorable they yield a 
bountiful harvest. Pears thrive well. Berries grow any 
where, and are in large quantities, both wild and cultivated. 


Acres in corn, 59,040; bushels of corn, 2,082,914; acres in 
oats, 9,800; bushels of oats, 298,051; acres in wheat, 31,434; 
bushels of wheat, 681,939; acres in barley, 451; bushels of 
barley, 14,162; acres in buckwheat, 69; bushels of buckwheat, 
1,075; acres in rye. Ill; bushels of rye, 941; Irish potatoes, 
89,923 bushels; sweet potatoes, 9,803 bushels. 

In 1S80 Wayne County had 8,967 horses, 350 mules, only 

working oxen, 6,757 milch cows, 12,048 head of other 
cattle, 11,751 sheep and 67,042 head of hogs. Its clip of 
wool for the same year was 71,851 pounds, while it turned 
out 523,793 pounds of butter, and 2,110 pounds of cheese, 
and its milk production numbered 201,877 gallons. The 
orchard product netted $50,524. 

Ha}', tons, 15,504; tobacco, pounds, 268,024. 

BACK TO 1826. 

The county made progress quite rapidly during the iirst 
decade of its existence. It contained in the year above men- 
tioned about 17,000 inhabitants, and it had the following vil- 
lages within its limits: Centreville the county seat, Riclu'nond, 
Newport (now Fountain City), Economy, Washington, Milton, 
Jacksonburg, ^nd Abington. These towns still have an ex- 
istence. There were also in the county at that time four other 
villages which are now no more. These were Salisbury, the 
first seat of justice, in Wayne Township, Vandalia, in Jack- 
.son Township, Bethlehem, in Abington Township, and Lin- 
caster. The assessor's return for 1826 gave the number of 
polls at 2,500, 9,375 acres of first, 72,979 of second, and 
■99,000 acres of third rate land on the assessment roll; also 


2,431 horses, 24 stallions, and 248 oxen. The valuation of 
town lots was $15,175, without the improvements; there were 
in the county eight merchants' flouring mills, twenty-three 
grist, or custom, mills, forty saw-mills, twelve carding ma- 
chines, six fulling-mills, two oil-mills, one woolen factory, 
and one nail factory. The county also boasted of two news- 
papers with a combined circulation of upward of 800 copies 
weekly. At that time Wayne County surpassed any county 
in the State in wealth, population and enterprise. Over a 
half century later Wayne County still ranks first in agricult- 
ure and enterprise, and is second in wealth, only being ex- 
ceeded b}' Marion, which has the State Capitol within its 


It speaking of the products of Indiana that of the peculiar 
currency of the old wild-cat times, from 1837 to 1845, is 
worthy of place. The solid currency of to-day of gold, silver 
and greenbacks is somewhat different from the precarious is- 
sues of the wild-cat banks of the above period. This cur- 
rency should find a place here, and it had, in this State, a 
local habitation and a name. In fact several names were 
given the circulating medium then in use, such as " Scrip," 
'■Bank Scrip," "White Dog," "Blue Dog," "Blue Pup." 
Paper of our State Bank, with the specie paying banks of 
Ohio, and some two or three banks in Michigan, comprised the 
circulating medium of this section of the State. 

" Scrip, Proper," was issued to pay the domestic debt of the 
State, and was receivable for all State dues, county taxes, and 
for all trust fund loans; in all receipts, however, except for 
taxes, no interest was allowed. 

" Bank Scrip" was issued to pay the State Bank of Indiana 
the State indebtedness to that institution, for advances made 
to canal contractors. 

" White Dog," a scrip issued by the State to pay repairs 
and other expenses of the Wabash & Erie Canal east of 
Lafayette. This scrip was receivable for canal tolls east of 
Tippecanoe, at its face and interest. 

"Blue Dog," issued for the extension of the Wabash & 
Erie Canal from Lafaj'ette to Terre Haute, based upon and 


'^^^=^~''^^-L^^£/6-rrJs ctei^ i/l>4i«^ 



receivable for the lands selected for such extension. It was, 
howevei-, by a law passed in the winter of lS12-'3, made re- 
ceivable for canal tolls, on Wabash lV: Erie Canal. 

" Bine Pup,"' a shin plaster currency, issued in small suras 
by contractors on the exteasion, payable in '"Blue Dog." 
Some of this was undoubtedly as good as the " Blue Dog," ex- 
cept its not being received for tolls; other of it was unsafe as 
there was no limit to its issue. 

The following' wai the value in this market in the summer 
of 1813: 

Scrip, old, 85 to 90, Bank Scrip, 85; White Dog. according 
date. 80 to 90; Blue Dog, 10; Blue Pup, — . 


A regular annual statement of the valuation and assess- 
ment of real and personal estate, prior to 1812, cannot be 
found in the records of the county. At first, lands were 
classed as lirst rate, second rate, and third rate, and taxed, 
per 100 acres, 10, 20, 30, or 40 cents, according to quality. 
Taxes were also laid per head on horses, and sometimes on 
waijons, watches, and other articles. And what is, perhaps, 
not generally known, there were, for a few years, taxes on 
.^7aves and men of color. 

For the first three years mentioned below, only the taxes 
levied are given. 

1811— The county taxes amounted to $468.40. 

1815— county land tax, $424.24; tax on horses, $739; 
on slaves, $20; on men of color, $15; merchants' licenses, 
$S6.S6. Total taxes, $1,265.10. 

1819— County land tax, $718.87; tax on horses, $918.08; 
town lots, $273.04; State tax, $143.74. Total tax, $3, 347.73. 




1 3,505,548 
3 568,958 
4,991 803 

f 828,533 

1 4,334,081 


1 19,939 





255 442 




1881 . 





The personal of 1880 in city and towns, is taken frona the 
census of that year and as so divided. 

In assessed valuation Wayne County is the second in the 
State, only exceeded by Marion; Vigo is third and Vander- 
burg, fourth; the former is over one million and the latter 
two million less in valuation. 

The county debt July 1, 1883, was $iO,000. 


The population of Wayne County for each decade trom 1820 

to 1880 is thus given by the census returns: 

1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 

13,119 18,571 23,290 25,320 29,558 34,048 38,«14 
From 1850 to 1880 inclusive, the population is given by 

townships as follows: 






















2 885 











Washington.. . 


City of Richmo 


2d Ward 

4th Ward 



Citv of Richm 

12,742' 9,445 



Dalton I 

Dublin 1 

East Germantown ] 451 

Economy \ 

Note.— The population 

1 Franklin 86 

8 Hagerslown 898 

3 Jacksonburg . . 112 

7 Milton 855 

3 Newport 370 

61 Washington 374 

6' Whitewater i 132 

9i Williamsburg I 273 


Tlie g.iiii of the comity the past decade was 4,5(36, of 
whicli Richmond gained 3,297, and the county, outside, 1,269. 



Prior to the adoption of the Constitution of 1816, duties 
now devolved upon tiie Board of County Commissioners were 
performed by the county judges. The tirst board held its 
first session at Salisbui-y, and was composed of Thomas J. War- 
man, James Odell and Thomas Beard. The term of office 
was three years, and one commissioner was to be elected every 
year. Hence the first commissioners were required so to 
class themselves as that one should serve for one year, another 
for two years, and the other for three years, that thereafter 
one should be annually elected. Thomas Beard was drawn 
for one year, James Odell for two years, and Thomas J. 
"Warman for three years. In the following list the names of 
new members only, and the years they respectively came into 
office, are given. If in any year the name of no incoming 
member appears, it may be presumed that some one had been 
re-elected : 

Tliomas Beard, James Odell, Thomas J. Warman, came 
into office in 1817; 1818, Enos Graves vice Tliomas Beard; 
1818, Beal Butler ?;/ce James Odell; 1819, Isaac Julian vice 
Beal Butler; 1820, Benjamin Harris -y/ce Thomas Warman; 
1821, John Jones vice Enos Graves; 1822, Peter Johnson vice 
Isaac Julian; 1823, William Sumner vice Benjamin Harris. 

In 1824 a board, composed of justices of the peace from 
the several townships, was substituted for the commissioners, 
one of the Justices being chosen by the board as president. 
This continued from 1824 to 1829, the officers being elected. 

The presiding officer in 1824 was Barnabas Mc Manus, 
ollowed successfully by Daniel Fraley, Jonathan Platts, Lot 
loomfield. The latter was chosen in 1826, also, and in 1828, 
Asa M. Sherman. In 1829 it was changed back into Com- 
missioner's Court again. 

1829-30, Jonathan Platts, Dan'l Reid and Jesse Wi Hits: 

1831, Achilles Williams vice Dan'l Reid; 1834, John Bishop 
■y/c*- Jesse AVillits; 1835, Gabriel Newby vice Jonathan Platts; 
1S36, Philip Saville vice Jno. Bishop; 1837, Dan'l P. Wig- 
gins vice A. Williams; 1838, Thomas McCoy vice Philip 
Saville; 1839, Dan'l Bradbury vice D. P. Wiggins; 1839, 
Dan'l Clark vice Thomas McCoy; 1840, David Commoas 
vice Dan'l. Bradbury; 1841, Larkin Thornburg vice Thos. 
Newby, same to 1843; 1843, Joseph M. Bulla ■y«ce Dan'l 
Clark; 1845, Dan'l Sinks vice David Commons; 1846, 
William Elliott vice Larkin Thornburg; 1847, Thomas Tyner; 
1848, Dillon Haworth; 1849, Dan'l B. Crawford; 1850, John 
Stigleman; 1851, Tiiomas Tyner; 1852, John H. Hiitton; 
1853, John Stigleman ; 1854, Andrew Nicholson, 1855, John 
H. Hutton; 1856, Edmund Lawrence; 1857, Jonathan Bald- 
win; 1858, JohnH. Hutton; 1859, Edmund Lawrence; 1860, 
Jonathan Baldwin; 1861, Dan'l B. Crawford; 1862, Edmund 
Lawrence; 1863, Oliver T. Jones; 1864, Dan'l B. Crawford; 
1865, Isaac A. Pierce; 1866, Oliver T. Jones; 1867, Dan'l 
B. Crawford; 1868, A. S. Wiggins; 1869, Oliver T. Jones; 
1870, Wm. Brooks; 1871, A.' S. Wiggins; 1872, Oliver T. 
Jones; 1873, William Brooks; 1873, Jonathan Baldwin vice 
O. T. Jones; 1874, Cornelius Thornburg; 1875, J. W. Martin- 
dale vice J. Baldwin; 1876, Wm. Brooks; 1877, Cornelius 
Thornburg; 1878, Thomas Hunt; 1879, John Bowman; 1880, 
Cornelius Thornburg; 1881, Thomas Hunt; 1882, John Bow- 
man. Thomas Hunt, and George Hindman. 


Benjamin Parke, 1811; James Noble, January, 1815; Jesse 
L. Holman, March, 1816; John Test, March, 1817; John 
Watts, February, 1819; Miles C. Eggleston, March, 1820; 
Charles H. Test, February, 1830; Samuel Bigger, March, 
1836; James Perry, November, 1840; Jehu T. Elliott, March, 
1844; Oliver P. Morton, March, 1852; Joseph Anthony, 
March, 1853; Jeremiah Smitii, Marcii, 1855; Jehu T. Elliott, 
March, 1856; Silas Colgrove, March, 1865; Jacob Haynes, 
February, 1872; George A. Johnson (appointed), 1873; John 
F. Kibbey, elected 1873; re-elected, 1879; term expires, 1885. 



Niinrod H. Johnson, October, 1852; William P. Benton, 
October, 1856; Jeremiah Wilson, October, 1860; John F. 
Kibbej', March, 1865; re-elected; served until the court was 
abolished in 1873. 


This court was established in 1867, and consolidated with 
the Circuit Conrt in 1873. Judges: William A. Peelle, April, 
1S67; Nimrod H. Johnson, October, 1867; died in office, 
April, 1869; George FloUand, Miy, 1869; afterward elected 
and served until 1873. 


Tiie Wayne Superior Court was established in March, 1877, 
and abolished by act of the Legislature Feb. 12, 1879. Hon. 
William A. Bickle, the first Judge, served by appointment 
until Oct. 28, 1878, when Hon. Plenry C. Fo.\' took his seat 
upon the bench. 


The associate judges of the county held Pi-obate Courts 
until 1829. In September of that year a special judge, known 
as the judge of the Wayne Probate Court, entered upon the 
duties of his office. The Probate Court continued in exist- 
ence until 1852, and was succeeded by the Court of Common 
Pleas. The Probate Judges were : Septimus Smith, 1829-'32 ; 
David Hoover, 1832; Nathan Smitli, 1833-'35; Abner M. 
Haynes, 1835-'37: Stephen B. Stanton. 1837-'il; John B. 
Stitt, 1841-'47; G. W. Whitman, 1847-'49; John Curtis, 


Wayne County was organized in 1810, and on the 18th of 
December, Peter Fleming, Aaron Martin and Jeremiah Meek 
were appointed Judges of the County Court, and George 
Hunt, Clerk, who held the office several years. 

March 25, 1812, William Harland was appointed a Judge; 
Jan. 3, 1814. Peter Fleming, first Judge, Aaron Martin and 


Jeremiali Meek, Judges; April 4, ISlo, Josiah Davidaon, 
Associate, in place of Judge Martin, resigned; June 12, 1815, 
David Hoover. 

Appointments of Associate Judges after the adoption of 
the State Constitution of 1S16, were made as follows : March, 
1817, Jesse Davenport, Wni. McLane; February, 1824, John 
Jones, John Scott; August, 1849, Caleb Lewis, Beale Butler; 
in 1830, Beale Butler, Asa M. Sherman; March, 1837. Jesse 
"Williams; Februarv, 1839, David Hoover; March, 1^42, 
James R Mendenhall; August, 1845, John Beard; August, 
1848, Abner M. Bradbury. 

By the Constitution of 1852, a change was made in the 
judiciary of the State, and the office of associate judge was 


George Hunt, March, 1815; David Hoover, September, 
1819; Samuel Hatmah, March, 1831; John Finley, March, 
1838; Thomas G. Noble, March, 1845; Andrew F. Scott, 
March, 1852; Solomon Meredith. March, 1860; Samuel B. 
Schlagle, March. 1864, died in office; Moses D. Leeson, ap- 
pointed January, 1866; Wm. W. Dudley, 1868; Wra. H. 
Lynde, 1874, removed January, 1876, and J. W. Moore ap- 
pointed; Wm. T. Noble, 1880; Wm. H. Schlater, 1884. 


The litt of circuit prosecutors, so far as obtainable from the 
court records, is here given. Some of those mentioned served 
only one ar two terms, by special appointment. 

Territorial Prosecutors— James Dill, 1811-'15; John Test, 
1816. State Prosecutors for Judicial Circuit— Stephen C. 
Stephens, 1S17-'19; James B. Ray, 1819-'22; James Raridan, 
1822-'25; Oliver H. Smith, 1825-'-27; Cyrus Finch, lS27-'28; 
Martin M. Ray, 1829-'30; James Perry. 1830-'31; Wra. J. 
Brown, 1832; J Samuel Bigger, 1832-'33; Wm. J. Brown, 
1833-'36; Samuel W. Parker, 1837-'3S; D. W. Macy, 1839- 
'40; Martin M.Ray, 1840-'42; Jehu T. Elliott, 1843; Samuel 
E. Perkins, 1844;" J. B. Julian, 1845-'46; John B. Stitt, 
l«47-'48; N. H.Johnson, 1848-'51 ; Joshua H. Mellett, 1852; 


Silas Colgrove, 1853; Wra. A. Peelle, 1854; E. B. Martin- 
dale, 1855; Hon. Thomas M. Browne, 1856-61; James N. 
Templer, 1862-66; John Yaryan, 1867. Prosecuting At- 
torney of Criminal Cour t — D W. Mason, during the exist- 
ence of this court to 1873. 

Prosecuting Attorneys of the Wayne Circuit Court — Daniel 
W. Comstock, 1873-'76; Henry W. Johnson, 1876-'S0; 
Charles E. Shively, the present incumbent, officiating since. 


This office was in connection with the Court of Common 
Pleas, and was abolished with it. Wm. P. Benton, 1852-'56; 
C. H. Burchenal, 1854-'56; Jehial Eailsback, lS56-'58; John 
H. Popp, 1858-'60; John C. Whitridge, 1860-'64; Henry C. 
Fox, 1864-'68; W. H. Jones, 1868-'70; and John L. Puipe 
from that time until the court was abolished. 


No records to be found earlier than 1833. 

jSTathan Smith, 1833-36: William Personett, 1836-'3S; 
William Cox, 183S-'51; John F. Kibbey, 1851-'56; Kobert 
C. Shnte, 1856, to fiil vacancy caused by J. F. Kibbey's res- 
ignation, thence successfully re-elected and served until No- 
vember, 1867, when his successor, R. A. Howard, succeeded 

R. C. Shute succeeded him in 1874, serving until October, 
1880, when the present incumbent, A. H. Study, took the 
office and has since continued. 

It is impossible to find a record of those who held the office 
of coroner prior to 1839. From that time forward the list is 
as follows: 

Walter Pryne, 1839; S. C. Meredith, 1839, S. W. Forsha, 
1840; Thomas Manning, 1840; Larkin Thornburg, 1841; 
Chas. O'Harra, 1842-'44; S. C. Meredith, 1844-'46; John C. 
Page, 1846-'48; Clayton T. Wilson. 1848-54; J. W. Swaf- 
ford, 1854-'58; Charles C. Dennis, 1858-'60; Jesse Wivems, 
1860-62; Jesse Stephens, 1862-'64; Jonas Stephens, 1864- 


'66; Fabius Fleming, 1866-'68; John J. Eonej, 1868-'74; 
Sample C. Bjer, 1874-'78; C. A. Kersey, 1878-'Si; James 
E. Taylor, since. 


John Turner, March 4,1815; Elijah Fisher, Dec. 25, 1818; 
Abraham Elliott, Sept. 3, 1819; Elias Willetts, Oct. 22, 
1821; Samuel Hanna, Oct. 22,1823; William McLane, Feb- 
ruary, 1826; Jacob R. Fisher, Aug. 28, 1829; John Whitehead, 
Aug. 28, 1830; Sol. Meredith, Aug. 28, 1834; Thomas G. 
Noble, Aug. 28, 1838; William Baker, Aug. 28, 1842; 
David Gentry, Aug. 28, 1844; William Baker, 1848; John 
C. Page, Nov. 4, 1852; Jesse T. "Williams, Nov. 12, 1856; 
Joseph L. Stidham. Nov. 13, 1858; John M. Paxson, Nov. 
12, 1862; Jacob S. Bellenger, Nov. 13, 1866; William H. 
Study, Nov. 12, 1870; Joseph L. Smith, 1873; William H. 
Trindle, 1877; Isaac H. Gorman, 1882. 

This office was established in 1840. Francis King, 1841; 
Tuoraas Adams (two terms), 1846; Benjamin L. Martin, 1855; 
Sylvester Johnson, 1863; Elihu M. Parker, 1871 ; Caleb S. 
DuHadway, 1879; Thaddeus W. Braffett. 1882. The term, 
originally five years, was changed to four by the new Con- 


John Beard, 1817-'18; Henry Hoover, 1819-'20; Samuel P. 
Booker, 1821-'23; Peter Ringo, 1824; William Pugh, 1825- 
'28; Thomas Commons, ]829-'42; Jason Plam, 1843-'47; 
Achilles Williams, 1847; William W. Lynde. Aug. 18, 1853; 
Christy B. Huff, Aug. 13, 1859; Henry B. Rape, Aug. 13, 
1863; John Sim, Oct. 30, 1867; Joseph W. Lemmon, 1872; 
William M. Thompson, 1876-'78; Peter P. Kirn. 1880. 

David F. Sackett; James Woods; Henry Beitzel, March 
19, 1852; Theodore J. Riley, March IS, 1860; Jonathan R. 
Whitacre, March, 1864; Jonathan Whitacre, 1871; Jesse 


E. Jones, 1872; Christian Zinimer, 1879; James W. Wilson, 



rior to the adoption of the State Constitution of 1816, all 
judges and justices ot the peace were appointed and commis- 
sioned by the Governor. Richard Rue was appointed in 
1806. In October, 1809, ihe year before the formation of 
Wayne County, Jeremiah Meek, Jesse Davenport, John Ire- 
land, Abraham Elliott and John Cox were appointed Justices 
of the Peace for Dearborn County. After the organization 
of Wayne County, David Hoover, John Ireland and Jesse 
Davenport were aj^pointed Justices for this county. Other 
appointments were made before the State Government under 
the Constitution of 1816 was formed, after which justices 
were elected by the people in their respective townships. 

It has been impossible to find a complete record of the 
justices of the county since its organization. The following 
incomplete list is taken from the county records. 

The year given is that in which the term of office com- 

1817, Isaac Julian, Isaac Estep, J. Flint, John Nelson, 
Adam Boyd, John Marshall, Ira Hunt, John McLane; 1818, 
Jacob Hoover; 1820, Josiah Bradbury, Jacob N". Booker; 
1823, Samuel Taylor; 182i, EU Wright, William Brown, 
John Finley; 1825, Richard L. Leeson, Levi Willetts, Jos. 
Personett, William Elliott, Lot Bloomfield, Andrew Car- 
rington (probably); 1826, Edward Starbuck, Daniel 
Clark, Benjamin F. Beeson; 1827, Jesse Allison, S. G. 
Sperry, Eleazar Smith, Richard Henderson, William 
Rupey; 1828, Jesse Williams, Edmund Jones, Elijah 
Lacey, Absalom Cornelius, Jesse Willetts, John Stigle- 
man, Jonathan Platts, John D. Robertson, James Wick- 
ersham; 1829, Isaiah Osborn, James P. Antrim, Joseph 
Curtis, William Wright, James Beeson, Daniel Strattan, 
Abner M. Bradbury, George Springer, Jahiel R. Lamson, 
Benjamin Beeson, James P. Burgess, Lewis R. Strong, Lot 
Day, Abraham Jefferis; 1830, James Baxter, John M. Addle- 
man, Rice Wharton, William Swafford, Joseph Flint; 1831, 



John Brady, Samuel Johnson, Edward Starbuck, Rice Wliar- 
toii, Jesse Osborn, Preserved L. W. McKee; 1832, Jonathan 
Platts, John Bradbury, Samuel G. Sperry, Thomas Cooper; 
1834, Absalom Wright, Corbin Jackson, Joseph Curtis, Abra- 
ham Cuppy, William Lambert, Jacob Brooks, Hichard Jobes; 
1848, George Develin, David Cornelius, Edward Wiley, 
Miles Marshall, Edward C. Leinmon, Richard Jobes, John 
McLucas, Ithamar Beeson; 1849, Thomas Wilson, Alfred 



Patrick Baird 1816 

Nodata 1817 

Patrick Baird 1818 

Nodata 1810 

Nodata 18'20 '< 

Patrick Baird 1821 

" 1823 

Nodata 1833 

Nodata 1824 

James Rariden 182.5 

James Rariden 1836 

" " 1837 

Abel Lomax. . .V 1839 

" 1830 

Nodata 1831 

DavidHoover 1833 



Wm. Elliott 1835 

Wm. Elliott and'Abner'M. 

Bradbury 1837 

Nathan Sinitli and Achilles 

Williams 18.38 

Achilles Williams, N. Smitli 1839 

Chas. H.Test 1840 

Lewis Burke and David 

Hoover 1841 

Lewis Burke and Divid 

Hoover 1842 

Lewis Burke and David 

Hoover 1843 

Abner M. Bradbury and D. P. 

HoUaway. 1844 

Abner M. Bradbury and D. P. 

Hollaway 1845 

Abner M. Bradbury and D. P. 

HoUawav 1846 

David P. Ho'laway 1847 

" ■' " ■ 1848 

" " " 1849 

" " " 18.50 

No data 1851 

Nodata 1853 

Lewis Burke 1855 


Othniel Beeson 1859 

" 1861 

" 1868 


Isaac Kinley 1867 

" 1869 

Othniel Beeson 1871 


Wm.Ba.xter 1875 

" 1877 

Daniel W. Comstock 1879 


Wm. Dudley Fouike 1883 


Joseph Holman* j | Joseph Holman 1 

Ephraim Overman '■ 181C John Scott [- . 

John Scott ) I Robert Hill ) 


John Sutherland, i j 

Lewis Johnson - 1818 

Zachariah Ferguson \ | 

Joseph Hulman / luio 

No data ) ^^^'' 

Joseph Holman ) i 

Simon Yandes - 1820 

Thos Swaine ) 

Joseph Holman ( laoi 

No data \ ^^^^ I 

Robert Hill i 

Isaac Julian - 1832 j 

John Jordan ) 
Robert Hill 

Abel Loma.x ■ 1823 

Wm. Jones ) 

No data 1824 

Abel Lomax ) 

Henry Hoover - . . .Jan., 1825 

Eleazer Hiait ) 

Abel Lomax 1 

Samuel Hanua ...Dec. 1825 

Caleb Lewis ) 

Abel Lomax \ 

Caleb Lewis ', , ani- 

Henry Hoover (' ^°"^ 

Wm. Elliott J 

Abel Lomax \ 

Wm. Elliott I, ,007 

John Jones (' 

Wm. Steele J 

Abel Lomax \ 

Wm. Elliott I ,„o8 

Wm. Steele f ' ■•• ^^2- 

John Finley J 

James Randen "] 

Henry Hoover I jg^g 

John Jones 

John Finley J 

John Finley ) 

Henry I ,Q.,fx 

Wm. Elliott f ^''"^" 

Eli Wright I 

Wm. Steele | 

Henry Hoover i ,o.ii 

John Jones ' f ''^^^ 

Richard Henderson J 

James Rarideu | 

Wm. Steele i ,q.,q 

Caleb Lewis j" ^""^^ 

Abner M. Bradbury J 

Wm. Steele | 

John Jones I ,q.,., 

Abner M. Bradbury | ^^'^"^ 

\be\ Thorn bury J 
Abner M. Bradbury | 

Martin M. Ray ', .„.,, 

Johns. Newman \ ^^"^^ 

Joseph Curtis J 

Martin M. Ray 1 

Joseph Curtis ', 

Richard J. Hubbard { ' 

Daniel Clark J 

Richard J. Hubbard ] 

Joseph Curtis I 

Nathan Smith |" ' 

Lot Blcomfield J 

Richard J. Hubbard | 

Nathan Smith 1 

Joseph C. Hawkins ( ' 

Achilles Williams J 

R chard J. Hubbard | 

Caleb Lewis I 

Cal b B. Jackson j ' 

Joseph Morrow J 

Wm. Baker ] 

Morris Lancaster | 

Caleb B. Jackson |'- 

Lewis Burke J 

Allen Hiatt 1 
Daniel Bradbury 

Daniel Stratton ) 

Daniel Strattou i 

Daniel Sinks [■.. 

Wm. R. Foulke ) 

Daniel Stralton ) 
Allen Hiatt 

Wm. K. Foulke ) 

Samuel Hannah ) 

John Williamson "-.. 

David P. Holloway ) 

Joseph Lewis j 
Waller Legg 

Eli Wright" ) 
Geo. W. Julian 
Joseph Lewis 

Walter L-gg ) 

Jacob B. Julian | 

Solomon Meredith ', 

W. S. Addleman l' ' 

Robert Gordon J 

David Commons i 

Solomon Meredith ( 

Robert Gordon ]' ' 

Stephen B. Stanton J 

Jacob B. Julian ) 

David Commons \- .. 

Solomon Meredith ) 

James Elder j 

Isaac N. Beard V . , 

Oliver Butler ) 

Joseph M. Bulla ") 

Miles Marshall - ., 

Edmund Lawrence ) 

John P. Doughty i 

Edmund Lawrence V. 

Joseph M. Bulla ) 



Elihu Hunt I 

HeEry M. Sbuman - 1853 

Bronson L. Harris ) 

Solomon Meredith I 

Chas. H. Test | ' 

Henry M. Shuman i 
Jamt s M. Austin 

W. C. Jeffries \ 

W. C. Jeffries l 

James M. Austin • 1859 

Jonathan M. Hamilton ) 
Edmund B. Newman 

Oliver T. JoLes [ 1861 

Israel Woodruff \ 

Israel Woodruff ) 
Oliver T. Jones 

Edmund B. Newman \ 

John Sim ) 

W. W. Foulke [ . 
E. Cox 

Wm.A. Peelle ) 

Benj L. Martin f .... 1867 

W. W. Foulke ( ■ 

AV. C. Bowen i .^„„ 

John I. Underwood ) ^^'^^ 

Benj. L. Martin ) ,^ , 

Wm.S. Balleng(r )■ "^^^ 

Wm. Baxter / ,^„, 

Lewis C. Walker \ ^*'" 

Bronson L. Harris ( .q-- 

J. C. Ratliff \ ^''^ 

JolTYanvan"'"'' 's'-'- ^^'^^ 

Nathan Harland / lo^n 

J. H. Thornburg ) ^^''' 

Henry C. Merediih / -oqi 

Halleck Floyd \ ^^'*'- 

Mumford G. Beeson ) ^.o., 

L.M. Mering ) ^^'^'^ 


The following Wayne County men served in the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1816: Jeremiah Cox, Joseph Holman, 
Patrick Beard, Jeremiah Meek. Convention of 1S50: John 
S. Newman, James Rariden, Othniel Beeson, John Beard. 

After the legislation of lS35-'36 on 5 tlie question of inter- 
nal improvements, the citizens of Wayne County began to 
be deeply interested in this matter. Canal fever broke out in 
violent form. Ohio had completed a canal from Cleveland, 
on Lake Erie, to Portsmouth, on the Ohio River, and was en- 
ergetically at work building others. This fever raged in Wajne 
County, and the Whitewater Valley Canal Company, chartered 
by the Legislature of 1841-'2, was organized with a capital 
stock of 1400,000. On tlie 28th of July, 1842, gronnd was 
broke at Cambridge City, with the largest assembly present 
which had ever congregated within the limits of Wayne 
County. Four years later it was completed. It met with several 
severe losses by heavy rains and floods. A quarter of a cent- 
ury passed and it began to be dropped except for the most 
bulky freight, and in this year, 1884, it is comparatively 
closed. Now and then a wood-boat passes up or down, and 
that which called forth the rejoicings of 10,000 people in 1840. 
and was welcomed with loud hosannahs in 1846, is now looked 


upon as worthless. Such is progress, and the rapid advance 
in the building of railroads has caused canals to languish in 
this and adjoining States, and they are now like the wagon 
and the coach among the things of the past, or so nearly in 
that condition that they are looked upon as a relic of a former 

The Whitewater Valley Canal never extended above Cam- 
bridge City, but in 1846 the Hagerstown Canal Company was 
organized, and the canal 'completed to that place in 1847^ 
But a small number of boats, however, ever reached that 
place, and the canal soon tell into disuse, except as a source- 
of water-power for Conklin's and other mills. 

In 1838, authority was granted to the Richmond & Brookville ■ 
Canal Company to construct a canal from Richmond to Brook' 
ville, but without the aid of the State. The length of the Rich, 
mond & Bi'ookville Canal was nearly thirty-four miles; the 
estimated cost, $508,000; whole lockage, 273 feet, Richmond 
taking stock to the amount of $50,000. Work was let to the 
amount of $80,000, and about $45,000 expended. The enter- 
prise was then abandoned. By the great flood on the first day 
of January, 1847, the value of nearly all the work that had 
been done was suddenly destroyed. This is now regarded as 
a fortunate occurrence. Had the canal been finished — the fall 
being 273 feet in thirty-four miles — it would probably have 
been utterly destroyed. 


Not many years later the building of the first turnpikes in 
the county was undertaken. This work, which has developed 
year by year, has been of great benefit in adding to the re- 
sources of the county, and only second to the railroads in ad- 
vancing its material prosperity. 

After completing the National road to the east line of the 
State, work was for awhile suspended. It had been still 
further constructed from the Ohio State line through Wayne 
County as far as Vandalia, 111., and graded and bridged. The 
Government then turned it over to the States, and gave the 
project up. It was originally called the Cumberland Road, 
Congress having authorized its construction as a turnpike 


from Cumberland, Md., to Ohio. When the road came into 
the possession of the State, it was in an unfinished condition. 
Application was made to the Legislature for the incorporation 
ot the Wayne County Turnpike Company, and a charter was 
granted in the winter of 184:9-'50. The company completed 
the road in 1850. It is twenty-two miles in length, cross- 
ing the county from east to west. The road was a great bene- 
fit, and the land along its border became very valuable. Its 
success caused others to be built in all sections of the county, 
and it was the inspiring efl'ects of these roads which enabled 
"Wayne County to keep in the van of her sisters, increasing 
her population, extending the area of her cultivated fields, 
and adding to her wealth and greatness. 

For fifteen years Wayne County made rapid strides in fur- 
nishing local means of travel worthy of her enterprising 
people. In 1865 she boasted of the following turnpike roads. 
The list is taken from Power's Directory of that year: 

Carabridge City^ running northwest from Cambridge, four 

Centreville and Abington, distance seven miles. 

Centreville and Jacknonhurg, two miles finished in 1865. 

Chester and Arba, finished to the county line, eight miles. 

Hagerstown and DoMon, distance si-x miles. 

Hagerstown and Fi'anklin, distance six miles. 

Hagerstown and Washington, distance seven miles. 

Milton and Bentonsville, four miles finished. 

Milton and Broionsville, five miles finished. 

Milton and Connersville, four miles finished. 

Pleasant Valley, from Centreville to Robinson's Cross 
Roads, Fayette Co.; finished three miles from Centreville. 

Richmond and Boston, from Richmond through Boston to 
the county line, seven miles. 

Richmond and Newport, eight miles, all finished. 

Richmond and Neio Paris, from Richmond to New Paris,0. 

Richmond and HiUsboro, nine miles, all finished. 

Richmond and Lick Creek, running south from Richmond, 
on the west side of the river. 

Richmond and Liberty, finished from Richmond, seven 


Richmond and Williamshurg, ten miles, all finished. 

Short Creek, or Green Mount, from Richmond and Boston 
pike, one and one-half miles south of Richmond, four miles to 
Ohio line. 

Smyrna, from Richmond and Hillsboro pike east to New 
Paris, Ohio. 

Union County Straight Line, from a point on the Rich- 
mond and Boston pike, two miles south of Richmond; but a 
small portion finished. 

The WUliamnhurg and CentrevUle, a distance often miles 
fully completed. The first mentioned turnpike, belonging to 
the Wayne County Turnpike Company, passes through a num- 
ber of towns, all of which give it the name of a street. In 
Richmond, Main street is the old Cumberland, or National, 
road, and it has the same name in Centreville, Pennville, 
Germantown and Cambridge City; and when it passes through 
Dublin, it is called Cumberland street, after its original name. 

Since 1865 there have been no long turnpikes built, but 
quite a number of short cross-roads have been macadamized 
to connect with those already made. The county, therefore, 
has good roads at all seasons. There is no county in the 
State having better roads. 


AVayne County owes much of her prosperity to her great 
railroad facilities for the transportation of her products. 
Cheap freights increase production on the one side and in- 
crease tonnage on the other. This, then, makes the farmer 
and manufacturer and the railroad companies a joint, or a 
co-operative, association, in which, by mutual agreement, both 
are benefited. The product of the farm, be it cereal or stock, 
is not of much value unless there is a market for it beyond 
the need of home consumption. This market is made by the 
railroads bringing consumers and producers nearer together, 
causing a mutual exchange of values. 


The first railroad incorporated, wherein Wayne County 
was to be benefited, was the Richmond & Miami Railroad 


Co., which was incorporated by the State of Indiana, Jan. 19, 
1846, to extend from Eichmond to the east line of the State 
of Indiana to connect with a railroad proposed to be built in 
tlie State of Ohio, to the State line. On Jan. 24, 1851, the 
above act of incorporation was amended so as to include the 
construction of a branch line to connect with tlie Dayton & 
"Western Railroad at the State line. Judge Wra. A. Bickle, 
Wm. Burke and others were the movers in securing the 
charter. It was completed in 1853, and its first Superintend- 
ent was J. H. Hutton. It has since been leased to the Day- 
ton & Western Railroad Co. for ninety-nine years. 

The most important line to both the county and the city of 
Richmond is the Terre Haute & Richmond Railroad, now 
called the 


The Indiana Central Railway Company, of Indiana, was 
formed as follows: On the 26th of January, 1847, the Legisla- 
ture of Indiana chartered the Terre Haute & Richmond Rail- 
road Company, with authority to construct a railroad from the 
western boundary line of Indiana, through Terre Haute and 
Indianapolis to Richmond. 

Tiie first meeting for the organization of the Indiana Cen- 
tral Railroad (then Terre Haute & Richmond Railroad 
Company), was held at Centreville, Saturday, May 25, 1850. 
Four directors were elected, David Commons, Norris Jones, 
Thos. Tyner and Jacob Yose. The directors elected as Presi- 
dent, Thos. Tyner; Treasurer, Norris Jones, and Secretary, 
John B. Stitt. Bids for the grubbing, grading and masonry 
from Richmond to Centreville were received and awarded by 
the board, Oct. 31, 1850. On Nov. 17, 1850, Austin Clay- 
poole, of Cambridge City, was appointed one of the agents to 
collect the assessments on the stock subscriptions. An act 
passed Jan. 20, 1851, terminated the road of said Terre Haute 
& Richmond Railroad Company at Indianapolis, and created 
the directors elected by the stockholders of that part of the 
road east of Indianapolis, a separate company, under the name 
of the Indiana Central Railway Company, which last named 
company, under its corporate authority, constructed the road 
from Indianapolis to the eastern boundary line of Indiana. 


Tlie regular trains started Sept. 19, 1853. At the meeting 
of the board Sept. 12, S. H. Donnell and a Mr. Oglesby were 
selected as conductors, and C. R. Williams and J. Hutton, 
baggage masters. These appointments gave perfect satisfac- 

Below is given a list of officers of this road : 

Presidents — Sara'j. Hanna was elected March 3, 1851, and 
resigned July 15, 1851; John S. Newman was elected July 
15, 1851, and continued in office until the consolidation, Oct. 
13, 1864. 

Secretaries — Jno. M. Commons elected March 3, 1851, re- 
signed June 1, 1856, and was succeeded by Samuel Hanna, 
the latter resigning Jan. 8, 1864; J. B. McChesney was ap- 
pointed to fill the office, which he did until Oct. 13, 1864, the 
date of consolidation. 

Treasurers— Norris Jones elected March 3j 1851, holding 
until the annual election, Jan. 15, 1852, at which time John 
Crum was chosen. Mr. Crum resigned May 10, 1852, and 
was followed by Samuel Hanna, who also resigned on Jan. 
8, 1864, being succeeded by J. B. McChesney, who held the 
office up to the date of consolidation. 

The progress of the road has been steady, always meet- 
ing the demand for increased facilities and accommodations. 


Without counting "|local business, this road sent out: 

Loaded cars going East 50,292 

Empty " " " 12,456 


Loaded cars going West 68,808 

Empty 6,120 


Total cars in through transpirtation 137,676 

" local " 117,559 

Total freight cars handled 255.235 

Estimated through freight East, lbs 419,887,908 

" West, " 574,477 992 

Total through freight, lbs 994,365,900 

" local " " 457,778,170 

Total freight, lbs 1,452,144,070 

The local business required an aggregate on all roads doing 


business of 117,557 cars, handling freight weighing 457,778,- 
170 pounds. The amount by each road is given below: 

Tonnage and Cars. 



Goods received, lbs 
Goods foiw'ed, fte 













Since that date the books of the different roads sliow an in- 
crease of 33|- per cent, and over in all the departments. 
The dimensions of stations at Richmond are as follows : 
Union passen'ger station, 85^ ft. wide, 250 ft. long; C, St. 
L. & P. freiifht station, 30 ft. 8 in. wide, 330 ft. 7 in. long;. 
C, H. & D.* freight station, 36 ft. wide, 120 ft. long. 

The manager's office is at Columbus, Ohio, and is in charge 
of James McCrea, a thorough and competent official, and the 
office at Richmond is under the efficient superintendency of 
J. F. Miller, who combines the courteous gentleman with the 
prompt and energetic railroad man. 


By an act of tlie Legislature, approved Feb. 16, 184:8, John 
Powell, Jacob Elliott, Elijah Stout, Robert Boyd and Moses 
Robertson, of Henry County, and Mark E. Reeves, James 
Scott and John H. Hutton, of Wayne County, were consti- 
tuted a body corporate under the name "The New Castle & 
Richmond Railroad Company," the capital stock of which 
was to be $250,000, shares $50 each. Books of subscription 
for the purpose of raising the futids for the prosecution of 
the road were opened in the fall of 1848. The road was built 
wholly as a local enterprise, the citizens of Henry County 
aiding to construct it from New Castle to the county line, 

*The trains of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroad enter and 
leave Richmond over the C, St. L. & P. Company's traclis. 


and those of Wayne Countj' completing it to Richmond. 
The railroad was completed in the latter part of tlie year 
1853, and trains began running early in 1854-. 

From time to time the road was extended onward from 
New Castle until it eventually became a through line to Chi- 
cago under the name of the Cincinnati & Chicago Air Line, 
and afterward the Chicago tV: Great Eastern Railroad. In 
1867 it became one of the Pennsylvania Company's lines by 
consolidation. It is now tiie Chicago Division of the Chicago 
St. Louis & Pittsburg, or "Pan-Handle," Railroad. 


This road was chartered Feb. 24, 1853, under the name of 
the Cincinnati & Fort Wayne Railroad. The first directors 
were William Young. Asahel Stone, John Muna, John Neff, 
Jr., Anthony Pittman, Sylvanus Church, Peter P. Bailey, 
Jos. K. Edgerton and Robert E. Fleraming. On organizing, 
Feb. 25, 1853, P. P. Bailey was elected President, and R. E. 
Flemming, Secretary and Treasurer. The original proposed 
route was from Richmond to Fort Wayne via Winchester, 
Ridgeville, Camden and Bluifton. On this route much time 
and money was expended with comparatively small prospects 
of a satisfactory result. But on account of a liberal subscrip- 
tion by the citizens of Jay County, April 7,1869, the route 
was changed north of Ridgeville, via Portland and Decatur, 
to Fort Wayne. Work was soon after commenced on the 
road from Richmond to Winchester. This part was com- 
pleted, and trains began to run in July, 1870. The northern 
terminus of the road is five miles south of Fort Wayne, where 
the road intersects the P., C. ife Ft. W., over which line the 
company has leased the right to Fort Wayne. The southern 
terminus is a half mile west of the union depot at Richmond, 
where the road forms a junction witii the C, St. L. & P., over 
which trains are run to the city. The name of the road was 
changed to that which it now bears July 5, 1866. The entire 
line was completed and put in operation Jan. 1, 1S72. In 
Wayne County this railroad runs in a direction a little north 
of west, passing through Wayne and New Garden townships. 


thence into Randolpli County. There is a little less than 
twelve miles of it iu Wayne County. 

The Boird of Directors for lS83-'84r is as follows: 

"William Parry, Richmond, Ind.; John H. Moorman, Rich- 
mond, Ind.; Asahel Stone, "Winchester, Ind.; David Stude- 
baker, Decatur, Ind. ; Pliny Hoagland,* Fort "Wayne, Ind.; 
J. N. McCulIough, Pittsburg, Pa.; F. H. Short, Cincinnati, 
Ohio; "William Thaw, Pittsburg, Pa.; William O. Ilughart, 
Grand Rapids, Mich.; William R. Shelby, Grand Rapids, 
Mich.; Charles C. Binkley, Richmond, Ind. 

The officers are: 

William Parry ,f President, Richmond, Ind.; Wm. O. Hug- 
hart, Vice-President, Grand Rapids, Mich.; C. C. Binkley, 
Secretary and Treasurer, Richmond, Ind. 


The Cincinnati, Connersville & Indianapolis Junction 
Railroad was completed in July, 1865. It extends from Cincin- 
nati up the Whitewater "Valley, through Connersville, en- 
tering the southern line of Wayne County in Washington 
Township, and passing onward to Cambridge City via Beeson 
and Milton. Cambridge City, at which point the road forms 
a junction with tiie Pan-Handle, remained its northern ter- 
minus for two years. The railroad now forms a part of the 
Cincinnati division of the Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & 
Louisville route. 

The Connersville & New Castle Junction Railroad, an ex- 
tension of the above from Cambridge City to New Castle, was 
completed in 1867. It was formerly operated under the name 
of the Cincinnati 6z Indianapolis Junction Railroad, then by 
the Fort Wayne, Muncie& Cincinnati Company, and is now 
included in the Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville line. 


This road connects Cincinnati with Hagerstown, and there 
forms a junction with the Chicago division of the Chicago, St. 

*Deceasecl since last meeting. 
tChosen April 1, 1868. 



Louis & Pittsburg Railroad. It passes through Washington, 
Jackson and JeiFerson townships to Hagerstowii and is about 
fourteen miles in length within the county. Beeson is a small 
station near the southern line of Washington Township; Mil- 
ton comes next in the north part; then Cambridge City and 
Hagerstown. It is a valuable road to the people of the west 
side of the county. 



The " Cambridge City Extension," connecting Cambridge 
City and Rushville, was completed in 1867. Only a very 
small portion of the road is in Waj'ne County. 


The number of miles of railroad (main track) in Wayne 
County is given below in the first column. The second column 
shows the valuation of the track, per mile, and the third the 
total valuation: 



The total mileage of side-track is 12.87; value, $34,015. 

Chicago, St. Louis & Pitlsburg 

Cincinnati, Riclimond & Ft. Wayne 

Ft. Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville 

Jeff., Mad. & Indianapolis (Camb'g-. Ex.). . 

Richmond & Miami 


89 SS 


11 (it 










So. 95 



The Eajjly Settlers' Interest in Education. — First School. 
— FiEST School-House.— Early Teachers.- The Log School 
House Described. — State Legislation for the Benefit of 
Schools.— The District System. — The Question of Taxa- 
tion. — General Intelligence. — Friends' Schools. — The 
New Constitution. — Free Schools. — General View of 
Educational Prugress. — ^Town and Township Schools 
from the First to the Present. 

The people of Wayne County have taken an active interest 
in education. The reputation of the county in that particular 
has always been creditable, and at times its advanced standing 
has been the subject of special coinmendation. 

This interest existed from the first. Though struggling un- 
der the pressure of frontier privations, the earliest settlers 
planted the school and the church, at the first practicable 
period. So important a matter as the education of their chil- 
dren they did not defer until they could build more comely 
and convenient houses. They were content with such as cor- 
responded with their rude dwellings. 

The early settlers of Wayne County, while not possessed of 
extraordinary scholarship, had among them but few ignorant 
or illiterate persons. Many of them had a good knowledge 
of common rudimentary learning. The majority of the orig- 
inal settlers in the eastern part of the county were members 
of the Society of Friends from North Carolina and Penn- 
sylvania. Most of the Friends who came froin North Caro- 
lina to the " Upper Whitewater Country" were of families 


which had previously gone to North Carolina from Pennsyl- 
vania. " The Quakers have always advocated and maintained 
a high degree of English education." The Quakers in Amer- 
ica had schools under their patronage at an early day; and 
even in the much ridiculed " Old North State" there were 
schools sufficiently early to afford opportunities to subse- 
quent settlers of this county. 

Those settlers who came from other States and belonged to 
other denominations, if they were in any degree behind the 
Quakers in attainments, were fully abreast with them in an 
appreciation of education and in a determination to secure its 
benefits for their children. As a class they led lives devoted 
to industry and regulated by the precepts of morality. 

Such a people would not long delay attention to the means 
of securing that "knowledge," which with "religion and 
morality " had been declared by the ordinance establishing 
the Northwest Territory as " being necessary to the good 
government and the happiness of mankind." 

The first clearing was made in the spring of 1805. The 
first school was taught in the fall of 1807. Hence it can be 
said that before the third winter after the arrival of the first 
family, a people who did not. come here under any organized 
colonial direction, nor were settled in a town, but had come 
by single families or in little bands from widely separated 
parts, and lived in rude cabins scattered through the forest, 
far from all reach of help from older communities, had, by 
voluntary combined effort, erected a house and begun the 
support of a school. 


The first house for school purposes erected in Wayne 
County was situated on the north bank of Big Eikhorn Creek 
opposite the mouth of Little Eikhorn, in the northwest quar- 
ter of section 31, township 13, range 1, west. It was upon 
ground now included in the Eikhorn graveyard, five miles 
southward from Richmond. 

That school-house was of round logs; and as the saw-mill 
had been put in operation on Eikhorn the year before, the 
floor was of sawed boards instead of puncheons. In other re- 
spects it did not difl'er from the houses of its day. 


School was taught in this house for the first time in the fall 
of 1807. Joseph Cox was the teacher. He was the son ot 
John Cox (the founder of Abington) and son-in-law of Eichard 
Hue. A sketch of his career will be found in the account of 
educational affairs of Boston Township. 


In the winter of 1808- '9 Isaac Julian taught a term in a 
cabin a little distance southeast from the position of Eich- 
mond. This was the second school. 

Eobert Smith taught on the site of Eichmond, near where 
North i) street meets Fort Wayne avenue, in 1810. 

In the same year a log school-house was built on Burgess's 
hill, where now the Liberty turnpike road crosses the line 
between "Wayne and Boston townships. 

In 1809 a school-house was erected on Elkhorn, within half 
a mile of its mouth. 

It is possible that a school may have been taught earlier 
than 1811, in the house used as the meeting place of White- 
water Monthly Meeting of Friends — a vacated log house on 
ground near where their yearly-meeting house afterward stood. 
That Meeting had a standing committee on schools appointed 
" 23d of 2d month, 1811." Eobert Brattain taught in the 
meeting-house certainly in the winter of 1811-'12. 

At the time these schools were held (except the last raeu- 
tioned), only the land to the east of the Fort Eecovery bound- 
ary was open to settlers. The county of Wayne had not been 
formed. The land of the Twelve-Mile Purchase came into 
the market in 1811. The establishment of schools in that 
region was more retarded than in the eastern portion. Besides 
all the difficulties unavoidable in life upon the remoter frontier, 
the Indians became hostile in the years prior to and during 
the war of 1812, so that most of the settlers had to flee for 
safety to some block-house or more densely populated settle- 
ment. This retarded the development of the country, as well 
as the establishment of churches and sciiools, especially in the 
Twelve-Mile Purchase. No schools were opened in that 
' region until after the restoration of peace. Attention to edu 
cation was then increased. Many early schools will be found 


mentioned under the heads of the several townships. There 
is good reason for believing that the inhabitants of this 
county were in no part without schools for any long period. 

Schools were held wherever the convenience or means ot 
the patrons permitted. The families who desired a school 
banded together and put up a house, or changed a vacant 
house so that it would be suitable. Where the settlements 
were thickest houses were generally erected for the special 

The earliest school-houses were very similar to the homes 
of the people. They were of logs, and the process of erection 
was the same as employed in erecting log houses generally. 
Dwellings were often occupied temporarily by schools, and 
frequently school-houses, after a few years' use as such, were 
converted into dwellings. 


A typical school-house of the first quarter of the century 
would answer to the following description. 

As has been said, the school-houses differed but little from 
other houses. The walls, roof and floor were made of the 
same material and constructed in the same manner. Tlie 
school-huuse was eighteen or twenty feet wide and twenty or 
twenty-five feet long. In the school-house the fire-place was 
generally larger than in dwellings. It was commonly made 
by cutting an opening in the wall of one end, about ten feet 
wide, and building outward about four feet with logs, up to the 
mantel; then with small poles or split sticks, drawn in to 
about three by five feet at the top, and daubed with clay. 
The chimney was thus outside the main building. 

Sometimes the school-house would be built with five sides 
— a pointed extension at one end. In this extension the fire- 
place was made, and above it the chimney would be built; or 
there would be a three-sided extension carried up as far as the 
mantel; 'then the gable was constructed parallel with the 
gable on the other end of the building. The chimney would 
be built upon the walls of the extension, and was outside of 
the part covered by the roof 

The back and sides of the fire-place were protected b}' beat- 


ingdown clay about eighteen inches thick and two and a half 
feet high. This was often accomplished by placing a line of 
clapboards at the proper distance from the walls, and filling 
and pounding the clay into the space between the boards and 
the walls. When this had been done, a great fire was built 
in the fire-place, and by the time the boards would be con- 
sumed, the clay would be baked into excellent fire-brick. The 
hearth was made of clay also, and hardened by the same great 
fire. A few early houses were without fire-places, and were 
heated by charcoal on a hearth in the center of the room or 
in large kettles. 

A large green back-log, requiring the united strength of the 
teacher and several larger boys, was rolled into the fire-place, 
and a small one put on top and anotlier before, and the 
middle filled with small wood. 

Sometimes the boys, to get near the fire without standing 
before others, would step upon the bank of clay and walk 
around behind the fire, leaning their backs against the logs of 
the chimney, putting their feet forward over the back-log to 
the fire, and studying their lessons by the light coming down 
the chimney. 

In the side opposite the door, and sometimes in the end 
opposite the tire-place also, a log would be cut out to admit 
light. In summer these " windows " would be left open, but 
during winter they would be closed by pasting greased paper 
over them. 

On the same side of the room and under the " window " 
was the writing desk. This was a wide board, extending the 
length of the room, leaning one side against the wall and 
slanting downward, supported on long pins driven into auger 
holes in the logs. At this board several pupils could write at 
once; and by turns all who received instruction in writing, 
there practiced on their copies. The teacher had no other 
place to write, unless by his own skill he could make a desk 
for himself. 

The pupils sat upon rude benches, made at first of split 
logs, and later of slabs. Holes were bored in the logs or 
slabs, and pins driven into the holes and sawed oft' to a proper 
length. These benches had no backs, and were of such height 


that tlie teet of the smaller pupils could not reach the floor. 
In cold weather the benches were placed in a semicircle around 
the room from one side of the fire-place to the other. The 
pupils sat facing the fire, the teacher taking position at one 
end of the semicircle. 

In one corner of the room, generally behind the door, and 
in the corner most remote from the fire-place, was a shelf put 
up in the same manner as the writing table, only level, as a 
place of deposit for dinner buckets and baskets. Over this 
shelf were pegs for hanging hats, shawls and bonnets. 

In accommodations, the " master " fared no better than his 
pupils. His seat was usually a bench made as the other 
benches were made. Sometimes by good luck, or because a 
favorite, he would be indulged in the use of the frame of an 
old split-bottom chair with a board nailed on it; but even 
this was rare. 

The early schools were supported by subscription. There 
was no public fund at that time, nor for many years after. 
Except a few school books sent to Whitewater Monthly Meet- 
ing by some organization among Friends, in 1810, there was 
never one cent of foreign aid received or asked by the set- 
tlers of Wayne County. Schools were formed because they 
recognized the benefit thereof to their children. They were 
unwilling to accept the absence of a legally established sys- 
tem, or even the privation that surrounded them, as an excuse 
for neglecting the education of their children. They turned 
to best advantages the opportunities aftbrded them. 


Indiana remained a Territory until 1816. There was no 
school law under the Territorial Government, nor any State 
law on common schools until 1824. All the school-houses 
built in this county up to that date, and most likely later, 
were erected by voluntary eflbrts of neighborhoods; and all 
schools were supported by agreement between teachers and 

The progress of education in Indiana together with the 
causes of changes that are to be noted within Wayne County, 
can be understood better by a recital of the legislation of the 
State upon common schools. 


The Congress of the United States declared by ordinance, 
May 20, 1785, that one square mile of land in every township, 
as laid oflf by the Government surveys, should be reserved for 
the maintenance of public schools within that township. A 
township according to such surveys is six miles square, con- 
taining thirty-six square miles called " sections." The section 
numbered sixteen was designated as the one to be reserved 
for schools. Such a township of laud is styled a " congres- 
sional township" and the sixteenth section is often spoken of 
as the " school section." 

"When Indiana was admitted into the Union, in 1816, the 
school sections within her boundaries were given by Congress 
into the care of the new State. The first Constitution of Indi- 
ana declared that "it shall be the duty ot the General Assembly 
to provide by law for the improvement of such lands, 
and to apply any funds which may be raised from such lands 
to the accomplishment of the grand object for which they are 
intended; but no land granted for the use of scliools shall be 
sold prior to the year 1820; and the money which may be 
raised out of the sale of any such lands shall be and remain 
a fund for the exclusive purposes of promoting the interests 
of literature and the sciences, and for the support of schools." 

The same Constitution declared, " It shall be the duty of 
the General Assembly, as soon as circumstances will permit, 
to provide by law for a general system of education, * * * 
wherein tuition shall be gratis and equally open to all." 

It was 1828 before any law was enacted permitting the 
sale ot school lands. Provision, however, was made within 
that time for the protection, improvement and renting of 
such lands. 

In 1824 the first law that may be called a common-school 
law was enacted. It was entitled, '• \.n Act to incorporate 
congressional townships and provide for public schools 
therein." This law required each able-bodied adult male in 
the school district to do a certain amount of labor in assist- 
ing to erect a school-house in his district. Such house should 
" be forever open for the education of all children within the 
district without distinction." 

It is doubtful whether any school-houses were erected ac- 


coi-ding to this law, in Wajne County. It was not enacted 
until nineteen years after the settlement of the county had 
been commenced, and the people of nearly- every neighbor- 
hood had already provided houses. It is, perhaps, safe to say 
that all the early school-houses in this county were erected 
upon the voluntary plan. 

The money derived from rent of the school land could be 
applied to the furnishing of houses, and if any surplus re- 
mained after that had been done, the trustees could apply it 
to the payment of the teacher. But the school itself was not 
free. Tuition was to be paid according to an agreed rate per 

The probabilities are that all the legislation un public 
schools until 1831 was of little, if any, avail to tlie people of 
Wayne County. 

In 1831 an important revision of the school laws was made. 
Trustees were to be elected in each of the congressional 
townships, with sub-trustees in the districts. At the time of 
electing trustees the voters of each congressional township 
were to give expression upon the question whetlier their 
school section should be sold or not. The Act of 18;i8 pro- 
vided for a school commissioner in each county, whose duties 
were to conduct the sale of the land whenever the inhabitants 
decided in favor of selling; to place the proceeds at interest; 
and to disburse the interest derived, in such manner as to re 
turn the benefits thereof to the people of the congressional 
township of which each section was a part. 

The law of 1831 directed the sub-trustees to call meetings 
in their respective districts, and submit the rjuestion whether 
the district " will or will not support a public school for any 
number of months not less than three in each year." 

Wherever it was made necessary by the new arrangement 
of districts, to build a school-house the question of building 
such house was decided by the voters at a meeting. 

This law seems to have affected the school affairs of Wayne 
County genera